系統識別號 U0002-0708201914412200 中文論文名稱 利用伺服控制探討單隻拍翼機之轉翼效應 英文論文名稱 WING ROTATION EFFECT ON AN ORNITHOPTER USING SERVO CONTROL 校院名稱 淡江大學 系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班 系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering 學年度 107 學期 2 出版年 108 研究生中文姓名 潘明希 研究生英文姓名 Nikhil Panchal 學號 606375011 學位類別 碩士 語文別 英文 口試日期 2019-06-21 論文頁數 73頁 口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰委員-羅元隆委員-胡毓忠 中文關鍵字 拍翼機  伺服控制  轉翼 英文關鍵字 Ornithopter  servo control  wing rotation 學科別分類 學科別＞應用科學＞機械工程 中文摘要 本論文針對拍翼式微飛行器(FWMAV)或拍翼機，藉由結合延遲失速與機翼旋轉，展現較進階的空氣動力特性。本論文之伺服馬達建構具有兩組伺服系統的拍翼，一組用於拍撲，另一組則用於使機翼旋轉。伺服馬達組裝時使用的組件由CAD軟體設計，並以3D列印機進行製作，使用的列印材質為HIPS和ASA-PRO。機身採碳纖維桿製作以盡可能減少重量。並使用Arduino微處理晶片控制伺服馬達，方便隨時改寫控制指令以符合測試需要。拍翼機整體重量為121克，翼展達到96cm。 拍翼式微飛行器維持飛行所需升力與轉翼有極密切的關係。為驗證新型拍翼的性能，分別進行了2m尺寸的大風洞測試與繫繩懸吊飛行測試。測試結果顯示，有轉翼的升力比無轉翼的情形高出40%。此地使用脈衝寬度調變(PWM) 驅動之等效電壓值為2V ~ 8V，對應之拍翼頻率為1.4Hz ~ 2.7Hz。 英文摘要 This thesis presents the upgraded aerodynamic execution of flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) or ornithopter results from a cooperation of the delayed stall and wing rotation (or rotational circulation). Utilizing servo innovation to structure a flapping wing with two pair of servos. One pair is used for flapping and the other pair for wing rotation. Also, components used in the assembly of the servo-driven FWMAV are designed in CAD software and made by a 3D printer using materials like HIPS and ASA-PRO. Carbon fiber rods are used as fuselage in order to keep total weight as light as possible. Arduino microcontroller is used for control which makes FWMAV more customizable according to the need. The total weigh of the ornithopter is 121 g and the wing span is 96 cm. The lift enhancement required to keep FWMAVs in the air has a strong relationship with wing rotation. For verifying the performance of the new FWMAV, the lift measurement in a wind tunnel with 2m test section size and a tethered flight test are both done. Total aerodynamic lift increment in case of the ornithopter with wing rotation was observed to be 40% when the results are compared to the ornithopter without wing rotation. The equivalent voltage of the pulse width modulation (PWM) driving is ranged as 2V, 5V, and 8V, and the corresponding flapping frequency is 1.4Hz, 1.6Hz, and 2.7Hz. 論文目次 Contents Acknowledgement VI Contents VII List of Figure IX List of Table XII CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Flapping wings and wing rotation 1 1.2 Literature Review 2 CHAPTER 2: SERVO – DRIVEN FLAPPING 7 2.1 Servo introduction 7 2.2 Importance of Servo Torque 8 2.3 Servo Flapping Mechanism 9 2.4 Wing Rotation 13 2.5 Advance and delayed wing rotation 15 2.6 3D printed parts 16 CHAPTER 3: FLIGHT CONTROL OF SERVO – DRIVEN FLAPPING 18 3.1 Arduino Flight System 18 3.2 Control Analogy 20 3.3 Tethered Flight 25 3.4 Wing Rotation servo ornithopter Tethered Flight 27 3.5 Wind Tunnel Testing 29 CHAPTER 4: WIND TUNNEL TESTING 32 4.1 Wind Tunnel Data Analysis 32 4.2 Wing Stress Analysis 44 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 47 REFERENCES 49 APPENDIX A 53 A.1 3D Printing 53 A.2 Basic code for servo 54 A.3 Basic Servo knob code 55 A.4 Two servo flapping code 56 A.5 Wing rotation servo ornithopter Arduino code 60 APPENDIX B 64 B.1 Cut-off fft 64 B.2 FFT 66 APPENDIX C 67 C.1 With wing Rotation wind tunnel data 67 C.2 Without wing rotation wind tunnel data 70 Publication 73 List of Figure Figure 1.1 Three axis wing rotation robotic fly apparatus 3 Figure 1.2 Close-up view of robotic fly with force sensor and gear box 4 Figure 1.3 Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster wing rotation 4 Figure 1.4 RoboBee on the tip of a finger . 5 Figure 2.1 Cross section of digital servo 7 Figure 2.2 Flapping wing servo 8 Figure 2.3 Wing rotation flapping mechanism 10 Figure 2.4 The 1st version of the main servo mount. 10 Figure 2.5 Servo ornithopter servo mount, fuselage and tail. 11 Figure 2.6 Main flapping servo mount 11 Figure 2.7 Front view of servo ornithopter 12 Figure 2.8 Isometric view of servo ornithopter 12 Figure 2.9 Top view of servo ornithopter 12 Figure 2.10 Front view of main flapping servo 14 Figure 2.11 Side view of wing rotation servo 14 Figure 2.12 Animation of the servo mechanism capable of wing 15 Figure 2.13 Servo mount CAD design 16 Figure 2.14 3D printed servo mount 16 Figure 2.15 Design of 3D printed tail part with servo 17 Figure 2.16 fixed tail 3D printed part 17 Figure 2.17 3D printed wing rotation servo parts 17 Figure 3.1 Connection diagram for one servo control 19 Figure 3.2 DEVO 10 channel transmitter for 2.4 GHz signal transmission 20 Figure 3.3 Basic servo control through Arduino Uno 21 Figure 3.4 Required components for servo ornithopter 22 Figure 3.5 Flow chart for flapping and wing rotation motion 24 Figure 3.6 Cruising trajectory of servo ornithopter tethered 25 Figure 3.7 Servo ornithopter circular trajectory cursing (a), (b) and (c) 26 Figure 3.8 With wing rotation servo ornithopter tethered flight 27 Figure 3.9 Tethered flight of servo ornithopter with wing rotation 28 Figure 3.10 Movable platform for experiment setup 30 Figure 3.11 Six-axis force sensor and servo ornithopter in wind tunnel 30 Figure 3.12 High-speed camera setup 31 Figure 3.13 Image from high speed camera 31 Figure 4.1 Lift signal form 20 cm wingspan MAV 32 Figure 4.2 Lift signal (time domain) from servo ornithopter 33 Figure 4.3 Flapping lift (frequency domain) of the servo 33 Figure 4.4 Double peak waveform in servo ornithopter with wing rotation 33 Figure 4.5 CL vs. Re 20 cm wingspan MAV 34 Figure 4.6 Lift signal (time domain) from servo ornithopter 34 Figure 4.7 Flapping lift (frequency domain) of the servo 35 Figure 4.8 Thrust waveform of servo ornithopter with wing rotation 35 Figure 4.9 Thrust waveform servo ornithopter without wing rotation 35 Figure 4.10 Lift and thrust waveforms of servo ornithopter with wing rotation 36 Figure 4.11 Lift and thrust waveforms of servo ornithopter 36 Figure 4.12 CL vs. Re at 2V without wing rotation 37 Figure 4.13 CL vs. Re at 5V without wing rotation 37 Figure 4.14 CL vs. Re at 8V without wing rotation 38 Figure 4.15 CL vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation 39 Figure 4.16 CL vs. Re at 5V with wing rotation 39 Figure 4.17 CL vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation 40 Figure 4.18 CT vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation 41 Figure 4.19 CT vs. Re at 5V with wing rotation 41 Figure 4.20 CT vs. Re at 2V with wing rotation 42 Figure 4.21 CT vs. Re at 2V without wing rotation 43 Figure 4.22 CT vs. Re at 5V without wing rotation 43 Figure 4.23 CT vs. Re at 8V without wing rotation 44 Figure 4.24 Vertical deflection of different wings [45] 45 Figure 4.25 Vertical deflection of wings in servo ornithopter 46 Figure C.1 Lift vs. voltage at 1.5 m/s with rotation 67 Figure C.2 Lift vs. voltage at 1.7 m/s with rotation 67 Figure C.3 Lift vs. voltage at 2 m/s with rotation 68 Figure C.4 Lift vs. voltage at 2.25 m/s with rotation 68 Figure C.5 Lift vs. voltage at 2.5 m/s with rotation 69 Figure C.6 Lift vs. voltage at 2.7 m/s with rotation 69 Figure C.7 Lift vs. voltage at 1.5 m/s without rotation 70 Figure C.8 Lift vs. voltage at 1.7 m/s without rotation 70 Figure C.9 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