淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0707201016121100
中文論文名稱 探討二手產品對保固產品之通路協調與品質決策的影響
英文論文名稱 The Impact of Used Products on Channel Coordination and Quality Decision for Warranted Products.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 林容榕
研究生英文姓名 Jung-Jung Lin
學號 697610938
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-08
論文頁數 64頁
口試委員 指導教授-羅惠瓊
委員-葉瑞徽
委員-莊忠柱
中文關鍵字 耐久性產品  保固成本  通路協調  品質決策  成本共擔 
英文關鍵字 Durable goods  Warranty costs  Channel Coordination  Quality of decision  Cost sharing 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 面對全球化環境、多樣化需求及產品生命週期縮短等的壓力下,企業為了提高競爭力,越來越重視整體供應鏈的效率。而要有效管理供應鏈,其最重要的議題莫過於製造商與通路商之間的協調問題,如何有效的溝通協調以提升通路績效與增加企業利潤,實為目前企業間努力的課題之ㄧ。其次,在產品的供應方面,若是耐久性產品即有「使用時不會立即損壞」的特性,而造成二手產品的崛起,進而衝擊新產品市場的銷售,因此,企業在訂定銷售與供應策略時,應考量二手產品對於新產品決策的影響。另外,企業為了提升消費者的購買意願,在銷售時通常會提供產品保固的售後服務,然而,企業提供產品保固將會增加與品質有密切相關性的保固成本。故為設計有效的供應鏈系統時,須將產品品質決策議題納為考量。綜合上述,企業在銷售附有保固之耐久性產品時,不僅有通路協調和品質決策的議題外,還須考慮二手產品對新產品銷售的影響,方能製造出滿足顧客需求且使企業利潤增加的產品。
有鑑於此,本研究主要在考量二手產品的衝擊下,分別探討分散式及整合式通路兩情境之新產品的最佳策略,包括定價及訂購比例。其中,在分散式通路情境,本研究亦將成本共擔的觀念應用於零售商與製造商共同承擔保固成本,以降低製造商之風險,進而促使通路協調。期望在製造商與零售商的通路利潤最大化下,推導出新產品最佳的訂購比例、批發價及共擔保固成本比例,使分散式的通路利潤最大化。除此之外,本研究更進一步將品質決策議題納入考量,在廠商考量設計成本時,找出產品最佳的品質水準。
本研究經過模型推導及數值分析歸納出下列幾點結論:
(1)保固產品的耐久程度越高,則二手產品流通的比例也越多,進而影響廠商的新產品銷售利潤。因此企業在制定新產品的決策時,需將此列入考量。
(2)在決定品質決策議題時,分散式通路的製造商須考量保固成本及設計成本,因此會選擇品質水準較低的產品生產,而零售商則會選擇最高品質的產品進行銷售。至於,整合式通路所選擇生產的品質水準則介於二者間。因此可說明分散式與整合式通路的成員,因決策目標的不同而所做的最佳決策也有所不同。
(3)若分散式廠商能採行整合式通路之政策來進行通路協調,將使得總利潤增加,整體通路績效提升。另外,製造商若能將改變通路政策而增加的利潤部分與零售商分享,將可提升零售商增加合作意願,進而促使通路協調。
英文摘要 In the context of globalization, diversified requirements and shortening of product life cycle, a large number of companies attend better to the efficiency of the overall supply chain in order to improve competitiveness. If firms want to effectively manage the supply chain, the most important is to solve the coordination problem of manufacturers and distributors. In order to improve channel performance and increase profits, the firm’s most important objective is to achieve the coordination of the supper chan. In the supply of products, if the products are durable goods that the characteristic of the products is not immediately damage when used, which will affect sales of new products because of used product. So, when the firm makes the sales and supply strategy, it must consider the affect of used product on the sales decision of new products. In addition, firms usually provide a after-sales service, product warranty, in order to enhance the consumer's purchase intention, but it will increase warranty costs which have the correlation with quality. Therefore, for the design of effective supply chain system, quality decision-making must be considered. To produce products to meet customer demand and increase profits, firms not only need to consider the issues of the channel coordination and the quality decision-making, but also consider the affect of the used products on the sales decision of new durable products with warranty.
In view of the above mentioned, under the influence of used products, this study derive optimal strategies of new products for distributed and integrated channels, including pricing and order ratio. In a distributed channel, this study will apply the concept of cost sharing to warranty costs in order to reduce the risk of the manufacturer, and then promote the channel coordination. The paper develops a model to determine the optimal order ration, price and warranty cost-sharing ratio that maximizes the total profits of distributed channel for a durable of products with warranty. In addition, this study will consider the quality of decision-making and find the optimal quality level, when the design cost of products is considered.
Our study indicates the following conclusions through the numerical analysis. First, the durable level of warranted products is higher and then ratio of used products is also higher. It will affect the sales profit of new products. Therefore, firms will take it into consideration when they make decisions about new products. Second, when firms make quality decisions, manufacturers in the distributed channel have to take warranty cost and design cost into account. Hence, they will produce products of lower quality, but retailers will sale products of the highest quality. Besides, firms who are in integrated channel will produce the products which quality level is between manufacturers and retailers’. For this reason, the optimal decisions change with decision’s goal for members who are in distributed channel and integrated channel. Finally, firms use integrated channel’s police to do channel coordination. It will increase total profit and whole channel efficiency. If manufacturers share profit which is increased by changing channel policy with retailers, retailers’ cooperative desire will be increased. It makes coordination better in channel.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 4
1.3研究範疇與限制 4
1.4研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1 產品通路 6
2.1.1 產品之配銷通路 6
2.1.2二手產品對新產品通路的影響 8
2.2 通路協調 8
2.2.1風險共擔 8
2.2.2 通路協調契約 10
2.2.3 耐久性產品通路協調問題 12
2.3 產品品質 13
2.3.1 產品品質之定義 13
2.3.2產品品質與成本之關係 15
2.4 產品保固 16
2.4.1 廠商提供售後保固對消費者購買行為的影響 16
2.4.2 產品的保固策略 16
2.4.3 發展新產品的考量因素 18
2.4.4 產品保固所帶來的成本與利潤 18
第三章 模型建立及最佳策略 20
3.1 系統描述 20
3.2數學符號定義與說明 24
3.3利潤模型之建立 25
3.3.1分散式模型之建立 25
3.3.2整合式模型之建立 26
3.4 最佳策略之推導 28
3.4.1分散式通路之最佳策略推導 29
3.4.2整合式通路之最佳策略推導 32
3.5小結 34
第四章 數值分析 36
4.1 模型之數值分析 36
4.1.1參數設定說明 36
4.1.2模型之分析結果 36
4.2 敏感度分析 39
第五章 結論及未來方向 53
5.1 結論 53
5.2 未來研究方向 54
參考文獻 56
英文文獻 56
中文文獻 60
附錄-產品價格之推導過程 62
表目錄
表1產品品質之定義 13
表1產品品質之定義(續) 14
表2顧客之購買決策 23
表3數學符號定義與說明表 24
表4 模型之參數設定 36
表5 決策變數之最佳解 38
表6 通路之品質決策 38
表7 分散式與整合式之通路利潤 39
圖目錄
圖1 研究流程圖 5
圖2 通路長度結構圖 7
圖3 產品保固策略之分類 17
圖4 新產品與二手產品之通路 21
圖5 產品品質與分散式通路之批發價關係圖 40
圖6 產品品質與分散式通路之訂購比例關係圖 41
圖7 產品品質與整合式通路之訂購比例關係圖 41
圖8 產品品質與製造商利潤的關係圖 41
圖9 產品品質與整合式通路之利潤關係圖 42
圖10 產品品質與零售商利潤之關係圖 42
圖11 折舊因子與分散式通路之批發價關係圖 43
圖12 折舊因子與分散式通路之訂購比例關係圖 44
圖13 折舊因子與整合式通路之訂購比例關係圖 44
圖14 折舊因子與製造商利潤之關係圖 44
圖15 折舊因子與整合式通路利潤之關係圖 45
圖16 折舊因子與零售商通路利潤之關係圖 45
圖17 折舊因子與分散式的最佳產品品質關係圖 45
圖18 折舊因子與整合式的最佳產品品質關係圖 46
圖19 最高知覺價值與分散式通路之訂購比例關係圖 46
圖20 最高知覺價值與整合式通路之訂購比例關係圖 47
圖21 最高知覺價值與分散式通路之批發價關係圖 47
圖22 產品品質為0之最高知覺價值與製造商利潤的關係圖 47
圖23 產品品質為1之最高知覺價值與製造商利潤的關係圖 48
圖24 產品品質為0之最高知覺價值與零售商利潤的關係圖 48
圖25 產品品質為1之最高知覺價值與零售商利潤的關係圖 48
圖26 產品品質為0之最高知覺價值與整合式通路利潤的關係圖 49
圖27 產品品質為1之最高知覺價值與整合式通路利潤的關係圖 49
圖28 製造成本與分散式通路之訂購比例關係圖 50
圖29 製造成本與整合式通路之訂購比例關係圖 50
圖30 製造成本與分散式通路之批發價關係圖 51
圖31 製造成本與製造商利潤的關係圖 51
圖32 製造成本與零售商通路利潤的關係圖 51
圖33 製造成本與整合式通路利潤的關係圖 52
圖34 顧客每期購買產品之比例圖 63

參考文獻 英文文獻
Anderson, E. E. (1977). Product price and warranty terms: an optimization
model. Operational Research Quarterly (1970-1977) 28(3): 739-741.
Boulding, W. and Kirmani, A. (1993). A consumer-side experimental
examination of signaling theory: do consumers perceive warranties as
signals of quality? The Journal of Consumer Research 20(1): 111-123.
Boom, A. (1998). Product risk sharing by warranties in a monopoly market with
risk-averse consumers. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 33(2):
241-257.
Coase, R. H. (1972). Durability and monopoly. Journal of Law and Economics:
143-149.
Cohen, M. A. and Whang, S. (1997). Competing in product and service: a product
life-cycle model. Management science 43(4): 535-545.
Chattopadhyay, G. and Murthy, D. N. P. (2001). Cost sharing warranty policies for
second-hand products. International Transactions in Operational Research
8(1): 47-60.
Cachon, G. P. (2003). Supply chain coordination with contracts. Handbooks in
operations research and management science 11: 229-340.
Douglas, E. J., Glennon, D. C. and Lane, J. (1990). Warranty, quality, and price in the US automobile market. School of Business Discussion Papers 8.
DeCroix, G. A. (1999). Optimal warranties, reliabilities and prices for durable goods
in an oligopoly. European Journal of Operational Research 112(3): 554-569.
Desai, P. S., Koenigsberg, O. and Purohit, D. (2001). Coordinating Channels for
Durable Goods: The Impact of Competing Secondary Markets. Review of
Marketing Science Working Papers 1(1): 2.
Erevelles, S. (1993). The price-warranty contract and product attitudes. Journal of
Business Research 27(2): 171-181.
Erevelles, S., Roy, A. and Vargo, S. L. (1999). The Use of Price and Warranty Cues in
Product Evaluation. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 11(3):
67-91.
Garvin, D. A. (1983). Quality on the Line. Harvard Business Review 61(5): 65-75.
Garvin, D. A. (1984). What does product quality really mean. Sloan Management
Review 26(1): 25-43.
Gillis , J. (1987). The car Book. Harper and Row New York.
Gal-Or, E. (1989). Warranties as a Signal of Quality. The Canadian Journal of
Economics/Revue canadienne d'Economique 22(1): 50-61.
Genesove, D. (1993). Adverse selection in the wholesale used car market. The Journal
of Political Economy 101(4): 644-665.
Gillis , J. (1995). The Car book. Happer and Row New York.
Heschel, M. S. (1971). How much is a guarantee worth? Industrial Engineering 3(5):
14-15.
Heal, G. (1977). Guarantees and risk-sharing. The Review of Economic Studies:
549-560.
Halstead, D., Droge, C. and Cooper, M. B. (1993). Product warranties and
post-purchase service: a model of consumer satisfaction with complaint
resolution. Journal of Services Marketing 7(1): 33-40.
Huang, Y. S. and Zhuo, Y. F. (2004). Estimation of future breakdowns to determine
optimal warranty policies for products with deterioration. Reliability Engineering
and System Safety 84(2): 163-168.
Huang, H. Z., Liu, Z. J. and Murthy, D. N. P. (2007). Optimal reliability, warranty and
price for new products. IIE Transactions 39(8): 819-827.
Kolter, P. (1994). Marketing management : Analysis ,planning , implementing, control
(8th ed.) . New York : Prentic-Hall
Kelley, C. A. (1988). An investigation of consumer product warranties as market
signals of product reliability. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
16(2): 72-78.
Kim, B. and Park, S. (2008). Optimal pricing, EOL (end of life) warranty, and spare
parts manufacturing strategy amid product transition. European Journal of
Operational Research 188(3): 723-745.
Lin, P. C. and Shue, L. Y. (2005). Application of optimal control theory to product
pricing and warranty with free replacement under the influence of basic lifetime
distributions. Computers and Industrial Engineering 48(1): 69-82.
McGuire, E. P. (1980). Industrial product warranties: Policies and practices. The
Conference Board Inc., New York.
Murthy, D. N. P. (1990). Optimal reliability choice in product design. Engineering
Optimization 15(4): 281-294.
Menezes, M. A. J. and Quelch, J. A. (1990). Leverage your warranty program. Sloan Management Review 31(4): 69-80.
Murthy, D. N. P. and Chattopadhyay, G. N. (1999). Warranties for second-hand
products. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference of Flexible
Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing.
Murthy, D. N. P. and Ravi Kumar, K. (2000). Total product quality. International
Journal of Production Economics 67(3): 253-267.
Melnikov, O. (2002). Demand for differentiated durable products: The case of the US
computer printer market. Yale University Department of Economics Working
Paper.
Murthy, D. N. P. and Djamaludin, I. (2002). New product warranty: a literature
review. International Journal of Production Economics 79(3): 231-260.
Porteus, E. L. (1986). Optimal lot sizing, process quality improvement and setup cost reduction. Operations Research 34(1): 137-144.
Purohit, D. (1997). Dual distribution channels: The competition between rental agencies and dealers. Marketing Science: 228-245.
Skinner, W. (1969). Manufacturing-missing link in corporate strategy, Harvard Business Review.
Shimp, T. A. and Bearden, W. O. (1982). Warranty and other extrinsic cue effects on consumers' risk perceptions. The Journal of Consumer Research 9(1): 38-46.
Stolyarov, D. (2002). Turnover of used durables in a stationary equilibrium: Are older goods traded more? Journal of Political Economy 110(6): 1390-1413.
Shulman, J. D. and Coughlan, A. T. (2007). Used goods, not used bads: Profitable secondary market sales for a durable goods channel. Quantitative Marketing and Economics 5(2): 191-210.
Teng, J. T. and Thompson, G. L. (1996). Optimal strategies for general price-quality decision models of new products with learning production costs. European Journal of Operational Research 93(3): 476-489.
Udell, J. G. and Anderson, E. E. (1968). The product warranty as an element of competitive strategy. The Journal of Marketing 32(4): 1-8.
Wiener, J. L. (1985). Are warranties accurate signals of product reliability? The Journal of Consumer Research 12(2): 245-250.
Wood, C. H. (1991). Operations strategy: decision patterns and measurement, Ohio State University.
Wirtz, J. and Kum, D. (2001). Designing service guarantees is full satisfaction the best you can guarantee? Journal of Services Marketing 15(4): 283.
Wu, C. C., Lin, P. C. and Chou, C. Y. (2006). Determination of price and warranty length for a normal lifetime distributed product. International Journal of Production Economics 102(1): 95-107.
Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J. and Gremler, D. D. (1996). Services marketing, McGraw-Hill New York.
Zuo, M. J., Liu, B. and Murthy, D. N. P. (2000). Replacement–repair policy for multi-state deteriorating products under warranty. European Journal of Operational Research 123(3): 519-530.
中文文獻
蘇尼爾‧卡部拉,彼得‧曼德爾著(2002)。供應鏈管理 (陳銘崑,吳忠敏,傅新彬譯)。美商普林帝斯霍爾國際股份有限公司台灣分公司。
西密奇李維,卡明斯基,史密契李維著(2001)。供應鏈之設計與管理 -觀念、策略、個案 (蘇雄義譯)。美商普林帝斯霍爾國際股份有限公司台灣分公司。
西密奇李維,卡明斯基,史密契李維著(2004)。供應鏈管理創新解決方案:改良供應鏈流程,降低配銷成本、縮短交貨時間,有效提高企業獲利 (陳琇玲,林宜萱譯)。美商普林帝斯霍爾國際股份有限公司台灣分公司。
西密奇李維,卡明斯基,史密契李維著(2009)。供應鏈設計與管理。 美商普林帝斯霍爾國際股份有限公司台灣分公司。
方志強 (2008)。運用貝氏決策分析決定可修復產品上市之最佳定價、收產、保固等決策。國立成功大學工業與資訊管理研所博士論文。
陳慶能 (1996)。規範預防保養之保證策略分析。台灣科技大學管理技術研究所工業管理學程碩士論文。
黃詠茂,林清泉與王瑞顯 (2006)。中古汽車業的產品品質與形象對顧客滿意度與忠誠度之影響。嘉南藥理科技大學管理學報32: 364-383。
郭儼頡 (2009)。產品品質、服務品質與價格對顧客滿意度與忠誠度之影響-以半導體設備商個案公司為例。企業管理研究所碩士在職專班碩士論文。
楊宗豫 (1997)。保政策略之風險分析-不可維修產品的比較研究。台灣科技大學管理技術研究所工業管理學程碩士論文。
蔡明田,陳嵩,張淑昭 (1999)。產品品質與成本之相關性:情境觀點與實證。輔仁大學管理學學報 6(1): 69-94。
羅惠瓊 (2000)。保固產品之品質管制與售後維護策略分析。國立台灣科技大學工業管理系博士論文。





論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2015-07-08公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2015-07-08起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信