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中文論文名稱 金融危機對泰國勞工移出之影響
英文論文名稱 The impact of financial crisis on labor out-migration in Thailand
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 亞洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Asian Studies
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 張舒婷
研究生英文姓名 Shu-Ting Chang
學號 698260188
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-01-12
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡青龍
委員-陳佩修
委員-黃登興
委員-蔡青龍
中文關鍵字 泰國  勞動市場  金融危機  勞工移動 
英文關鍵字 Thailand  Labor Market  financial crisis  Migration 
學科別分類
中文摘要 金融危機對一國經濟的各個面向都會造成重大的衝擊,泰國做為1997年亞洲金融風暴的起源國,當然首當其衝受到較大的影響,而2008年的全球金融海嘯,則因泰國經濟的貿易依存度較高,也受到相當嚴重的波及。
1970年代以來泰國就是一個重要的勞工出口國,1990年代更轉為勞工移出兼移入國,但勞工移出及其所帶來的經濟效益,對泰國的外匯收入與國民生活一直都具有很高的重要性。因此,分析上述兩次金融危機對泰國勞工移出的影響,頗具理論意義與實用價值。本文從勞動市場的角度,探討1997年與2008年兩次金融危機,對泰國勞工移出海外就業的影響,分析的內容包括勞工移出數量的變化、海外勞工匯款額度的增減、以及泰國與其主要勞工接受國有關移工政策的因應等三項。
有關勞動市場的初步分析發現,1997年起源於泰國的金融風暴,使得泰國的勞動市場最先受到強力影響,而2008年全球金融海嘯是西方國家所引發的經濟衰退,對泰國勞動市場的影響則相對較為緩和。兩次金融危機對泰國的影響有其性質上與程度上的差異,這樣的差異更造成這兩次金融危機對泰國勞工移出產生不同方向的作用。
當泰國勞動市場受到較強烈的變動,失業人數大量上升,使得勞工移出的推力提高,造成1997年亞洲金融風暴有較多的移出人數,移出的流量增加、海外的勞工存量也增加。2008年全球金融海嘯時因泰國國內勞動市場受到的變動較小,造成要移出的流量人數反而下降的現象,海外的泰國勞工存量也為下降的趨勢。
發生金融危機時,勞工匯款的多寡取決於移工匯款的能力與意願,兩次的金融危機都造成勞工匯款下降的現象。1997年金融風暴的時候,泰國為了解決當時高升的失業人口,政府積極宣傳及派遣泰國勞工到海外就業。2008年的全球金融海嘯時,國內並無大量失業等現象,政府並未採行相同的措施。
在泰國勞工的移入國方面,大多採取抵制外來勞動力的政策,以便保障本國勞工的就業機會。雖然,勞工移入國的短期政策是限制或減少對外籍勞工的需求,以及加強取締非法外籍勞工,但是移入國對外籍勞工的結構性需求仍然存在,等到金融危機過去之後,還是會再度開放外籍勞工進入國內就業。
英文摘要 This article view an issue from labor market perspective to understanding the impact of financial crisis on labor out-migration in Thailand , used the number of workers export of the change、remittances changed and the policies of Thailand and its major labor- receiving countries.Preliminary analysis of the labor market found that the 1997 financial crisis originated in Thailand, labor market got very strong impact, and the global financial tsunami in 2008 caused by the Western countries the economic downturn. The impact of the Thailand labor market is relatively moderate. Twice the impact of financial crisis in Thailand has nature differences. When the Thai labor market had been relatively strong impact, the number of unemployed rose a lot, make the push force increase, resulting in the 1997 Asian financial crisis there is more out-migrant flow increases, the stock of overseas workers has also increased. In 2008 the global financial tsunami in Thailand due to changes in the labor market are relatively small, resulting in the number out-migrant flow drop and the number of overseas Thai workers also decline.
Those twice of the financial crisis had caused workers' remittances decline. In Asian financial crisis, the government of Thailand actively promoting and sending Thai workers to overseas. In 2008, the global financial tsunami, there is no substantial domestic unemployment phenomenon; the government did not adopt the same measures. The labor- receiving countries most boycotted foreign labor policy in order to protect their workers' employment opportunities. The short-term policy is to limit or reduce the demand for foreign workers and to strengthen enforcement action against illegal foreign workers, but labor- receiving country have structural demand is on these migrant, when the crisis is gone , the labor-receiving country will re-open foreign workers into their labor market.
論文目次 目次

第一章 緒論
第一節:研究動機…………………………………………………1
第二節:研究目的…………………………………………………7
第三節 :文獻回顧…………………………………………………9
第四節 :研究架構與研究方法……………………………………12

第二章 金融危機對泰國勞動市場的衝擊
第一節 :1997年亞洲金融風暴對泰國勞動市場的衝擊…………16
第二節 :2008年全球金融海嘯對泰國勞動市場的衝擊…………32
第三節 :小結………………………………………………………40

第三章 1997年亞洲金融風暴對勞工移出的影響
第一節:移出勞工的數量與結構…………………………………43
第二節 :匯款變動…………………………………………………51
第三節 :政府政策…………………………………………………57
第四節 :小結………………………………………………………67

第四章 2008年全球金融海嘯對勞工移出的影響
第一節:移出勞工的數量與結構…………………………………69
第二節:匯款變動…………………………………………………77
第三節:政府政策…………………………………………………81
第四節 :小結………………………………………………………89

第五章 比較兩次金融危機對勞工移出的影響
第一節: 移出勞工的數量與結構的比較…………………………91
第二節: 匯款變動的比較…………………………………………97
第三節: 政策因應的比較…………………………………………101

第六章 結論
第一節: 研究發現…………………………………………………106
第二節: 後續研究方向……………………………………………111

參考文獻………………………………………………………………………113


表目錄

表2-1. 1996-2000年泰國勞動力狀態………………………………………20
表2-2. 1996-2000年就業人數與結構………………………………………23
表2-3. 1996-1998年就業人口工時變動量百分比…………………………24
表2-4. 1996-2000年未充分就業人數與結構………………………………25
表2-5. 1996-2000年未充分就業人數按教育分……………………………25
表2-6. 1995-2000年泰國失業人數與結構…………………………………28
表2-7. 1995-2000年泰國失業人數與結構…………………………………29
表2-8 1996-2000年泰國國內登記求職狀況………………………………29
表2-9. 平均每月薪資…………………………………………………………31
表2-10. 1996-2010年泰國經濟指標…………………………………………34
表2-11. 2007-2010年泰國出口值按產業別…………………………………34
表2-12. 2007-2010年泰國勞動力狀態………………………………………35
表2-13. 2007-2010年就業人數與結構………………………………………36
表2-14. 2007-2009年就業人口工時變動量百分比…………………………38
表2-15. 2008金融海嘯對業的衝擊 …………………………………………39
表2-16. 2008-2009年失業人數及失業率……………………………………39
表2-17. 2007-2010年泰國國內登記求職人數狀況…………………………40
表3-1. 1997-2001年泰國海外就業及實習核准人數………………………47
表3-2. 1996-1999年泰國勞工在海外人數按國家分………………………49
表3-3. 1995-2010年泰國勞工匯款…………………………………………56
表4-1. 2000年-2007年泰國海外勞工數量…………………………………70
表4-2. 2007-2010年泰國海外人數就業表…………………………………74
表4-3. 2007-2010年泰國在海外的勞工按國家分…………………………75
表4-4. 2006-2010年泰國海外匯款…………………………………………78
表4-5. 台灣外籍勞工在就業產業比重………………………………………88
表5-1. 兩次金融期間泰國海外勞工主要移入國的政策比較 ………………105

圖目錄

圖1-1. 研究架構圖………………………………………………………………13
圖5-1. 泰國1997-2001年核准海外就業人數及失業率………………………93
圖5-2. 2005-2009年泰國核准到海外人數及失業率…………………………94
圖5-3. 1997-2000年泰國海外勞工流量及存量………………………………95
圖5-4. 2008-2010年泰國海外勞工流量及存量………………………………96
圖5-5. 1997-2000年泰國海外勞工及海外匯款 (泰銖) ……………………98
圖5-6. 1997-2000年泰國海外勞工及海外匯款 (美金) ……………………98
圖5-7. 2008-2010年泰國海外勞工及海外匯款 (泰銖) ……………………99
圖5-8. 2008-2010年泰國海外勞工及海外匯款 (美元) ……………………99
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網路資料

Asian Research Center for Migration, ARCM
http://www.arcm.ias.chula.ac.th/English/index.php

Bank Of Thailand
http://www.bot.or.th/english/Pages/BOTDefault.aspx

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/50/012.html

Information Service Center, Department of Employment
http://lib.doe.go.th/doeinfor/index.aspx

International Organization for Migration.
http://www.iom.int/jahia/jsp/index.jsp
Institution for Population and Social Research, IPSR
http://www.ipsr.mahidol.ac.th/
Ministry of Labour
http://eng.mol.go.th/doe_service01.html

National Economic and Social Development Board
http://www.nesdb.go.th/

Thailand Development Research Institute, TDRI
http://www.tdri.or.th/

Thailand National Statistical Office:
http://web.nso.go.th/index.htm

Thailand Oversea Employment Administration
http://www.overseas.doe.go.th/home.php
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