||An Exploration of the Idioms and Phrasal Verbs in Senior High School Textbooks in Taiwan
||Department of English
||Marla Jean Hill
||This study explores 232 phrasal verbs and idioms in Volumes 1 through 4 of the Far East English Reader for Senior High Schools textbooks to determine the extent they conform to authentic use of English according to the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). Definitions were examined for discrepancies between the Chinese and English definitions, and sample sentences were examined to determine if the usage reflected their typicality in the spoken corpus.
A mixed qualitative/quantitative approach was used to analyze the frequency of the phrasal verbs and idioms, and those with a frequency of 500 and above were then identified for further analysis of definitions and sample sentences.
The study reveals that of the 232 phrasal verbs and idioms examined, 90% have a frequency range of 0-9,999 for the corpus overall, with 10% falling within the ranges of 25,000 to 159,999. For the spoken corpus, 87% of the phrasal verbs and idioms fall within the range of 0-4,999, with 13% occurring within the 5,000 to 59,999 ranges; therefore, the majority of the phrasal verbs and idioms are not the most frequently occurring in the COCA.
In all there were 125 phrasal verbs and idioms with a frequency of 500 and above. Twenty-five were determined to have problems with definitions, sample sentences, or collocations and were examined in more detail. The study reveals that incomplete or incorrect definitions, sample sentences, or collocations are presented to students in textbooks, leading to confusion and inaccuracies in English.
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1 Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 6
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 The Important Role of Vocabulary in Learning English
2.2.1 Collocations as Related to Word Knowledge 9
220.127.116.11 Definitions 9
18.104.22.168 Importance of Collocations 11
2.2.2 Idiomatic and Formulaic Language 13
2.2.3 Importance of the Sample Sentences 14
2.3 Vocabulary Pedagogy in Taiwan
2.3.1 Importance of Textbooks 17
2.3.2 Contents of the Far East English Reader for Senior High Schools 18
2.3.3 Importance of the Definitions 19
2.3.4 Comparison with Online Bilingual Dictionary 23
CHAPTER 3 Methodology
3.1 Methodology 27
3.2 Materials 31
3.3 Instrument 32
3.4 Frequency Counts 33
3.6 Summary 34
CHAPTER 4 Results
4.1 Overall Frequency Counts of the Idioms and Phrasal Verbs 35
4.2 Frequency Count in Spoken English 37
4.3 Examination of English and Chinese Definitions and Collocates 38
4.4 Summary 54
CHAPTER 5 Discussions and Conclusion
5.1 The First Three Chapters Reviewed 55
5.3 Pedagogical implications 60
5.4 Limitations 61
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research 62
||Altenberg, B., and Eeg-Olofsson, M. (1990). Phraseology in Spoken English: Presentation of a Project. In J. Aarts and W. Jeijs (eds.), Theory and practice in corpus linguistics.
Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1-26.
Arter, L. M., & Nilsen, A. P. (2009). Using Lemony Snicket to bring smiles to your vocabulary lessons. The Reading Teacher, 63(3), 235-238. DOI:10.1598/RT.63.3.6
Asselin, M. (2002). Vocabulary instruction. Teacher Librarian, 29(3), 57-69.
Bahns, J., & Eldaw, M. (1993). Should we teach EFL students collocations?. System, 21(1), 101-114.
Bauer, E. B., & Manyak, P. C. (2008). Creating language-rich instruction for English-language learners. The Reading Teacher, 62(2), 176-178.
Biber, D, & Barbieri, F. (2007). Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers. English for Specific Purposes, 26(3), 263-286.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Boers, F. (2000). Metaphor awareness and vocabulary retention. Applied Linguistics, 21, 553-571.
Brazil, D. (1995). A grammar of speech. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
Carter, R. & McCarthy, M. (1988). Development in the teaching of vocabulary. In R.Carter M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary and language leaching, pp. 39-59. New York:
Chen, C. H. (2000). Senior high school English teachers’ perceptions of the new English teaching materials and their usage in southern Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis,
National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Chen, C. T. (2002). Textbook selection for senior high school students in greater Taipei area. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University.
Conzett, J. (2000). Integrating collocation into a reading and writing course. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Teaching collocation: Further developments in the lexical approach (pp. 70–87). Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications.
Cordon, N., & Kelly, P. (2002). Does cognitive linguistics have anything to offer English language learners in their efforts to master phrasal verbs?. ITL Review of Applied
Linguistics, 133-134, 205-231.
Durrant, P., & Schmitt, N. (2010). Adult learners’ retention of collocations from exposure. Second Language Research, 26(2), 163-188.
Ellis, N. C. (2008). Phraseology: The periphery and the heart of language. In F. Meunier & S. Granger (Eds.), Phraseology in language learning and teaching (pp. 1–13).
Ellis, N. C., & Simpson-Vlach, R. (2008). Formulaic language in native and second language speakers: Psycholinguistics, corpus linguistics, and TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 42(3),
Folse, K. (2011). Applying L2 lexical research findings in ESL teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 45(2), 362-369.
Fontenelle, T. (1998). Discovering significant lexical functions in dictionary entries. In Cowie, A. (Ed.) Phraseology: Theory, analysis, and applications (pp. 189–207). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Forman, R. (2014). How local teachers respond to the culture and language of a global English as a Foreign Language textbook. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 27(1), 72-88
Gardner, D., & Davies, M. (2007). Pointing out frequent phrasal verbs: A corpus-based analysis. TESOL Quarterly , 41, 339-359.
Garcia, G. (1991). Factors influencing the English reading test performance of Spanish-speaking Hispanic children. Reading Research Quarterly, 26(4), 371-392.
Gilmore, A. (2004). A comparison of textbook and authentic interactions. ELT Journal, 58(4), 363-374.
Gitsaki, C. (1999). Second language lexical acquisition: A study of the development of collocational knowledge. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications.
Gouverneur, C. (2008). The phraseological patterns of high-frequency verbs in advanced English for general purposes: A corpus-driven approach to EFL textbook analysis. In Meunier, F., and Granger, S. (Eds.). Phraseology in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 223-243). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. Harlow, England:Pearson Education.
Granger, S. (1998). Prefabricated patterns in advanced EFL writing: collocations and formulae. In A. Cowie (Ed.), Phraseology: Theory, analysis, and applications (pp.
79–100). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Granger, S., & Meunier, F. (Eds.). (2008). Phraseology: An interdisciplinary perspective. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hill, J. (2000). Revising priorities: From grammatical failure to collocational success. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Teaching collocation: Further developments in the lexical approach (p. 54). Hove: Language Teaching Publications.
Hill, J. (2003). The place of collocation in the syllabus. In Selected Papers from the Twelfth International Symposium on English Teaching (p. 82). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane Publishing Company.
Howarth, P. (1998). The phraseology of learners’ academic writing. In A. Cowie (Ed.), Phraseology: Theory, analysis, and applications (pp. 189–207). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hsu, H. (2004). Senior high school English teachers’ perceptions and opinions of the new English teaching materials and their current usage status in northern Taiwan.
Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Hsu, J. T. (2008). Role of the multi-word lexical units in current EFL/ESL textbooks. US-China Foreign Language 6(7), 27–39.
Hsu, W. H. (2003). Translation research into pedagogical practice: Recommendations for adult ESL/EFL reading instruction. In The Proceedings of 2003 Conference and Workshop on TEFL and Applied Linguistic (pp. 157-163).
Hwang, C. (2007). Lexical pragmatics as a challenge to EFL comprehension: The issues of indirectness, inferencing, and schematic knowledge. Theoretical Linguistics, 1(2), 81-91.
Hwang, C. (2009). SOS: A model of lexical pragmatics in English for Chinese-speaking learners. Taipei, Taiwan: Pearson Longman.
Johnson, A. P., & Rasmussen, J. B. (1998). Classifying and super word web: Two strategies to improve productive vocabulary. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 42(3), 204-207.
Ke, I.C. (2009). From EFL to English as an international and scientific language: Analyzing Taiwan’s high-school English textbooks in the period 1952-2009. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 25(2), 173-187.
Kennedy, G. (1998). An introduction to corpus linguistics. New York: Longman.
Koprowski, M. (2005). Investigating the usefulness of lexical phrases in contemporary coursebooks. ELT journal, 59(4), 322-332.
Krashen, S. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 440-464.
Kuiper, K. (2004). Formulaic performance in conventionalised varieties of speech. In Schmitt, N. (Ed.). Formulaic sequences: Acquisition, processing and use (pp. 37-54).
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kurtyka, A. (2001). Teaching English phrasal verbs: A cognitive approach. In M. Putz, S. Niemeier, & R. Dirven (Eds.), Applied cognitive linguistics II: Language pedagogy (pp. 29-54). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Lai, Y-C. (2009). Language learning strategy use and English proficiency of university freshmen in Taiwan. TESOL Quarterly, 43(2), 255-280.
Lee, D. Y., & Chen, S. X. (2009). Making a bigger deal of the smaller words: Function words and other key items in research writing by Chinese learners. Journal of Second
Language Writing, 18(3), 149-165.
Lee, H. L. (2014). The typicality of collocations in the example sentences in high school English textbooks in Taiwan. 臺北科技大學應用英文研究所學位論文, 1-77.
Leech, L. (2000). Grammars of spoken English: New outcomes of corpus-oriented research. Language Learning, 50, 675–724.
Lessard-Clouston, M. (2013). Teaching vocabulary. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/2768908/Teaching_Vocabulary 11/3/2013.
Lewis, M., (Ed.). (2000). Teaching collocation: Further developments in the lexical approach. Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications.
Li, X. (2004). An analysis of Chinese EFL learners' beliefs about the role of rote learning in vocabulary learning strategies. University of Sunderland.
Liao, Y., & Fukuya, Y. J. (2004). Avoidance of phrasal verbs: The case of Chinese learners of English. Language Learning, 54, 193-226.
Lin, C. H. (2006). A quantitative analysis of the vocabulary in the first volume of Taiwanese senior high school English textbooks. Unpublished master‘s thesis). Department of
Foreign Language and Literature, National Sun Yat Sen University, Taiwan.
Littlemore, J. (2001). The use of metaphor in university lectures and the problems that it causes for overseas students. Teaching in Higher Education, 6, 333-349.
Liu, D. (2011). The most frequently used English phrasal verbs in American and British English: A multicorpus examination. TESOL Quarterly, 45(4), 661-688.
Liu, E. T., & Shaw, P. M. (2001). Investigating learner vocabulary: A possible approach to looking at EFL/ESL learners' qualitative knowledge of the word. IRAL, 39(3), 171-194.
Liu, Y. F. (2002). The effect of English word exposure frequency in the simplified novel on incidental vocabulary acquisition by EFL senior high school students in Taiwan.
Unpublished master’s thesis, Department of English, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Manyak, P., & Bauer, E. (2009). English vocabulary instruction for English learners. The Reading Teacher, 63(2), 174-176.
Martinez, R., & Murphy, V. A. (2011). Effect of frequency and idiomaticity on second language reading comprehension. TESOL Quarterly, 45(2), 267-290.
McCarthy, M., & O'Dell, F. (2004). English phrasal verbs in use. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press
Meara, P. (2002). The rediscovery of vocabulary. Second Language Research. 18(4), 393-407.
Mindt, D. (1996). English corpus linguistics and the foreign language teaching syllabus. In Thomas, J. and Short, M. (Eds.), Using corpora for language research (pp. 232-247).
New York: Longman.
Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I. S. P., & Nation, D. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Nattinger, J. R., & DeCarrico, J. S. (1992). Lexical phrases and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Nesselhauf, N. (2003). The use of collocations by advanced learners of English and some implications for teaching. Applied Linguistics, 24(2), 223-242.
O'Keeffe, A., McCarthy, M., & Carter, R. (2007). From corpus to classroom: Language use and language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Pawley, A., & Syder, F. H. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistic theory: Nativelike selection and nativelike fluency. In J. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and communication (pp. 191–225). London: Longman
Platt, H. (1999). Better ways with phrasal verbs. Singapore: Federal Publications.
Potgieter, L. (2013). Example sentences in bilingual school dictionaries. Lexikos, 22, 261-271.
Protacio, M. S. (2012). Reading motivation: A focus on English learners. The Reading Teacher, 66(1), 69-77.
Read, J. (2000). Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. C. (1976). The role of vocabulary teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 10 (1), 77-89.
Rosenbaum, C. (2001). A word map for middle school: A tool for effective vocabulary instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(1), 44-49.
Rupley, W. H., Logan, J. W., & Nichols, W. D. (1999). Vocabulary instruction in a balanced reading program. Reading Teacher, 52(4), 336-346.
Sadeghi, K. (2009). Collocational differences between L1 and L2: Implications for EFL learners and teachers. TESL Canada Journal, 26(2), 100-124.
Saville-Troike, M. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement?. TESOL Quarterly, 18(2), 199-219.
Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt & M. McCarthy (Eds.). Vocabulary: Description, acquisition, and pedagogy (pp. 199-227). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Segalowitz, N. (2010). Cognitive bases of second language fluency. New York, NY: Routledge.
Shin, D. (2007). The high frequency collocations of spoken and written English. English Teaching, 62(1), 199–218.
Shin, D., & Nation, P. (2008). Beyond single words: The most frequent collocations in spoken English. ELT Journal, 62(4), 339-348.
Simpson, R., & Mendis, D. (2003). A corpus-based study of idioms in academic speech. TESOL Quarterly, 37(3), 419–441.
Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sinclair, J. (2004). Trust the text: Language, corpus and discourse. London: Routledge.
Siyanova, A., & Schmitt, N. (2007). Native and nonnative use of multi-word vs. one-word verbs. IRAL, 45, 119–139. DOI 10.1515/IRAL.2007.005
Sonbul, S., & Schmitt, N. (2013). Explicit and implicit lexical knowledge: Acquisition of collocations under different input conditions. Language learning,63(1), 121-159.
Sosa, A. V., & MacFarlane, J. (2002). Evidence for frequency-based constituents in the mental lexicon: Collocations involving the word of. Brain and language, 83(2), 227-236.
Tannenbaum, K. R., Torgesen, J. K., & Wagner, R. K. (2006). Relationships between word knowledge and reading comprehension in third-grade children. Scientific Studies of
Reading, 10(4), 381-398.
Timmis, I. (2002). Native‐speaker norms and International English: a classroom view. ELT Journal, 56(3), 240-249.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1997). The question of multilingual children. The collected works of LS Vygotsky, 4, 253-259.
Wang, J-h., and Good, R. (2007). The repetition of collocations in EFL textbooks: A corpus study. Paper presented at The Sixteenth International Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching in the Republic of China, Taipei, (pp. 223-232). Retrieved from
http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502758.pdf on March 9, 2016.
Wessels, S. (2011). Promoting vocabulary learning for English learners. The Reading Teacher, 65(1), 46-50.
Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wong, J. (2002). "Applying" conversation analysis in applied linguistics: Evaluating dialogue in English as a second language textbooks. IRAL, 40(1), 37-60.
Wray, A. (2002). Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wu, W-S. (2005). Use and helpfulness rankings of vocabulary learning strategies employed by EFL learners in Taiwan. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(2), 7-13.
Wyss, R. (2003). Putting phrasal verbs into perspective. TESOL Journal, 12, 37-38.
Young, J. M., & Reigeluth, C. M. (1988). Improving the textbook selection process. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
Zarry, L. (1999). Vocabulary enrichment in composition: A grade six study. Education. 120, 267-272.