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系統識別號 U0002-0608201213131200
中文論文名稱 以多元智慧理論融入改良型閱讀課程之成效研究
英文論文名稱 The Implementation of Multiple Intelligence Theory in a Modified EFL Extensive Reading Program
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 連柏堅
研究生英文姓名 Po-Chien Lien
學號 697110640
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-14
論文頁數 145頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-張雅慧
委員-范瑞玲
中文關鍵字 多元智慧  主題式活動  廣泛閱讀  知識能力  世界文學  電腦輔助教學  國際觀  跨文化智慧  多元化思考 
英文關鍵字 Multiple intelligences  Thematic activities  Extensive reading  Literacy  World literature  CALL  curriculum design  Global vision  Cross-cultural sensitivity  pluralistic thinking 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 知識能力發展對於個體以及國家的進步扮演著關鍵性的角色。此能力的發展和個人閱讀寫作能力以及解決問題的能力息息相關。過去幾年,台灣政府早已意識到提升台灣人民英文以及中文知識能力的重要性以及優勢。在推廣英語學習時,許多教育家以及決策者皆相信英語推廣可以促進台灣在全球中成功發展。然而,在傳統教學法下的機械式以及填鴨式的翻譯學習提升學生的知識能力以及世界觀的成效不盡理想。
  本研究設計了一套適合大學的閱讀課程。此課程的設計是著重在以多元智慧理論 (Multiple Intelligence Theory)的架構活動融入下的廣泛閱讀課程 (Extensive Reading)。和過去傳統的廣泛閱讀不同的是,學生不再自己去選擇讀物,而是老師從一套世界知名的青少年改編讀物去挑選適合學生的教材。並且研發出一系列搭配閱讀文本的輔助活動。這些輔助活動透過多元智慧理論以及主題性設計,能夠連接學生的先備知識,並且進一步的開啟新的世界觀以及文化知識。適性發展的多元智慧活動亦可降低學生在學習時的焦慮以及察覺不同身體知能。基於這些優點,多元智慧可與廣泛閱讀結合,促進閱讀的樂趣以及意義。
  本研究採用量化及質化的研究方法,評估多元智慧融入導向之閱讀活動是否能夠將廣泛閱讀的成效提升。兩組共計36人 (各18人)為本實驗研究對象,分為控制組以及實驗組,分別都以紙本閱讀書籍以及閱讀活動進行實驗。控制組的活動是一般廣泛閱讀活動 (包含閱讀前,中,後活動)。實驗組的活動結合了多元智慧以及一般廣泛閱讀活動。 實驗選用3本中級程度的青少年讀物,分別是:Rabbit-proof Fence, The Picture of Dorian Gray, 以及 The Call of the wild。這三本書皆傳達了文化價值,種族關係,個人內省智慧,還有對自然生態的關懷。
  實驗結果顯示,實驗組在參與多元智慧導向的活動之後,各方面有較優異的表現。雖然在閱讀測驗,控制組以及實驗組的進步沒有顯著性差異,但寫作測驗的成績顯示,實驗組的表現勝過於控制組。另外,在課程參與度以及作業繳交率方面,實驗組也表現出較高的學習動力。多元智慧認知問卷也顯示實驗組學生對於多元智慧的認知有大方面的提升。最後,透過學生周誌的分析,結果顯示,參與多元智慧的學生能夠用更多元的角度以及世界觀去表達自我的想法。
  研究結果建議,透過更多元的智慧活動設計,學生都能夠從課程中受惠。比起傳統型的翻譯以及填鴨式教學,多元智慧活動能夠給予學生更多面向的輔助,並且提升學生對於閱讀教學的動力以及信心。
英文摘要 Literacy development has been a crucial role to individual advancement and national growth. It is highly related to reading, writing and problem solving competence. In the past years, the government of Taiwan has been recognizing the importance of promoting the literacy of Chinese and English. Especially with the promotion of English learning, numerous educators and policy makers believe that students equipped with better English competence not only possess the better global vision and pluralistic thinking. However, with traditional teaching approach, such as grammar translation and rote learning, the goals mentioned above are difficult to achieve. In light of this, extensive reading approach (ER), as an alternative approach was proposed to complement the insufficiency of intensive reading. A modified model of extensive reading program was designed and arranged for the current study. In this modified extensive reading program, researcher was allowed to select a handful of books and increase the use of guided reading activities, which aimed to connect learners’ prior knowledge with stories, expand their pluralistic thinking, facilitate story comprehension, and develop world and cultural awareness. To further ensure the higher motivation and involvement of learners, the graded readers were chosen from the series for teenagers and young adults, from age 14 to 20. In order to expand learners’ pluralistic thinking, inter-cultural sensitivity, and global vision, a series of guided extensive activities were designed based on the concept of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory.
The main study was conducted in the fall semester, 2011. Two groups of first year college students (18 in each) with the control group receiving regular ER activities, while the experimental group receiving ER and MI combined activities. Books chosen for the study are level 3 Rabbit-Proof Fence, The Story of Doran Gray, and the Call of the Wild that address cultural values, racism, intrapersonal intelligence, and human’s connection to animal and nature.
The overall results demonstrate a positive reinforcement by the MI based activities. The results suggest that subjects of the experimental group all improved significantly than the control group in different aspects. Although the improvement of reading comprehension between two groups was not significant, the results of writing performance demonstrate that the experimental group outperformed significantly than the control group. Furthermore, the submission rates of journals, summaries, and participation in the discussion board all indicate that the experimental group was much more motivated than the control group during the experiment. The results of multiple intelligences questionnaire further show that after participating in the MI based reading program, the perceptions of logical, verbal-linguistic, visual-spatial, and interpersonal intelligence were significantly increased. Finally, the analysis of weekly journals illustrates that the experimental group was more able to express their reflections with pluralistic thinking and world view.
These findings suggest that through the implementation of MI based reading activities, students could progress their English learning, enhance their reading motivation, improve their writing competence, and elaborate creative and pluralistic thinking.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………… i
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………… ii
Table of Content …………………………………………………………… vii
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………… x
List of Figures …………………………………………………………………… xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background ………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 The Statement of the Problem and Research Motivation ……………………… 1
1.3 Integrating Understanding through Multiple Intelligences …………………… 4
1.4 Purpose and Significance of the Study ……………………………………… 5
1.5 Research Questions ………………………………………………………… 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Reading in Language Classrooms …………………………………………… 8
2.1.1 Extensive Reading …………………………………………………… 8
2.1.1.1 Definition and Early Rationale Development of ER ………… 9
2.1.1.2 Effectiveness of ER in Recent Years ……………………… 11
2.1.1.3 Potential Limitations of the ER Program ……………………… 14
2.2 Multiple Intelligence Theory ………………………………………………… 15
2.2.1The Definition of Multiple Intelligences Theory ……………….…… 15
2.2.2 Individual Differences ……………………………………………… 17
2.2.3 Language Aptitude ………………………………………………… 17
2.2.4 Frames of Multiple Intelligences …………………………………… 18
2.2.5 Integrating MI Theory in Language Classrooms ……………………… 24
2.3 The Modified Extensive Reading Program with MI Theory ……………… 26
2.3.1 Reading for Understanding in the Modified Classroom ……………………………………………26
2.3.2 Implementing Thematic Activities in the Modified Reading Classroom ……………………………………………… 27
2.3.3 Designing the ER program ……………………………… 29
2.3.3.1 Guidelines of Implementing ER ………………… 29
2.3.3.2 Criteria of Materials Selecting ……………………… 30
2.3.3.3 Pre-reading Activities and Follow-up Activities ... 30

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Treatment Design for the Research ………………………………… 32
3.1.1 Selection of Reading Materials ………………………………… 33
3.1.2 The Design of Reading Activities for Both Groups ………………34
3.1.3 Brief Introduction of On-line Platform for Reading Activities …… 41
3.2 Pilot Study ……………………………………………………………… 45
3.3 Main Study ……………………………………………………………… 47
3.3.1 Participants ………………………………………………………… 47
3.3.2 The Instrument and Procedure of the Main Study …………………48
3.3.2.1 GEPT / L2 Proficiency Test ……………………… 48
3.3.2.2 Summary Writing ……………………………… 48
3.3.2.3 Extensive Reading Questionnaire ……………… 49
3.3.2.4 Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire …………… 50
3.3.2.5 Students Journals ……………………………….. 51
3.3.2.6 Post-course Interview …………………………… 52
3.3.2.7 The Global Awareness Questionnaire …………. 52
3.4 Data Analysis ………………………………………………… 54

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Result and Discussion of Research Question 1 …………………… 56
4.2 Result and Discussion of Research Question 2 ……………………… 60
4.2.1 The Result and Discussion of Pre and Post Summary Writing … 60
4.2.2 The Result and Discussion of Grader Readers’ Summary Practice .64
4.3 Result and Discussion of Research Question 3 ……………………… 66
4.3.1 Extensive Reading Questionnaire …………………………… 67
4.3.2 Submission Rate ………………………………………………72
4.4 Result and Discussion of Research Question 4 ……………………………76
4.4.1 The result of Multiple Intelligences Questionnaire …………… 77
4.4.2 The Result of Two Cultural Questionnaires …………………… 82
4.4.2.1 Cross-cultural Sensitivity Scale …………………………… 82
4.4.2.2 Global Mindedness Scale Questionnaire ……………… 87
4.4.3 The Analysis of Weekly Journals …………………………… 95
4.4.3.1 Overall Result of Weekly Journals …………………… 95
4.5 Results and Discussion of Research Question 5 …………………… 104
4.5.1 Results and discussion of post-program interviews ………… 104
4.6 Summary of the Result and Discussion …………………………… 109


CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of the Study ……………………………………………… 111
5.2 Implications of the Story …………………………………………… 114
5.3 Limitations of the Study …………………………………………… 115
5.4 Recommendations for future studies ……………………………… 116

REFERENCE …………………………………………………………… 117

APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………… 125

LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Literacy activities to develop multiple intelligences within a verbal/linguistic framework - from Glasgow (2003) ………………………………………………28
3.1 The graded readers which are selected for learners ………………………………34
3.2 The outline of Designing MI Based Reading Activities …………………………35
3.3 The Activity List of Rabbit – Proof Fence [Experimental Group] …………………39
3.4 The Activity List of Rabbit – Proof Fence [Control Group] ………………………41
3.5 Timetable of Pilot Study (April - June 2011) ………………………………………46
3.6 Submission Rates for both groups in the pilot study ………………………………47
3.7 Timetable of Main Study (September – December 2011) …………………………53
4.1 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Reading Test of both Control and Experimental Group Before and After the Program ………………………………57
4.2 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Reading Test of both Control and Experimental Group Before and After the Program ………………………………57
4.3 Independent Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of the Improvements between the Control and Experimental Group …………………………………………………59
4.4 Independent Samples T-Test of the Pre-writing Test from the Control and Experimental Group ………………………………………………………………60
4.5 Paired Samples T-Test of the Writing Test from Control Group Before and After the Program ………………………………………………………………………61
4.6 Paired Samples T-Test of the Writing Test (details) from Control Group Before and After the Program …………………………………………………………61
4.7 Paired Samples T-Test of the Writing Test from Experimental Group Before and After the Program ………………………………………………………………62
4.8 Paired Samples T-Test of the Writing Test (details) from Experimental Group Before and After the Program ……………………………………………………62
4.9 Independent Samples T-Test of the Writing Test of the Improvement between the Control Group and Experimental Group …………………………………………63
4.10 Paired Samples T-test of the Mean Scores of each Summary Practice from the Control Group ……………………………………………………………………65
4.11 Paired Samples T-test of the Mean Scores of each Summary Practice from the Experimental Group ………………………………………………………………66
4.12 Mean Scores of Extensive Reading Program Before and After the Program from control group ……………………………………………………………………68
4.13 Paired Samples Test of the Mean Scores of Extensive Reading Program Before and After the Program from the Control Group …………………………………69
4.14 Mean Scores of Extensive Reading Program Before and After the Program from the Experimental Group …………………………………………………………70
4.15 Paired Samples Test of the Mean Scores of Extensive Reading Program Before and After the Program from the Experimental Group …………………………71
4.16 The Chi-Square Test of the Submission Rate of Weekly Journal, Summaries, and Discussion Board from the Control and Experimental Group ……………………72
4.17 Discussion Board Activity of Control Group ……………………………………73
4.18 Discussion Board Activity of Experimental Group ………………………………74
4.19 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Multiple Intelligence of Control Group Before and After the Program ……………………………………………78
4.20 Paired Samples Test of the Mean Scores of multiple intelligence of Experimental Group Before and After the Program ……………………………79
4.21.1 Mean Scores of Cross-cultural Sensitivity Before and After the Program from the Control Group ………………………………………………………………82
4.21.2 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Cross-cultural Sensitivity from the Control Group ……………………………………………………………84
4.22.1 Mean Scores of Cross-cultural Sensitivity Before and After the Program from the Experimental Group ………………………………………………85
4.22.2 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Cross-cultural Sensitivity from the Experimental Group ……………………………………………………86
4.23.1 Mean Scores of Global Scale Questionnaire Before and After the Program from the Control Group ……………………………………………………88
4.23.2 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Global Mindedness Scale from the Control Group ……………………………………………………90
4.24.1 Mean Scores of Global Mindedness Scale Before and After the Program from the Experimental Group ………………………………………………92
4.24.2 Paired Samples T-Test of the Mean Scores of Global Mindedness Scale from the Experimental Group 94
4.25 Correcting criteria and level of coding for weekly journal ……………………96
4.26 The Chi-Square Test of Reading Journals from Control andExperimentalGroup……………………………………………………………………………97
4.27 The Mean Scores of Each Journal from the Control and ExperimentalGroup ………………………………………………………………103
4.28 Interview Answers for Post-program Reading …………………………………104
4.29 Interviewees’ Willingness toward Extensive Reading after the Program ………105
4.30 Interviewees’ Rising Confidence after the Program ……………………………107
4.31 Interviewees’ Willingness to Join the Similar Program …………………………108

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
2.1 Figure adopted from Whisler (2006) ………………………………………………12
2.2 Figure adopted from Whisler (2006) ………………………………………………12
3.1 MI Based Activities from 1st graded reader, Rabbit-Proof Fence:
Map Searching ……………………………………………………………………37
3.2 The Home Page of Moodle ………………………………………………………43
3.3 The Example of MI Based Reading Activity on Moodle …………………………43
3.4 The Example of Discussion Board …………………………………………………44
3.5 The Example of Weekly Journal …………………………………………………45
4.1 The Progression of Summary Practice from the Control Group …………………64
4.2 The Progression of Summary Practice from the Experimental Group ……………64
4.3 The Improvements of Intelligences Before and After the Program from the Control Group …………………………………...…………………………………81
4.4 The Improvements of Intelligences Before and After the Program from the Experimental Group …………………………….…………………………………81
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