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系統識別號 U0002-0706200519111500
中文論文名稱 九一一事件後英國布萊爾政府的反恐政策(2001-2004年)
英文論文名稱 The Counter-Terrorism Policy of Tony Blair Administration after 911 Attack (2001-2004)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 陳淑慧
研究生英文姓名 Shu-hui Chen
學號 691030067
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-06-03
論文頁數 164頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政文
委員-高朗
委員-郭秋慶
中文關鍵字 國際恐怖主義, 國際主義 
英文關鍵字 international terrorism, internationalism 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 冷戰結束後,最嚴重的國際安全威脅係來自國際恐怖主義跨國界的攻擊;因此引起世界各國紛紛展開反恐的行動。以英國而言,自一九七Ο年代起,便開始立法防範國內北愛爾蘭恐怖主義的威脅。一九九七年布萊爾(Tony Blair)上台後,依據當時的國際情勢所需,在反恐政策上作出轉變的決定。

二ΟΟ一年,發生在美國本土的九一一事件,正是成為布萊爾政府對於英國國家安全政策與反恐政策的分界點。九一一後,布萊爾反恐政策的主要目標以加強英美特殊關係、建立區域與全球反恐夥伴關係和重振英國國際影響力三者為主,並透過以暴制暴(以庇護恐怖團體的主權國家為主)、安撫取向、國際合作(斷根構想)、不侵犯人民基本權力等四個政策取向作為執行的手段。除此之外,英國雖早已具有反恐相關法案,其國內朝野政黨亦再度藉此機會希望政府能夠制定新法;此舉促成國會表決通過「反恐怖主義、犯罪與安全法」(ATCS Act 2001)。此法雖是英國因應國際恐怖主義日益活絡而訂定的法案,但卻造成國內各界與聯合國人權委員會的偵查,並遭稱「藉反恐之名,行反人權之實」的一項法案。由於2005年五月英國國內提前舉行下議院大選,因此,工黨政府特於2005年二月提出另一新的「反恐怖主義草案」(Prevention of Terrorism Bill)欲將ATCS Act 2001備受爭議的第四部份作為取代。

本文研究架構在以2001年九一一事件對於布萊爾反恐政策產生的轉變作為探討的主軸,透過其反恐政策的制定背景、主要內涵、重要特徵、問題爭議等整理,剖析轉變中的英國反恐政策。主要的研究方法是以國際關係中的「現實主義」觀點以及布萊爾的「國際主義」內涵作為分析、評估布萊爾在九一一事件後的反恐相關政策的方法。全文架構如下:首先,簡單回顧英國反恐政策的歷史背景與九一一事件前布萊爾的反恐政策;其次,針對九一一事件後布萊爾反恐政策的主要目標、政策取向、反恐法案等內容進行研析,兼述布萊爾在國際反恐各層面的合作事項;最後,歸納英國反恐政策的執行成效,進而展望其第三任政策的可能發展方向與可供我國參考的各項措施。
英文摘要 The most devastating and serious international threat during the post cold war period is the international terrorism. Due to its cross-border massive attacks, nations all over the world have launched a series of anti-terror measures. Starting from 1970s, British government had been fighting against its domestic threat—the Northern Ireland Terrorism. When Blair administration took the office in 1997, Tony Blair still followed the traditional policies. However, after the 911 attack, he started to initiate new counter-terrorism policy in order to fight the new threat.

In the aftermath of the attack, Blair had endeavored to develop his new policy in anti-international-terrorism area. His new policy envelopes three main goals— enhancing the Anglo-American relationship, building regional and global counter-terrorism partnership and regaining British international influence, in order to secure British national interests. To achieve the goals, Tony Blair employs four approaches; “Fighting violence with violence”, “appeasement policy”, “international cooperation” and “protection of human rights”.

This thesis emphasizes the 911’s impact on Blair’s policy against international terrorism. The main research method is using both “Realism” and “Internationalism” to analyze the background, issues and features of his policy. The thesis is divided five chapters and the structure as follows: the first chapter is mainly about the history background of British counter-terrorism policies before 911. The second chapter contains the objects, methods of Tony Blair’s new measure and anti-terror legislation in the aftermath of 911. The third chapter is the contributors of his new policy. The forth chapter contains British bilateral, regional and global cooperation against international terrorism. The fifth chapter is through the two theories to assess his policy, and at the same time foreseeing his future policy in the third term.
論文目次 目次
緒論………………………………………………………………………1
第一節、 研究動機與目的……………………………………………………….1
第二節、 研究方法與架構……………………………………………………….6
第三節、 研究範圍與資料來源…………………………………………………13
第四節、 研究限制………………………………………………………………15
第一章、 英國反恐政策的歷史背景………………………………..16
第一節、 歷史背景與政策沿革………………………………………………16
第二節、 九一一前布萊爾的反恐政策………………………………………25
第二章、 九一一事件後布萊爾政府反恐政策之研擬……………..36
第一節、 九一一事件與英國的反應…………………………………………37
第二節、 政策研擬的過程……………………………………………………46
第三節、 政策的主要內涵……………………………………………………56
第三章、 促成布萊爾反恐政策之因素……………………………..69
第一節、 內在因素……………………………………………………………69
第二節、 外在因素……………………………………………………………76
第四章、 布萊爾反恐政策之執行…………………………………..88
第一節、 執行機構……………………………………………………………88
第二節、 執行實例…………………………………………………………..104
第五章、 評估與展望………………………………………………128
第一節、 評估………………………………………………………………..128
第二節、 展望………………………………………………………………..142
結論……………………………………………………………………145
參考書目………………………………………………………………152

圖表目次

圖目次
圖1 論文研究架構圖……………………………………………………………...13
圖2 TA 2000正式生效前,英國政府依法拘留嫌犯超過一小時的統計資料….32
圖3 2004年2月英國國家安全工作資源分配圖…………………………………46
圖4 英國一般立法程序…………………………………………………………...55
圖5 英國國家情報機制圖……………………………………………………….100


表目次
表1 布萊爾執政前英國重要的反恐立法………………………………………...23
表2 1998年布萊爾政府制定的反恐立法………………………………………..30
表3 2001年「反恐怖主義、犯罪與安全法」條款主要內涵…………………..66
表4 英國BBC論壇,英國民眾於九一一事件後對於制定新法的意見…………70
表5 九一一事件發生後,由2002至2004年間的國際恐怖主義攻擊事件……87
表6 英國於阿富汗戰爭中的武裝力量………………………………………….112
表7 1992-1999年,英國官方對伊拉克大規模毀滅性武器的懷疑…………….114
表8 英國於伊拉克戰爭中提供之軍事戰艦數量……………………………….116
表9 英美兩國「國家重要基礎建設與其他國土安全共同合作協議」主要合作範圍與內涵……………………………………………………………………………119
參考文獻 參考書目

一、官方文件
(一)、英國報告書
10 Downing Street, “Guide to legislation.” Available from http://www.pm.gov.uk/print/page29.asp
Bascombe Dominic, “An Update of Anti-Terror Legislation in the Commonwealth.” July 2004.
Blunkett David, “Defending the Democratic State and Maintaining Liberty:Two Sides of the Same Coin?” 8 March, 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Broadbridge Sally(Home Affair Section), “Research Paper 01/101: The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Bill: Introduction & Summary.” 19 November 2001.
Cabinet Office, “National Intelligence Machinery, 25 April, 2000”. Available from http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk
--------------, “Counter-Terrorist Action Since September 2002”, 9 September, 2002. Available from http://www.cabinet-office.gov.uk/coi-0809.doc
--------------, “The United Kingdom and the Campaign against International Terrorism:Progress Report”, 9th September 2002. Available from http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk
Committee of Experts on Terrorism (Council of Europe), “Profiles on Counter-Terrorist Capacity—United Kingdom.” December 2004.
Electronic Privacy Information Center, “Analysis of Provisions of the Proposed Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001: Affecting the Privacy of Communications and Personal Information.” September 24, 2001.
Home Office, “Home Office Circular about Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001”, 17 June, 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “A Protocol Between the Ministry on Defence Police and Home Office Police Forces”, 3 May, 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “A Protocol Between British Transport Police and Home Office Police Forces”, 3 May, 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Guidance for the Police and Public on the Implementation of Sections 1-3 of the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001”, 16 May, 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Guidance for the Police and Public on the Implementation of Section 89; Sections 113-115; Sections 117-120; Section 121 of the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001”, 28 February 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Home Office Circular about Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 Part 6: Weapons of Mass Destruction: Implementation”, 8 April 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Counter-Terrorism Powers Reconciling Security and Liberty in an Open Society:A Discussion Paper”, 25 February, 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “The Scientific Response to Terrorism:the Government Reply to the Eighth Report from the House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee Session 2002-2003 HC 415-1”, 22 January 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Retention of Communications Data Under Part 11: Anti-Terrorism, Crime & Security Act 2001.”
-----------, “Review of the Operation of the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions)Act 1989”, 7th March, 2000. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Home Office Circular 02/2004.” 19 January 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Home Office Circular 03/01.” 21 March 2001. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Guidelines on Special Branch Work in the United Kingdom”, March 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Statistics on the Operation of Prevention of Terrorism Legislation 16/01:Great Britain 2000.” 13 September 2001. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Press Release: European Co-operation to Secure Borders, Ensure Effective Policing and Implement Tough Counter Terrorism Measure.” 6 July 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Paper One: The Threat.” Feb. 2005, Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Paper Two: The UK’s Counter-Terrorism Strategy.” Feb. 2005, Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Paper Three: Reconciling Liberty and Security.” Feb. 2005, Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Paper Four: Protect and Prepare.” Feb. 2005, Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “National Intelligence Machinery”. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Hughes Beverley, “Security Threats in a Networked World”, 23 March, 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Intelligence and Security Committee, “Annual Report 2001-2002”, June 2002.
-----------, “Annual Report 2003-2004”, June 2004.
Lord Carlile of Berriew Q.C., “Report on the Operation in 2002 and 2003 of the Terrorism Act 2000”, 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Report on the Operation in 2001 of the Terrorism Act 2000”, 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Report on the Operation in 2002 of Part VII of the Terrorism Act 2000.” Feb.2003. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Report on the Operation in 2004 of Part VII of the Terrorism Act 2000.” Feb.2005. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 Part IV Section 28 Review 2004.” Feb. 2005, http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
-----------, “Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 Part IV Section 28 Review 2003.” Dec. 2003, http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Manningham-Buller Eliza, “Global Terrorism:Are we meeting the challenge?” 16 October, 2003. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Northern Ireland Office, “Brief History of Northern Ireland.” Available from http://www.nio.gov.uk/press/p_history.htm
Privy Counsellor Review Committee, “Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act Review: Report.” 18 Dec. 2003.
Rowe Q.C. John, “Review of the Operation in 2000 of the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act 1989 and The Northern Ireland (Emergency Provisions) Act 1996. 2000.
Rt Hon Sir John Wheeler JP DL, “Airport Security.” 2002. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
The United Kingdom Parliament, Home Department: “Terrorism—Civil Contingency Planning.” 3 March 2003.

(二)英國法律文件
Agreement Between The Government of the United States of America and The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Cooperation in Science and Technology for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Other Homeland/Civil Security Matters. 8 December, 2004. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act (2001年), Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Civil Contingencies Bill, Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Northern Ireland Office, “The Belfast Agreement.” Available from http://www.nio.gov.uk
Northern Ireland Office, “Terrorism Act 2000 (Section 99) Draft Code of Practice.” Available from http://www.nio.gov.uk
Prevention of Terrorism Bill(2005年), Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Statutory Instrument No.3175, “The Retention of Communications Data (Code of Practice)”, Order 2003. Available from http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk
Statistics on the Operation of Prevention of Terrorism Legislation 16/01, Great Britain 2000, 13 September 2001. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Statistics on the Operation of Prevention of Terrorism Legislation 16/01, Great Britain 1999, 03 March 2000. Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
Terrorism Act (2000年), Available from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk

(三)、其他官方文件
Council on Foreign Relations, “Terrorism Q&A: United Kingdom.” 2004. Available from http://www.terrorismanswers.org/coalition/uk_print.html
---------, “Terrorism Q&A: Europe.” 2004. Available from http://www.terrorismanswes.org/coalition/europe_print.html
ESRC(Economic & Social Research Council), “Transnational Communities Programme: UK and USA Measures Against the “New” Terrorism.” Available from http://www.transcomm.ox.ac.uk/traces/iss3pg1.htm
Institute for National Strategic Studies(INSS),U.S.A., 911 and After: A British View, October 2002. Available from http://www.911investigations.net/document848.html
United Nations Committee on Human Rights, “In the Name of Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Abuses Worldwide.” March 25, 2003.

二、布萊爾演講稿
10 Downing Street, “PM outlines vision for Iraq and the Iraqi people.” 16 March 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
---------, “PM warns of continuing global terror threat”, 05 March 2004. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
---------, “PM answers questions at MTV Forum.” 06 March 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
---------, “Authority of the United Nations is on the line.” 2003 Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
---------, “Press Conference: Prime Minister Tony Blair and President Jacques Chirac.” 05 March 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
---------, “Press Conference: Prime Minister Tony Blair and President George Bush.” 2003, Available from http://www.pm.gov.uk/print/page3448.asp
----------, “Press Conference following EU Summit in Brussels.” 2003 Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
----------, “A war not of conquest but of liberation.” 20-21 March 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
----------, “Prime Minister’s interview with Arabic television.” 2003 Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
----------, “PM briefs MPs on G8 Summit.” 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
----------, “PM interviewed on Iraq, WMD, Europe and the Euro.” 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
----------, “PM says he is 100 percent behind Iraq evidence.” 2003. Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
----------, “PM’s statement to Parliament following his meeting with President Bush.” 3 February 2003, Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
-----------, “PM: A Strategy for peace for Iraq.” 2003, Available from http://www.pm.gov.uk/print/page3494.asp
-----------, “PM: The Importance of the UN in post-conflict Iraq.” 2003, Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk
-----------, “Doctrine of the International Community”, 24 April 2004, Available from http://www.number-10.gov.uk/print/page1297.asp

三、專書
(一)中文專書
馬永成、陳其邁 譯,顛覆左右-新世代的第三條路,初版,台北:時報文化出版社,1999年,譯自Tony Blair “The Third Way: New Politics for the New Century, New Britain: My Vision of a Young Country, Leading the Way: A New Vision for Local Government.”
麥朝成,張佩珍 主編,美國九一一襲擊事件對美日中台四角關係之影響座談會實錄,中華經濟研究院,民國90年10月。
蔡政文,當前國際關係理論發展及其評估,台北:三民書局,民國78年3月初版。
錢乘旦 等著,二十世紀英國,香港:商務印書館,1997年7年第1次印刷。
(二)英文專書
Aron, Raymond. Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations, N.Y.: Praeger Publisher, 1968.
Crenshaw, M. The Causes of Terrorism, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.
Keohane, Robert O. Realism, neorealism and the Study of World Politics, NeoRealism and Its Critics, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Kegley, C. W. (Ed.) International terrorism: Characteristics, causes and controls,1990.New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Mansbach, Richard W. The Web of World Politics - Non-State Actors In Global System, New Jersey: Prentice Hall., 1976.
Perryman, Mark. The Blair Agenda, London:Lawrence&Wishart Limited, 1996.
The Office for National Statistics, Britain 2002:The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom, London:The Stationery Office Limited, 2002.
----------, Britain 2003:The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom, London:The Stationery Office Limited, 2003.
----------, Britain 2004:The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom, London:The Stationery Office Limited, 2004.
Walter, Christian (eds). Terrorism as a Challenge for National and International Law: Security versus Liberty? Springer-Verlag Berlin., 2004.
Waltz, Kennth N. Theory of International Politics, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979.


四、期刊
(一)中文期刊
王振華:「淺析布萊爾的樞紐外交說」,歐洲,第6期,2002年,頁1-8。
甘逸驊:「北愛爾蘭和平進程:政府間因素與國際勢力的介入」,問題與研究,第43卷第2期,民國93年3、4月,頁1-30。
安惠侯:「伊拉克戰爭與國際政治」,國際問題研究(伊拉克戰爭專論),2003年,頁1-11。
馬知涵:「四面楚歌中的布萊爾」,瞭望新聞周刊,第22期,2004年5月31日,頁50-51。
馬麗萍:「北愛爾蘭和平進程及其走向」,現代國際關係,1999年,第三期,頁31-34。
莫大華:「國際關係理論大辯論研究的評析」,問題與研究,第39卷,第12期,民國89年12月,頁65-90。
崔洪建:「國際關係中的布萊爾主義」,政經問題專論,2000年3月17日,頁23-27。
陳沗之、田炳信:「試論恐怖主義與反恐怖主義」,當代亞太,第12期,2001年,頁17-20。
陳先才、姜秀敏:「反恐怖主義與國際安全」,行政與法(工作研究),第2期,2002年,頁56-58。
黃臺生:「英國布萊爾的現代化政府」,考銓季刊,第29卷,民國91年1月,頁61-81。
詹超 譯:「各國城市警察反恐怖精英分隊獨家報導系列:大曼徹斯特地區武裝警察局特殊技能訓練」,國際展望半月刊,2002年11月,第455期,頁52-55。
趙懷普:「析第一屆布萊爾政府的對歐政策」,國際觀察(歐洲研究),2002年第1期,頁58-61。
蔡庭榕:「論反恐怖主義行動法制與人權保障」,刑事法雜誌第四七卷第四期,頁37-70。
謝福助:「恐怖主義與反恐怖主義之難題」,淡江人文社會學刊,第11期,民國91年6月,頁127-154。

(二)英文期刊
Barder, Brian. “Britain: Still Looking for that Role?” The Political Quarterly, Spring 2001, pp. 366-374.
Byman, Daniel. “Constructing a Democratic Iraq: Challenges and Opportunities,” International Security, Vol. 28, No.1 (Summer 2003), pp. 47-78.
Carter, Ashton B. “The Architecture of Government in the Face of Terrorism,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Winter 2001/02), pp. 5-23.
Cronin, Audrey K. “Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism,” International Security, Vol. 27, No.3 (Winter 2002/03), pp. 30-58.
Crowe, Brain. “A Common European Foreign Policy after Iraq?” International Affairs, Vol. 79, No.3 (2003), pp. 533-546.
Dandeker, Christopher and Freedman, Lawrence “Institutions: The British Armed Services,” The Political Quarterly, Winter 2002, pp. 465-475.
European Parliament, Committee on Civil Liberties and Internal Affairs (Viviane Reading), “Report on Combating Terrorism in the European Union” (J). European Parliament Session Documents (EP A4-0368/96), Luxemburg, 1996.
Lee, Feinstein and Slaughter, Anne-Marie. “A Duty to Prevent.” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No. 1, January-February 2004.
Fenwick, Helen. “Responding to 11 September: Detention without Trial under the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001.” The Political Quarterly Publishing Co. Ltd. 2002, p. 80-104.
Garden, Timothy. “Iraq: the Military Campaign,” International Affairs, Vol. 79, No.4 (2003), pp. 701-718.
Gray, John. “Blair’s Project in Retrospect,” International Affairs, Vol.80, No.1 (2004), pp. 39-48.
Hennessy, Peter. “The Blair Style and the Requirements of Twenty-First Century Premiership,” The Political Quarterly, Autumn 2000, pp. 386-395.
Heymann, Philip B. “Dealing with Terrorism: An Overview,” International Security, Vol. 26, No.3 (Winter 2001/02), pp. 24-38.
Hickman, Mary. “Binary Opposites or Unique Neighbours? The Irish in Muliti-ethnic Britain,” The Political Quarterly, Spring 2000, pp. 50-58.
King, Desmond and Wickham-Jones, Mark. “From Clinton to Blair: The Democratic (Party) Origins of Welfare to Work,” The Political Quarterly, Spring 1999, pp. 62-74.
Knight, Charles and Murphy, Melissa. “Correspondence: The Sources of Terrorism,” International Security, Vol. 28, No.2 (Fall 2003), pp.192-198.
Lustgarten, Laurence. “National Security, Terrorism and Constitutional Balance,” The Political Quarterly, Spring 2004, pp. 4-16.
Mearsheimer, John J. A Realist Reply, International Security, Vol. 20, No.1 (Summer 1995)
Norman, Paul. “The Terrorist Finance Unit and the Joint Action Group on Organised Crime: New Organizational Models and Investigative Strategies to Counter Organised Crime in the UK.” The Howard Journal, Vol. 37, No. 4, Nov. 1998. pp. 375-389.
O’Leary, Brendan. “The Protection of Human Rights under the Belfast Agreement,” The Political Quarterly, Autumn 2001, pp. 353-365.
Parekh, Bhiku. “Defining British National Identity,” The Political Quarterly, Autumn 2000, pp. 4-14.
Posen, Barry R. “The Struggle against Terrorism: Grand Strategy, Strategy, and Tactics,” International Security, Vol. 26, No.3 (Winter2001/02), pp.39-55.
Qudraat, Chantal de Jonge. “Combating Terrorism,” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 4, Autumn 2003, pp. 163-176.
Rachman, Gideon. “Is the Anglo-American Relationship Still Special?” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2, Spring 2001, pp. 7-20.
Tomaney, John. “New Labour and the English Question,” The Political Quarterly, Autumn 2000, pp. 75-82.
Saul, Ben. “International Terrorism as a European Crime: The Policy Rationale for Criminalization.” European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol.11/4, 2003, pp.323-349.

五、網路資源
英國內閣事務部http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/index.asp
英國內政部http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk
英國皇家文書署(HMSO)http://www.thestationeryoffice.com
英國國家統計局http://www.statistics.gov.uk
英國國會http://www.parliament.uk
英國軍情五處情報機構http://www.mi5.gov.uk
英國首相府唐寧街十號http://www.number10.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp
(首相布萊爾演講稿等相關資料)
英國警察網http://www.police.uk
英國警察署長聯盟網http://www.acpo.police.uk/policies/index.html
英國緊急服務網http://www.ukresilience.info/home.htm
英國外交與國協部http://www.fco.gov.uk
英國政府出版品資料庫http://www.ukop.co.uk
北愛爾蘭署http://www.nio.gov.uk
BBC英文網頁http://news.bbc.co.uk
BBC中文網頁http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese


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