淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-0608201911305600
中文論文名稱 提高拍翼升力之單向閥門製作
英文論文名稱 Fabrication of Check Valves on Flapping Wings for Lift Enhancement
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 王偉丞
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Chen Wang
電子信箱 bmw001234567@gmail.com
學號 606370053
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2019-06-21
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰
委員-胡毓忠
委員-羅元隆
中文關鍵字 單向閥門  自然頻率  PET翼模設計 
英文關鍵字 Check Valves  Natural frequency  Wing design 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 本篇論文提供一個新型的翼膜設計概念,即針對舊式的PET翼膜安裝單向閥門(check valve),使其在拍翼機進行拍翼的過程中,藉由單向閥門於拍翼上行程時開啟閥門,而下行程時關閉閥門的開合控制降低翼膜所需承受的空氣阻力,而達到提升拍翼升力的目的。文章中也會提及各式的加工技巧以及軟體操作概念輔助,進行諸如機構設計以及結構、自然頻率分析等,所使用的軟體包括Solidworks和ANSYS,其中Solidworks主要輔助機構以及單向閥門結構設計,而ANSYS軟體則是用於單向閥門在拍翼運動中之自然頻率模擬量測,藉由頻率響應之計算與分析來確保閥門的設計在翼膜上運作之實用性以及可靠性,本論文最終所設計之單向閥門,經過自然頻率分析所得到之結果為17.86Hz,以低通濾波的概念來說明,其成功達到所期望之高於拍翼頻率(14Hz)的範圍,從而認定此單向閥門之設計是可行的。此外本論文也提及到運用傳統加工的方式如切割機的運作,輔助製作單向閥門。
風洞實驗在本篇論文中的主要目的是比較翼膜在有無安裝單向閥門間之升力差異,以便做進一步的單向閥門設計與校正。本研究最終目的為研發出能夠藉由降低拍翼阻力來達到提升平均拍翼升力之單向閥門,並以20cm翼展之「金探子」PET拍翼膜為例,在加裝半徑7.43mm之三樑式單向閥門後,在3.7V電壓,傾斜角30度,自由流速3.0m/s下,輸出平均升力25.5gf,高於無安裝單向閥門拍翼平均升力86%。
英文摘要 This thesis provides the new concept, which is related to the wing membrane where some check valves were attached on the wing membrane, which acts as an actuator. The opening and closing of check valves will help in reducing the air resistance of the wing during the upstroke, which can improve in the overall lift during the flapping. This article also demonstrates the various processing technique and software processing like mechanism design, flow field analysis, and more. The software which made in use was Solidworks and ANSYS where Solidworks was used primarily for design and development of various structure like check valve structure design, and more and ANSYS was used for the analysis of natural frequency on the wing membrane during to flapping process in order to facilitate the availability of check valves design on the wing membrane. The result of natural frequency comes to 17.86Hz, which is in anticipation of the range that higher than flapping frequency (14Hz) by frequency response analysis. As the conception of low-pass filter, it is easy to quantify the effect of check valves on flapping. In this study, it also mentions the traditional processing methods like the operation of cutting machine-auxiliary production of check valve.
The wind tunnel experiment was conducted where the comparison was made with and without the check valves. Furthermore, wing design calibration has also been conducted. The final objective for this experiment was to develop a check valve that can increase the overall lift by reducing the wind resistance during the upstroke. For the current study, Evans mechanism was used with 20cm wingspan of PET as the wing membrane the check valve with three beams of radius 7.43mm was used which get active during the downstroke. At 3.7V with 30 inclined angle at 30(m/s) wind velocity the average output of lift was 25.5(gf) which is 86% higher than the valve less model.
論文目次 CONTENT
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1-1 Research background 1
1-2 Literature review 2
Chapter 2 Motivation and Procedure of Design 7
2-1 The production of NACA wing model 7
2-2 The final result of NACA wing made by parylene coating 9
Chapter 3 Check Valve Design for Flapping Wings 12
3-1 Conception design of check valve wing 12
3-2 The evolution of check valves 16
3-2-1 A new design of check valve with 3 beams 18
3-2-2 A derivation of specification for check valves 29
3-3 Calculation of check valve efficiency 21
3-4 Natural frequency simulation of check valves 24
3-5 Wind tunnel experiment of a flapping wing with check valves 26
3-6 Improvement of check valves in new dimension 30
3-7 Wind tunnel experiment of check valves in dimension 32
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 35
4-1 Observation on check valve by high-speed camera 35
4-2 Flight testing of FWMAV with check valves 36
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Work 40
REFERENCES 43
APPENDIX A 48
APPENDIX B 54
APPENDIX C 62
APPENDIX D 66
Publication List 81



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 (a)Initiator, (b)Eagle II 4
Figure 1.2 Golden Snitch 5
Figure 1.3 FWMAV with voice coil motor 6
Figure 2.1 3D Printer LPD Plus technology 8
Figure 2.2 Parameter of aerofoil 11
Figure 3.1 The function of check valve in flapping motion 13
Figure 3.2 The check valve made by cutting machine 14
Figure 3.3 The first type of check valve design by AutoCAD 14
Figure 3.4 The second type of check valve design by AutoCAD 14
Figure 3.5 The process of making wing with check valve 15
Figure 3.6 The wing with check valve before doing HCL melting 16
Figure 3.7 The production of wing with 30 check valves 16
Figure 3.8 The fluid field simulation from COMSOL software 17
Figure 3.9 The proper arrangement of hole on the wing surface 18
Figure 3.10 Illustration of check valve 20
Figure 3.11 The dimension of check valve in new design 20
Figure 3.12 The check valve made by cutting machine 21
Figure 3.13 The FWMAV fix with check valve 21
Figure 3.14 The Bode plot of frequency 23
Figure 3.15 The check valve made by cutting machine 25
Figure 3.16 The stress distribution on check valves 26
Figure 3.17 The 6-Component load cell of wind tunnel 27
Figure 3.18 Wind tunnel in Tamkang University 27
Figure 3.19 The experiment data of lift force testing with original wing 29
Figure 3.20 The weight comparison 30
Figure 3.21 The dimensions of new check valve in 7.43mm radius 31
Figure 3.22 The substance of check valve in new design 31
Figure 3.23 The arrangement of new check valve 32
Figure 3.24 The data of lift force testing in new check valve 33
Figure 3.25 The graph of lift coefficient vs. Reynolds number in different voltage 34
Figure 4.1 The motion of check valves in flapping sequence 36
Figure 4.2 Weight distribution . 38
Figure 5.1 Flight testing 42
Figure A.1 The NACA wing mode design by SolidWork software 48
Figure A.2 PDMS liquid pouring in NACA wing mode 48
Figure A.3 The PDMS film release from silicon wafer 49
Figure A.4 The NACA0012 wing model made by PDMS 49
Figure A.5 The prototype of NACA wing design 50
Figure A.6 NACA wing making layer-by-layer in AutoCad software 50
Figure A.7 Coating layer arrangement on the PET wing surface 51
Figure A.8 The PET wing was wrapped by aluminium foil 51
Figure A.9 The Graphtec cutting plotter CE5000-60 52
Figure A.10 The MEMS process of wing with check valves 52
Figure A.11 The LH 300- parylene coating machine 53
Figure A.12 The staples were removed by HCL etching 53
Figure A.13 Evans mechanism in new design 56
Figure A.14 Stress contour of modified Evans mechanism 57
Figure A.15 Displacement plot of modified Evans mechanism 57
Figure A.16 Polycarbonate mechanism assembly 58
Figure A.17 Visijet SL Flex mechanism assembly 59
Figure A.18 Visijet M2R-Wt mechanism assembly 59
Figure A.19 Low speed sub sonic wind tunnel in Vel Tech University, India 61
Figure A.20 Test section of wind tunnel in Vel Tech University, India 61
Figure A.21 The raw data of lift force 62
Figure A.22 The raw data of lift force 63
Figure A.23 Flapping lift (frequency domain) of FWMAV with check valves . 63
Figure A.24 Lift signal (time domain) from FWMAV with check valves 63
Figure A.25 Lift force with inclined angle 20°, 3.0V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)
66
Figure A.26 Lift force with inclined angle 20°, 3.4V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)67
Figure A.27 Lift force with inclined angle 20°, 3.7V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)68
Figure A.28 Lift force with inclined angle 30°, 3.0V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d) 69
Figure A.29 Lift force with inclined angle 30°, 3.4V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d)70
Figure A.30 Lift force with inclined angle 30°, 3.7V, wind speed 1.5-3.0 from (a)-(d) 71
Figure A.31 Lift force with inclined angle 50°, 3.0V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c)72
Figure A.32 Lift force with inclined angle 50°, 3.4V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 73
Figure A.33 Lift force with inclined angle 50°, 3.7V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 74
Figure A.34 Lift force with inclined angle 60°, 3.0V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 75
Figure A.35 Lift force with inclined angle 60°, 3.4V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 76
Figure A.36 Lift force with inclined angle 60°, 3.7V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 77
Figure A.37 Lift force with inclined angle 70°, 3.0V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c)78
Figure A.38 Lift force with inclined angle 70°, 3.4V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 79
Figure A.39 Lift force with inclined angle 70°, 3.7V, wind speed 0.5-1.0 from (a)-(c) 80


LIST OF TABLE
Table 3.1 Material selection for check valve 25
Table 4.1 Weight distribution 37
Table 4.2 The specification and pixel of high speed camera 38
Table 4.3 The comparison with check valve in different types and normal wing ....... 39
Table A.1 Evans mechanism assembly 55
Table A.2 The material property of Evans mechanism under 3D printing 60
參考文獻 REFERENCES
[1] S. Ashley,“Palm-size spy planes, ” Mechanical Engineering Magazine Select Articles, Vol.120, no.2, pp.74-78, 1998.
[2] J.W. Kruyt, E.M. Quicazán-Rubio, G.F. van Heijst, D.L. Altshuler and D. Lentink, “Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol.11, no.99, 2014.
[3] Q.V. Nguyen, H.C. Park, N.S. Goo and D. Byun, "Characteristics of a beetle's free flight and a flapping-wing system that mimics beetle flight," Journal of Bionic Engineering, Vol.7, no.1, pp.77-86, 2010.
[4] Q.V. Nguyen, Q.T. Truong, H.C. Park, N.S. Goo and D. Byun, “Measurement of force produced by an insect-mimicking flapping-wing system,” Journal of Bionic Engineering, Vol.7, pp.94-102, 2010.
[5] M. Keennon and J. Grasmeyer, “Development of the Black Widow and Microbat MAVs and a vision of the future of MAV design,” in AIAA International Air and Space Symposium and Exposition: The Next 100 Years, Dayton, Ohio, July 2003.
[6] T. N. Pornsin-Sirirak, S. W. Lee, H. Nassef, J. Grasmeyer, Y. Tai, C. Ho and M. Keennon, “MEMS wing technology for a battery powered ornithopter,” in The 13th IEEE Annual International Conference on MEMS, pp.709-804, 2000.
[7] T. Pornsin-Siririak, Y. Tai, H. Nassef and C. Ho, “Titanium-alloy MEMS wing technology for a micro aerial vehicle application,” Journal of Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 89, pp.95-103, 2001.
[8] 徐振貴,“拍翼式微飛行器之設計、製造與測試整合”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系博士論文,2008年六月。
[9] 高敏維,“微拍翼機可撓翼之氣動力實驗”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2008年六月。
[10] 高崇瑜,“應用精密模造技術於微飛行器套件組之設計與製造”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2009年六月。
[11] 洪堃銓,“仿蜂鳥懸停機構套件” , 淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2014年。
[12] 鄭杰明,“仿蜂鳥懸停機構之初探” , 淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2013年。
[13] L-J Yang, K-C Hung, and C-K Feng, “On the scaling laws of flapping UAVs,” Asian-Pacific Conference on Aerospace Technology and Science, Taipei, May 23-26, 2013.
[14] 何仁揚,“拍撲式微飛行器之製作及其現地升力之量測研究”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2005年六月。
[15] 施宏明,“結合PVDF現地量測之拍撲式微飛行器製作”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2007年六月。
[16] L. J. Yang, “The micro-air-vehicle Golden Snitch and its figure-of-8 flapping, ” Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Vol.15, no. 3,pp. 197-212, 2012.
[17] L. J. Yang, C. Y. Kao, and C. K. Huang, “Development of flapping ornithopters by precision injection molding, ” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol.163, pp. 125-132, 2012.
[18] 廖俊瑋,“翼展10公分之拍翼式微飛行器研製”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2009年六月。
[19] L.J. Yang, F.Y. Hsiao, W.T. Tang, and I.C. Huang, “3D flapping trajectory of a micro-air-vehicle and its application to unsteady flow simulation, ” International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, Vol.10, paper no.264, 2013.
[20] L.J. Yang, J.C. Liou, H.L. Huang, K.C. Hung, S. Marimuthu, and U. Chandrasekhar, “2D quasi-steady flow investigation of a flexible flapping wing, ” The 9th International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems (ICIUS), Japur, India, Sep. 25-27, 2013.
[21] L.J. Yang, H.L. Huang, J.C. Liou, B. Esakki, and U. Chandrasekhar, “2D quasi-steady flow simulation of an actual flapping wing, ” Journal of Unmanned Systems Technology, Vol.2, pp.10-16, 2014.
[22] 柯皓翔,“結合音圈馬達之拍翼機構輕量化”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2016年六月。
[23] X.-Q.Wang, Q. Lin and Y.-C. Tai, “A parylene micro check valve,” Proceeding of the IEEE International MEMS 99 Conference. Twelfth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Cat. No. 99CH36291), pp. 177-182, 1999.
[24] X.-Q.Wang and Y.-C. Tai, “ A normally closed in-channel micro check valve,” Proceedings of the Thirteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, pp.68-73, 2000.
[25] N.Pornsin-Sirirak, M. Liger, Y.-C. Tai, S. Ho and C.-M. Ho, “Flexible parylene-valved skin for adaptive flow control, Technical Digest,” Proceedings of the Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, IEEE, pp.101-104, 2002.
[26] J. Xie, X. Yang, X.-Q. Wang and Y.-C. Tai, “Surface micromachined leakage proof parylene check valve,” Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems , pp.539-542, 2001.
[27] 胡舉軍,“旋翼與振翅翼之數值研究” 國立成功大學航空太空工程研究所博士論文,2002年。
[28] D. Lentink and M. H. Dickinson, "Rotational accelerations stabilize leading edge vortices on revolving fly wings," Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 212, no. 16, pp. 2705-2719, 2009.
[29] M. H. Dickinson and K. G. Gotz, "Unsteady aerodynamic performance of model wings at low Reynolds numbers," Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 174, no. 1, pp. 4564, 1993.
[30] S. P. Sane and M. H. Dickinson, "The aerodynamic effects of wing rotation and a revised quasi-steady model of flapping flight," Journal of experimental biology, vol. 205, no. 8, pp. 1087-1096, 2002.
[31] W. B. Dickson, A. D. Straw, and M. H. Dickinson, "Integrative model of Drosophila flight," AIAA journal, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 2150-2164, 2008.
[32] M. H. Dickinson, F.-O. Lehmann, and S. P. Sane, "Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight," Science, vol. 284, no. 5422, pp. 1954-1960, 1999.
[33] 李錫軍,“三維拍翼流場模擬之初探 ”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2016年。
[34] 辛芝光,“微型飛行器計算流體力學模擬之改良”,淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文,2018年。
[35] Z. J. Wang , “ Vortex shedding and frequency selection in flapping flight”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 410, pp. 323-341, 2000.
[36] S. Ho, H. Nasseh, N. Pornsinsirirak, Y.C. Tai and C.M. Ho, “Unsteady aerodynamic and flow control for flapping wing flyers, ” Progress in Aerospace Science, Vol. 39, pp. 635-681, 2003.
[37] J.H. Wu, and M. Sun , “Unsteady aerodynamic forces of a flapping wing, ” Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol.207, no.7, pp.1137-1150, 2004.
[38] M. Ashraf, J. Young and J. Lai, “Reynolds number, thickness and camber effects on flapping airfoil propulsion,” Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol.27, no.2, pp.145-160, 2011.
[39] T.N. Pornsin-Sirirak, Y. Tai, H. Nassef and C. Ho, “Titanium-alloy MEMS wing technology for a micro aerial vehicle application,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol.89, no.1-2, pp.95-103, 2001.
[40] M. Keennon, K. Klingebiel, H. Won and A. Andriukov, “Tailless flapping wing propulsion and control development for the nano hummingbird micro air vehicle,” American Helicopter Society Future Vertical Lift Aircraft Design Conference, pp.1-24, 2012.
[41] L.-J. Yang, C.-K. Hsu, H.-C. Han and J.-M. Miao, “Light flapping micro aerial vehicle using electrical-discharge wire-cutting technique,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol.46, no.6, pp.1866-1874, 2009.
[42] L.J. Yang, B. Esakki, U. Chandrasekhar, K.C. Hung, C.M. Cheng, “Practical flapping mechanisms for 20cm-span micro air vehicles,” International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles, Vol. 7, no.2, pp. 181-202, 2015.
[43] Y. Nakayama, Introduction to fluid mechanics, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2018.






論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2021-08-12公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-08-12起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信