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系統識別號 U0002-0703200813292300
中文論文名稱 俄羅斯跨國移入勞工之研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of Migrant Labors in Russia
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 俄羅斯研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Slavic Studies
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 吳怡欣
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Hsin Wu
學號 692090136
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-01-11
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 指導教授-魏百谷
委員-馬良文
委員-汪哲仁
中文關鍵字 移民勞工  薪資  人口  俄羅斯 
英文關鍵字 Migrant labors  Wages  Population  Russia 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 根據世界銀行2007年的報告,俄羅斯是第二大移民接受國,僅次於美國。國際移民對俄羅斯經濟發展而言是不可或缺的,其重要性不斷提升的最重要理由是俄羅斯人口危機的持續發展。因人口危機衍生的勞動力短缺問題,嚴重地牽動著俄羅斯國家未來的發展。引進經濟性的移民勞工是俄羅斯解決當前人口危機問題的立即性措施。但是外籍移民勞工畢竟與俄羅斯社會有若干差異,因此本研究試著探討移民勞工對俄羅斯造成之影響。研究發現如下:
1. 移民勞工的數量隨著俄羅斯經濟的持續成長,2000年以後數量不斷上升的。在勞動市場上也發生與其他已開發國家一樣的狀況,亦即勞動市場分割的現象。
2. 對薪資與就業層面的影響,因為勞動市場存在分割現象,且移民勞工從事的主要行業,是當地勞工所不願從事的工作,所以對於薪資與就業,並未出現顯著的影響。
3. 合法的移民勞工有助於增加俄羅斯的國家財政稅收,但對於財政支出部分,因為現行法律規定,移民勞工無法享用社會福利,故支出方面尚不構成額外的負擔。
4. 俄羅斯人對移民勞工的態度,會隨著當時的政治經濟情況而有所變化,移民勞工融入社會,需要依賴政府相關政策的輔助。關於社會層面的影響,目前仍未有明確的結果,但潛藏可能發生摩擦的危機,需要政府得宜的措施,幫助降低摩擦,促進融合。
英文摘要 According to the World Bank report in 2007, Russia is second-largest migrant-receiving country in the world, second to U.S.A. The continuous population crisis has made international migration indispensable for the economy development in Russia. The shortage of labor forces generated from population crisis has seriously affected the development of this country that the introducing of migrant labor has become the immediate solution of population crisis. Considering the fundamental differences between the migrant labor and the Russian society, this study tries to explore impacts brought to Russia by the migrant labor. The findings are as follows:
1. The quantity of migrant labor increased along with the growth of the economy in Russia after year 2000. Like other developed countries, the phenomenon of segmented labor market is emerging in Russia.
2. There is no remarkable impact in the aspect of wages and employment, owing to the emergence of segmented labor market. Besides, the migrant labor is engaged mainly in the works disinclined by the local labor.
3. The legal migrant labor helps to raise the tax revenue in Russia. But owing to the legal rules, migrant labor is not entitled to enjoy the social welfare, and thus causes no additional burden to the expenditure.
4. The Russian's point of view towards the migrant labor fluctuated according to the political and economical situation. The impact on the society is not explicit so far, but the crisis of collision between the migrant labor and the Russian society is not impossible. To help the migrant labor to integrate into the social and to reduce the possible crisis of collision, the establishment of appropriate policy by the government is critical.
論文目次 目次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 6
第三節 研究範圍與限制 7
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 勞工流動的基本概念 8
第二節 勞工流動的相關理論 14
第三節 跨國勞工流動的相關研究 23
第三章 俄羅斯勞工移民的發展及現況 31
第一節 發展概況 31
第二節 移民勞工的特質分析 40
第三節 俄羅斯移民勞工體系 53
第四節 2007年移民新法 63
第五節 小結 68
第四章 勞工移民對俄羅斯的影響 69
第一節 對人口成長的影響 69
第二節 對當地勞工就業與薪資之影響 73
第三節 對財政之影響 83
第四節 對社會的影響 87
第五節 小結 95
第五章 結論與後續研究建議 96
第一節 結論 96
第二節 後續研究建議 99
參考文獻 100

圖次
【圖3.1 】俄羅斯合法移民勞工數量 41
【圖3.2】 2005年移民勞工來源國 42
【圖3.3】2005年俄羅斯移民勞工來源國 44
【圖3.4】2002年俄羅斯人口與外來移民之年齡結構 47
【圖3.5】2004年移民勞工之產業分布 48
【圖3.6】移民勞工在俄羅斯合法工作之申請流程 59
【圖4.1】俄羅斯國際移民狀況 72
【圖4.2】移民勞工與失業率 77
【圖4.3】俄羅斯移民勞工主要從事產業之薪資變化 80

表次
【表3.1】移民勞工主要分布地區 51
【表4.1】俄羅斯人口之自然增加、淨移民、移民對人口減少之補償率 71
【表4.2】俄羅斯之經濟活動人口、就業與失業人口數 74
【表4.3】合法移工佔就業人口之比例 76
【表4.4】俄羅斯主要社會經濟指標 79
【表4.5】俄羅斯各行業之每月名目薪資 80
【表4.6】俄羅斯各行業之實際薪資及成長倍數 81
【表.4.7】俄羅斯人對於「俄羅斯是俄羅斯人的」口號的看法 89



參考文獻 參考文獻
一、俄文部分
(一)書籍
Государственный Комитет Российской Федерации по Статистике. Российский статистический ежегодник. 2005, Москва: Росстат, 2006.
Ионцев, В., И. Ивахнюк, “Россия в мировых миграционных потоках: особенности и тенденции последнего десятилетия (1992–2001 гг.),” Гл. ред. В. А. Ионцев. Мир в зеркале международной миграции, Москва: МАКС-Пресс, 2002.
Ивахнюк, И., И. Алешковский, “Новые подходы к регулированию миграционных процессов в России в начале 2000-х гг,” Гл. ред. В. А. Ионцев. Тенденции международной миграции, Москва: МАКС Пресс, 2006.
Каменский, А., “Современное участие России в международной трудовой миграции,” Гл. ред. В. А. Ионцев. Мир в зеркале международной миграции, Москва: МАКС-Пресс, 2002.
Тюрюканова, Е., Принудительный труд в современной России: нерегулируемая миграция и торговля людьми, Женева: Международное бюро труда, 2006.
(二)期刊
Рязанцев, С.В., Е. Е. Письменная, “Роль международной миграции в Россию в демографическом и социально-экономическом развитии страны,” Социальная политика: экспертиза, рекомендации, обзоры. No.5, 2006. сс.151-169.
(三)網路資源
Клерк. Ру., “Увеличены квоты на въезд в Россию гастарбайтеров” , (2007.09.23)
Левада-Центр, “Национализм и ксенофобия,” 29 Август 2007, .
Левада-Центр. “Отношение россиян к людям других национальностей,” 11 Ноябрь 2005, .
РИА. “Трудовая миграция в цифрах: масштабы проблемы,” 15 Июнь 2007, .

二、英文部分
(一)書籍
Alvarado, J., J. Creedy, Population Ageing, Migration and Social Expenditure, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998.
Bauer, K., J. Haisken-DeNew, C. Schmidt, “International Labour Migration, Economic Growth and Labour Markets: The Current State of Affairs,” The New Demographic Regime Population Challenges and Policy Responses, Geneva: UN, 2005.
Dunlop, J. “Russia: In Search of an Identity?,” edited by Ian Bremmer & Ray Taras, New States, New PoliticsL Building the Post-Soviet Nations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Hamermesh, S., F. Bean, Help or Hindrance?: The Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998.
ICMPD, Overview of the Migration Systems in the CIS Countries, Vienna: ICMPD, 2005.
ILO, Towards a fair deal for migration workers in the global economy, Geneva: ILO, 2004.
Iontsev, V. “The present and the future of international labour migration in Russia,” Labour Migration: Management Issues and Migrant Workers Rights’ Protection in Russia, Moscow: TEIS, 2005.
Massey, Douglas, “A Synthetic Theory of International Migraiton”, edited by Vladimir Iontsev, The World in the Mirror of International Migration, Moscow: MAX Press, 2002.
Olimove, S., Igor Bosc, Labor Migration from Tajikstan, Dushanbe: IOM, 2003.
Piore, Michael J. Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor in Industrial Societies, New York :Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Petrov, Vladimir, “Labour Migrants in Receiving Society: Institutional Coordination,” edited by Vladimir Iontsev, Labour Migration: Management Issues and Migrant Workers Rights’ Protection in Russia, Moscow: TEIS, 2005.
Sassen, Saskia, The Mobility of Labor and Capital : A Study in International Investment and Labor Flow, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Stark, Oded, The Migration of Labour, Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1991.
Tiurkin, M. “International Labour Migration in Russia: Current Trends and Legal Management,” edited by V. Iontsev. Labour migration. Management issues and migrant workers rights’ protection in Russia, Moscow: TEIS, 2005
Todaro, P. “Internal Migration in Development Countries,” Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Turukanova, Elena, “Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers in Russia and Prospects for Joining the 1990 UN Convention,” edited by Zh. A. Zayonchkovskaya, The Protection of the Rights of Migrant Workers in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS and Perspectives of Joining the 1990 UN Convention, UNESCO, 2004.
World Bank, Dying Too Young; Addressing Premature Mortality and Ill Health Due to Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in the Russian Federation. 2005.
(二)期刊
Borjas, J. “Immigration and Welfare Magnets,” Journal of Labor Economics, Vol.17, no.4, 1999, pp.607-637.
Hormel, L., C. Southworth, “Eastward Bound: A Case Study of Post-Soviet Labour Migration from a Rural Ukrainian Town,” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol.58, No.4, 2006, pp.605-607.
IOM, Handbook on Establishing Effective Labour Migration Polices in Countries of Origin and Destination, Geneva: IOM, 2006.
IOM, World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, Geneva: IOM, 2005.
Jarozewicz, M., L. Szerepka, Migration Challenges in the European Union’s Eastern Neighbourhood, Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies, 2007.
Johnson, E. “The Labor Market Effects of Immigration,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 33:3, (1980), pp.331-341.
Korobkov, Andrei V. “Migration Trends in Central Eurasia: Politics versus Economics,” Communist and Post-Connunist Studies, 40(2007), pp.169-189.
Oreshkin, Valery, “Russia and International Labor Migration,” Russian Expert Review, No.8, pp.13-18.
Sjaastad, L. A. “The Costs and Returns of Human Migration,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol.70, No.S5, 1962, pp.80-93.
Stark, Oded, “Migration Decision Making: A Review Article,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol.14, No.1, 1984, pp.251-259.
Vishnevsy, Anatoly, “The Depopulated Superpower,” Russian Expert Review, No.8, 2004, pp.4-12. .
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(三)研究報告
Andrienko, Y., S. Guriev, “Understanding Migration in Russia,” CEFIR Policy Paper series, No.23, 2005.
Gott, C., K. Johnston, The Migrant Population in the UK: Fiscal Effects, , Home Office Research, Occasional Paper No. 77, 2002.
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Leibfritz, W., Paul O’Brien, Jean-Christophe Domont, “Effects of Immigration on Labour Markets and Government Budgets,” CESifo Working Paper No. 874, 2003, .
Tishkov, V., Zh. Zayichkovskaya, G. Vitovskaya, “Migration in the countries of the former Soviet Union,” GCIM, 2005, .
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Iontsev, V., I. Aleshkovski, “The Role of International Migration in the Demographic Development in Russia(1992-2004),” XXV IUSSP International Population Conference, Tours, France, 18-23 July 2005.
Ivakhnyuk, Irina, “Migration in the CIS Region: Common Problems and Mutual Benefits,” paper presented at International Symposium on International Migration and Development, Turin, Italy, 28-30 June 2006.
Malaha, Irina, “External Migrations and Labor Market Evolution in Russia,” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004.
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三、中文部分
(一)書籍
Harvey S. Rosen,黃寶嬌譯,《財政學》,台北:麥格羅.希爾,2002年。
ILO,《在全球經濟中爲移民工人謀求公平待遇》,日內瓦:國際勞工組織,2004年。
吳玉山,《遠離社會主義》,台北:正中書局,1995年。
程超澤,《社會人口學》,台北:五南,1995年。
廖正宏,《人口遷移》,台北:三民,1985年。
熊瑞梅,《人口流動》,台北:巨流,1988年。
蔡宏進、廖正宏,《人口學》,台北:巨流,1987年。
Peter Stalker,蔡繼光譯,《國際遷徙與移民》,台北:書林,2002年。
(二)期刊
Зайончковская, Ж.,李存山 譯,〈獨聯體近期移民趨勢〉,《國際社會科學雜誌(中文版)》,第3期,2001年,頁91-102。
丘立本,〈國際移民的歷史、現狀與我國對策研究〉,《華僑華人歷史研究》,第1期,2005年,頁1-16。
林季平,〈台灣的人口遷徙及勞工流動問題回顧:1980-2000〉,《臺灣社會學刊》,34期,2005年,頁147-209。
李煒,〈俄羅斯移民問題及其發展趨勢〉,《人口學刊》,第153期,2005年,頁49-54。
周皓,〈國外移民模式〉,《人口研究》,23卷3期,1999年,頁46-47。
顧列銘,〈俄羅斯面臨移民難題〉,《中國經濟週刊》,47期,2005年,頁49。
符拉基米爾•葉梅利亞年科,曉楓譯,〈俄羅斯大門向世界移民敞開〉,《國外社會科學文摘》,第9期,2005年,頁60-63。
(三)學術論文
張家榮,〈臺灣的跨國遷徙及移入的勞動人口特質:2000年戶口及住宅普查分析〉,中正大學勞工研究所碩士論文,2004年
彭少宏,〈中國大陸勞動力流動與經濟發展〉,中山大學大陸研究所碩士論文,2003年。
(四)網路資源
中俄萬能訊息網,〈俄羅斯提高外國勞工配額〉,< www.86007.net >,(2007.09.20)。
中華人民共和國商務部,〈俄羅斯政府整頓市場秩序背景、影響及解決建議〉,,(2007.02.13)。
台灣大紀元,〈俄羅斯移民局官員指不允許境內出現中國城〉,2006年11月24日,
俄新網,〈邀請外國公民赴俄工作限額已分配至各聯邦區〉,2007年5月31日。< big5.rusnews.cn/ >。
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