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中文論文名稱 竹材營建技術的研究—塞內加爾甘比地區的宗教場預設計
英文論文名稱 Development of a new Technology by using Bamboo to construct a Spiritual place in The Gambia (Senegambia region)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 張艾傑
研究生英文姓名 Alhagie T. Sarr
學號 605365013
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-30
論文頁數 57頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭晃二
委員-李永展
委員-柯純融
中文關鍵字 竹子  永續發展  汙名化 
英文關鍵字 Bamboo  sustainability  Stigmatization 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本研究的目的是透過營建方法和材料的研究,開發一種新的竹子構築技術(N.B.T.)來協助改善竹屋的營建技術。 本研究收集了關於甘比亞(Gambia)和塞內甘比亞(Senegambia)地區當前營建方法與材料的重要資訊並分析它們在農村地區對環境的影響。傳統的住宅生產過程中需要眾多的能量而產生高浪費及低效率;過度的土壤開采和森林砍伐都顯示其低度效率。 目前的施工方法也容易對環境造成破壞, 因此竹子在甘比亞的社會中已經失去了營建的價值,本研究的施工方法強調開發適合在當地使用的構築方法,並且藉由清真寺這個宗教場所來展示新的竹構築技術(N.B.T)被實現的可能性。

  在甘比亞(Gambia),宗教對人民的生活具有重大影響。 甘比亞人口約為200萬人,約95%的人口的信仰是伊斯蘭教。 其教義強烈建議所有信徒(穆斯林)都必須每天在清真寺祈禱五次。 所以清真寺(Mosque)是這個項目的理想之選,如此可引導人們願意花時間,精力和財富在構築清真寺上,並且容易改變對竹子營建物的意象。

  本研究以一種建築原型的方式來展示竹子的潛能。 竹子可用於地板牆壁,屋頂和鷹架;竹子非常輕,易於運輸,價格實惠。 以下是本研究的結論。

1. N.B. T可以成為發展替代性經濟的催化劑,藉此幫助改善居住的生活品質。
2. 隨著世界在工業方向上的發展,人們對於生態可持續性和降低碳排放非常重視;竹子重量輕,且具有韌性,是耐用的天然材料之一。因此竹子等天然材料越來越廣為被討論。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to develop a new bamboo technology (N.B.T.) that helps to improve the current conditions of low bamboo housing, focusing on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Important information on current construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas in Gambia and Senegambia Region are collected. The Current housing industry is low quality, high waste, and require more energy concentration during production, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation. The current construction method has cause damage to the environment. Bamboo has lost its value in the community because how it is being used locally, and Mosque is the ideal place to showcase new bamboo technology (N.B.T)
In the Gambia, religion has a great influence on the life of the people. The population of the Gambia is about two million people, and about 95% of the population are Muslims. It’s obligatory for all Muslims to pray five times a day in Mosque. A Mosque is perfect for this project because people are willing to spend their time, energy and wealth.
A prototype is being developed to show the abilities of the bamboo. Bamboo can be utilized for flooring walls, roofing, and scaffolding. Bamboo is very light and easy to transport and affordable too. Below is a summary of the findings.
1. The N.B.T. can become a new tool in poverty alleviation and as a catalyst in developing an alternative economy.
2. Bamboo is lightweight, very flexible and one of the strongest naturally present materials of all time. As the world is moving in the industrial direction people become more interested in sustainability and lowering their carbon emissions, natural materials such as bamboo.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Figures vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Research background 1
1.2. Methodologies 1
1.3. Problem statement 2
1.4. Circular Economy 2
1.5. Research Scope 3
1.6. Research Flowchart 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1. Islam as a way of life 5
2.2 Islamic Beliefs 5
2.3. The Architectural Parts of a Mosque 6
2.4. Ablutions (Arabic in Wudu) 12
2.5. Women in the mosque 14
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH 15
3.1. The Bamboo plant 15
3.2. Why Bamboo as an architectural material 16
3.3. Stigmatization associated with bamboo houses or products 17
3.4. Indigenous knowledge of bamboo housing 19
3.5. Current construction materials 22
3.6. Case studies 26
3.7. Promotion of Bamboo Houses 31
CHAPTER 4 DESIGN 32
4.1. Background 32
4.2. The New Bamboo Technology (N.B.T) 34
4.3. Jointing techniques & challenges 35
4.4. Design 41
4.5. Comparison 52
CHAPTER 5 Conclusion 55
Findings and Recommendation 55
Recommendations 56
REFERENCES 57

List of Figures
Figure 1. 1 research flowchart 4
Figure 2. 1 Mosque (Arabic Masjid) 6
Figure 2. 2 Mihrib 7
Figure 2. 3 Minaret 8
Figure 2. 4 Dome 9
Figure 2. 5 (a) Prayer hall 10
Figure 2. 6 Minbar 11
Figure 2. 7 Ablution area 12

Figure 3. 1 (photo courtesy of Bamboo Foundation Gambia-BFG) 15
Figure 3. 2 (Photo courtesy of Bamboo Foundation Gambia-BFG) 18
Figure 3. 3 Exposed kirinting walls in structures in Banjul 19
Figure 3. 4 (Gambia historical photography) 20
Figure 3. 5 Basse Old Bridge the Gambia. circa 1919. (Gambia historical photography) 21
Figure 3. 6 Bamboo furnitures 22
Figure 3. 7 Concrete mixing 23
Figure 3. 8 Rebar (deformed steel) 24
Figure 3. 9 Formwork 25
Figure 3. 10 Blockwork 26
Figure 3. 11 (Great Bamboo Wall by Kengo Kuma 2002) 27
Figure 3. 12 (Bamboo pavilion in Berlin by Rocco Yim 2000) 28
Figure 3. 13 (Bamboo pavilion in Berlin by Rocco Yim 2000) 29
Figure 3. 14 Park house at the Leipzig 31

Figure 4. 1 Location site Lamin village 32
Figure 4. 2 Location plan (Not To Scale) 33
Figure 4. 3 Monthly Temperature and Precipitation 34
Figure 4. 4 Conceptual model 35
Figure 4. 5 Prototype joins developed 36
Figure 4. 6 marking out the joins 37
Figure 4. 7 copping out the mortised 38
Figure 4. 8 The glued-wood fitting connection 39
Figure 4. 9 wood fitting 40
參考文獻 REFERENCES
1 Atanda, J., Environmental impacts of bamboo as a substitute constructional material in Nigeria. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 2015. 3: p. 33-39.
2 Modern Bamboo Structures: PROCEEDINGS OF FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODERN BAMBOO STRUCTURES Editors Yan Xiao, Masafumi Inoue and Shyam K. Paudel (ICBS-2007), CHANGSHA, CHINA, 28–30 OCTOBER 2007
3 Moti Baba, Shed Type Structures – Steel VS Bamboo Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi May 2009
4 Contextualizing the circular economy in building design Richard Boyd
5. Xiaobing, Y., Bamboo: Structure and Culture: Utilizing Bamboo in the Industrial Context with Reference to Its Structural and Cultural Dimensions. 2007, Doctoral Dissertation, Fachbereich Kunst und Design der Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
6. STRUCTURAL BAMBOO DESIGN IN EAST AFRICA by EVAN T. MYERS
7. Arup Designs Prototype Building Based on Circular Economy Principles https://www.archdaily.com/868121/arup-designs-prototype-building-based-on-circular-economy-principles
8. Huda Updated August 30, 2017 https://www.thoughtco.com/parts-of-a-mosque-2004464
9. THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY WHAT IS IT AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR YOU? Arcadis Briefing Paper https://www.arcadis.com/media/9/D/3/%7B9D33B0CB-3F9D-4C16-9C74-B763D4BA442C%7DBriefing%20Paper%20-The%20Circular%20Economy_002.pdf
10. https://www.greenbiz.com/article/contextualizing-circular-economy-building-design
11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309910165_Bamboo_for_housing_in_Ghana_challenges_and_prospects_for_the_future?enrichId=rgreq-41a88097ed04c0048176ce9c2fd28f7c-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzMwOTkxMDE2NTtBUzo0MjczMjQ0MTI4Mjk2OTdAMTQ3ODg5MzQ4ODAwNQ%3D%3D&el=1_x_3&_esc=publicationCoverPdf
12. http://hikersbay.com/climate/gambia/lamin?lang=en
13. http://www.columbia.edu/~msj42/index.htm
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