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系統識別號 U0002-0801200620265600
中文論文名稱 臺灣大專學生紙本與超文本閱讀理解之比較研究
英文論文名稱 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TAIWANESE COLLEGE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED TEXT AND HYPERTEXT
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 曾敏珍
研究生英文姓名 Min-chen Tseng
學號 890010084
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-12-19
論文頁數 200頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳秀潔
委員-林茂松
委員-魏叔倫
委員-林至誠
委員-范瑞玲
中文關鍵字 超文本  閱讀技巧  語意差別  句法差別  自動表現 
英文關鍵字 Hypertext  Reading Skills  Semantic Difference  Syntactic Difference  Automaticity 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究之目的在於探討紙面閱讀與超文本閱讀之不同,藉由四個測驗:閱讀理解測驗、語意差別測驗、句法差別測試和自動表現測驗,以及超文本閱讀問卷。紙面閱讀是由上至下方直線性的閱讀,然而超文本閱讀可以藉由任何一個超連結到不同之網頁,且無止盡的延伸。這種非線性形式改變了閱讀的方式,對外語學習者來說,他們在超文本閱讀上的表現為何?所遇到之困難點為何?本研究的受實驗者是九十二位就讀技術學院應用外語系的學生。根據他們的全民英檢的成績分程度高及程度低兩組。實驗結果顯示出,學生在四種測驗上電腦的成績表現都比紙面差,對程度較高和程度低者皆是如此。研究結果發現學生傾向將在紙面的閱讀方式帶到超文本閱讀上。超文本所呈現的型式影響學生的閱讀能力,電腦的顏色和影像並沒有引起學生閱讀的興趣,且學生對超文本閱讀顯示出負面的態度。在閱讀超文本最主要的困難點在於看電腦時引發的眼睛酸痛、容易跳行、不能在電腦上畫線或做記號等。本研究提出可改善的方式,並提出超文本閱讀之正面性,供語言學習網頁設計者和應用電腦於教學中的老師參考。希冀藉紙面閱讀與超文本閱讀之結合應用,讓英語學習和教學發揮最大之功效。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reading printed text and hypertext on EFL learners’ reading comprehension, especially focusing on reading skills, semantic and syntactic differences and automatic performance. When reading printed text, readers start from the top left-hand corner and finish at the bottom right-hand corner. Reading in this way is a linear activity as readers’ eyes go through the text line by line. When reading hypertext, readers can click a hyperlink to find out certain information. When they click the hyperlink, they are taken to a different web page. How does reading hypertext affect EFL learners’ reading comprehension? What are the difficulties they encounter? The participants in this study were ninety-two Taiwanese students studying at two different institutes of technology. They were divided into two groups according to their scores in General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) Simulated Test: Higher Proficiency Learners (HPL) and Lower Proficiency Learners (LPL). The results showed that participants got higher scores in the reading comprehension test, semantic identification test, syntactic identification test, and automatic performance test on paper than they did when reading hypertext. The results suggest that (a) participants transferred the way they read on paper to the way they read on computer screens, (b) text presented as hypertext affected the way participants read, (c) the merits of hypertext, such as colored pictures, abundant information, did not stimulate participants’ motivation, and (d) participants expressed a negative attitude toward reading on hypertext. The major difficulties participants experienced when reading on hypertext were: they experienced eyestrain, they skipped lines, and they could not take notes or underline any words or text on computer screens. Findings and conclusions from this study may serve as implications and suggestions for web designers and for teachers who intend to introduce hypertext in the language classroom. The ultimate purpose was to explore the effectiveness of using printed text and hypertext in language learning and teaching.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

ENGLISH ABSTRACT …………………………………….. i
CHINESE ABSTRACT …………………………………………….. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………… iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………… iv
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………….. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………… x

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION …………………………………. 1
  1.1 Background and Motivation ……………………………1
  1.2 Research Questions ………………………………… 5
  1.3 Purposes of the Study …………………………… 6
  1.4 Significance of the Study ……………………… 6
  1.5 Definition of Terms ……………………………… 7
  1.6 Organization of the Study …………………………9

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE …………… 12
  2.1 Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) …… 12
    2.1.1 Three Approaches to CALL …………………. 12
    2.1.2 Advantages of CALL …………………………… 14
    2.1.3 Disadvantages of CALL ……………………… 16
  2.2 Reading and Hypertext …………………………… 19
    2.2.1 What is Reading ……………………………… 19
    2.2.2 Reading Purposes ……………………………… 19
    2.2.3 Definition of Hypertext …………………… 20
    2.2.4 Linear and Nonlinear Reading Processes …22
    2.2.5 Printed Text vs. Hypertext ……………………23
    2.2.6 Relevant Research on Hypertext …………………25
    2.2.7 Hypertext and Reading Skills …………… 28
    2.2.8 Teaching Hypertext Reading ……………………31
  2.3 The Information Processing Approach ………………34
    2.3.1 Automatic and Controlled Processing …………35
    2.3.2 Automaticity ………………………………………37
    2.3.3 Automaticity and Reading ………………………39
    2.3.4 Empirical Research on Automaticity in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) ………………………………………41

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY …………………………… 45
  3.1 Participants ………………………………………… 45
  3.2 Materials ……………………………………………… 49
   3.2.1 Reading Selections ………………………………49
   3.2.2 Tests …………………………………………… 50
      Reading Comprehension Test ………………… 50
      Semantic Identification Test …………………53
      Syntactic Identification Test ……………… 54
      Automatic Performance Test …………………………55
   3.2.3 Attitude Questionnaire for Reading Printed Text and Hypertext ……………………………………………… 61
  3.3 The Development of the Website………………… 61
    3.3.1 Structure of the Website ……………………61
    3.3.2 Program Development …………………………63
    3.3.3 Hypertext Reading Test (HRT) Program …………64
    3.3.4 Program Testing …………………………………64
    3.3.5 Participants’ Record Database …………… 65
  3.4 Procedure …………………………………………………66
  3.5 Instrumentation ……………………………………………69

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS …………………………………………73
  4.1 Observation Report of Participants’ Performances 73
  4.2 Results of Individual Tests and Questionnaire ……75
    4.2.1 Results of the Reading Comprehension Test 75
      4.2.1.1 Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination of the Reading Comprehension Questions …………… 76
      4.2.1.2 Prediction Section …………………………77
      4.2.1.3 Reading Comprehension Questions ………80
      4.2.1.4 Critical Reading Questions ……………86
    4.2.2 Results of the Semantic Identification Test 88
    4.2.3 Results of the Syntactic Identification Test 91
    4.2.4 Results of the Automatic Performance Test…95
      4.2.4.1 Listening Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test (Article III) …………… 96
      4.2.4.2 The Printed Text Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test (Article IV) .. 97
      4.2.4.3 The Hypertext Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test (Article V) ………….. 99
      4.2.4.4 Comparison Among the Three Exercises in the Automatic Performance Test …………………………. 102
    4.2.5 Results of the Questionnaire for Reading Between Printed Text and Hypertext …………………………104
      4.2.5.1 Reliability of the Questionnaire … 104
      4.2.5.2 Results of the Questionnaire ……… 105
      4.2.5.3 Results of Open Discussion Questions109

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION ………………………………… 117
  5.1 Overall Performance of the Participants from the Observation Report ….. 117
  5.2 Performance of Individual Tests …………… 119
    5.2.1 Reading Comprehension Test …………….. 119
    5.2.2 Semantic Identification Test ……………. 129
    5.2.3 Syntactic Identification Test …………. 131
    5.2.4 Automatic Performance Test ………………… 134
  5.3 Attitude Toward Hypertext Reading: Questionnaire 138

CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS ……………………………… 145
  6.1 Summary of the study ……………………………. 145
  6.2 Limitations of the Study ……………………….. 146
  6.3 Recommendations for Further Research…………. 147
  6.4 Pedagogical Implications ………………………… 148
  6.5 Conclusions …………………………...………….. 151

REFERENCES ……………………………….…………………. 154

APPENDICES
APPENDIX I Printed text Version for the Reading Comprehension Test ….. 164
APPENDIX II Hypertext Version for the Reading Comprehension Test ……. 167
APPENDIX III Printed text Version for the Semantic Identification Test ……. 169
APPENDIX IV Hypertext Version for the Semantic Identification Test ……… 170
APPENDIX V Printed text Version for the Syntactic Identification Test ……. 171
APPENDIX VI Hypertext Version for the Syntactic Identification Test ……… 172
APPENDIX VII Listening Comprehension Exercise for the Automatic Performance Test …………………………………………….. 173
APPENDIX VIII Printed Text Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise for the Automatic Performance Test ……………………………... 174
APPENDIX IX Hypertext Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise for the Automatic Performance Test …………………………….. 175
APPENDIX X Transcripts of Participants’ Recording ………………………. 176
APPENDIX XI Questionnaire for Reading Comprehension Between Printed Text and Hypertext …………………………………………... 198
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 The Role of CALL in Structural, Cognitive, and Sociocognitive Approaches ………………………………………………………… 14
Table 2 Summary of Statistical Analysis of the GEPT-style Test Scores for Participants …………………………………………………………. 46
Table 3 Results of t-test of the GEPT-style Test Scores for the HPL and LPL Group .……….…………………………………………………….... 48
Table 4 Standard Description of Listening Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test ……………………………………….. 58
Table 5 Standard Grading Description of the Printed Text Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise for the Automatic Performance Test ………………………………………………..……………… 59
Table 6 Standard Grading Description of the Hypertext Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise for the Automatic Performance Test ……………………………………………………………….… 60
Table 7 Item Difficulty of Multiple-choice Questions in the Reading Comprehension Test ………………………………………….……. 76
Table 8 Results of t-test for Reading Comprehension Questions …………… 81
Table 9 Percentage of Correct Answers for the Printed Text Version (Article I) and the Hypertext Version (Article II) in the Reading Comprehension Test ………………………………………………... 81
Table 10 Results of t-test for Printed Text Version and the Hypertext Version ….………………………………………………………….. 82
Table 11 Results of t-test for Reading Comprehension Questions for the HPL and LPL Group……….………………………..………….………… 83
Table 12 Results of Mean Scores from Q1 to Q5 in Reading Comprehension Questions ……………………………………………..…….………. 84
Table 13 A Paired-sample t-test of Reading Comprehension Questions for the HPL Group and the LPL Group …………………………………….. 85
Table 14 Results of t-test for the Semantic Identification Test ……………..... 89
Table 15 Results of t-test for Performance of the HPL and LPL Groups in Printed and Hypertext Versions……………………………………... 89
Table 16 Results of the Semantic Identification Test for the HPL Group and the LPL Group………………………………………….…………… 90
Table 17 Results of t-test for Content Words and Function Words in the Syntactic Identification Test……………………..……..…………… 91

Table 18 Results of t-test for Content Words and Function Words Identified by the HPL Group and the LPL Group ………………………..….… 93
Table 19 Results of a Paired-sample t-test on Content Words and Function Words for the HPL Group and the LPL Group……………………... 95
Table 20 Results of GEPT Simulated Test for Grouping the HPL Group and the LPL Group in the Automatic Performance Test…….…………… 95
Table 21 Results of Listening Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test …………………………………………………… 96
Table 22 A Comparison of Listening Comprehension Exercise and the Printed Text Version of Reading Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test…………………….………………….. 97
Table 23 Results of Word Recognition, Reading Rate, and Reading Comprehension on Paper in the Automatic Performance Test…...…. 99
Table 24 A Comparison of Listening Comprehension Exercise and Hypertext version of Reading Comprehension Exercise in the Automatic Performance Test ...…………………………………………………. 100
Table 25 Results of Word Recognition, Reading Rate, Reading Comprehension in the Hypertext Version of the Automatic Performance Test……………………………………………………. 101
Table 26 Results of a Paired-sample t-test on Word Recognition, Reading Rate and Reading Comprehension for the HPL Group and the LPL Group ……………………………………………………………….. 102
Table 27 One-way ANOVA of Three Exercises within the Automatic Performance Test ………………………………………………….... 103
Table 28 Comparison of the Three Automatic Performance Exercises ……..... 103
Table 29 Mean Scores of Questions from the Questionnaire…………...….…. 105
Table 30 The Top Three and Last Three Ranks of the Questionnaire ……..…. 106
Table 31 Results of the Questionnaire from Q1 to Q10 Between the HPL and LPL Groups ………………………………..……………………….. 107
Table 32 Results of a Paired-sample t-test Between Q1 and Q2, Q3 and Q7, Q4 and Q8, Q5 and Q9, and Q6 and Q10 in the Questionnaire …..... 108
Table 33 Results of t-test Between Q11 and Q12, Between Q12 and Q13, Between Q15 and Q16, Between Q17 and Q18, and Between Q23 and Q24 …………..……………………………………………….... 109
Table 34 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reading Printed Text and Hypertext …………………………………………………………… 112

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Framework of the investigation………...……………………....…… 4
Figure 2 The Information Processing Model ……………...……………...….. 36
Figure 3 The continuum of automatization …………………...……………… 37
Figure 4 The frequency distribution of raw scores in GEPT Style Test ….…... 47
Figure 5 Structure: two fundamental types of hyperstructure, axial- or hierarchical- structure (left) and network structure (right) ………..... 62
Figure 6 Structure of Hypertext Reading Test (HRT) Program …………........ 63
Figure 7 Screenshot of the first page of HRT program …………………..…... 64
Figure 8 Screenshot of participants’ database …………………………...…… 66
Figure 9 Procedure of doing tests on the printed text version……………...… 67
Figure 10 Procedure of doing tests on computer screens………………………. 68
Figure 11 A flowchart of the Automatic Performance Test …………..……..…. 69
Figure 12 Percentages of factors of hypertext reading ……………………..…. 110
Figure 13 Percentages of advantages of online reading ………………..……… 113
Figure 14 Percentages of difficulties of hypertext reading ………………..…... 114
Figure 15 Percentages of Intention to get online to read English articles …..… 115

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