淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0608200715124200
中文論文名稱 廣告訊息中之單雙面性與代言人對消費者態度影響之研究
英文論文名稱 A study on the effects of celebrity endorsement on one-sided and two-sided advertisement appeals
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 鍾慶蘭
研究生英文姓名 Khin-Lan Chung
電子信箱 jeffrey170573@hotmail.com
學號 693451063
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-22
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪英正
共同指導教授-羅惠瓊
委員-徐達光
委員-黃漫琴
委員-洪英正
中文關鍵字 雙面性與單面性廣告  名人代言  購買意願  廣告可信度  廣告態度 
英文關鍵字 Two-sided and one-sided advertisement  celebrity endorsement  purchase intention  credibility of advertisement  attitude toward advertisement 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 在今日開放的社會中,言論自由已被利用與濫用了。廣告業者在推銷其產品時對此自由的百般利用,並沒有考慮到對消費者的長遠影響。諸多由廣告業者所提供的資訊或言論被過度誇大或部份蓄意地扭曲了。

此研究報告目的在於研究比較雙面性與單面性廣告對消費者購買意願的影響,並致力尋找有效的說服方法。單面性只提供正面的資訊,雙面性廣告同時提供正面與負面的訊息,此手法使得產品資訊顯得較為透明。廣告代言人的使用也是常見的廣告手法,此手法也被認為對於消費者的購買意願有正面的影響。因此,此研究將雙面性廣告與單面性廣告分別結合與排除使用廣告代言人的手法,進而比較其對消費者的購買意願,廣告可信度與廣告態度之影響。

此報告的研究樣本的抽樣來自於為淡江大學研究所與大學部的在學生,共152名學生。受訪者被要求填寫ㄧ份有關購買意願,廣告可信度與廣告態度的調查問卷。受訪者被要求填寫基本資料,其中包含性別,教育程度與年齡。研究資料以SPSS量化研究軟體進行分析。統計分析的技術使用包括了: 信度量表(reliability scale),T-檢定(t-test),多因子變異數分析(factor analysis)和雙因子變異數分析(2-way ANOVA)。

雖然雙面性與單面性廣告對於購買意願,廣告可信度與廣告態度上並未得到顯著的研究結果,名人代言廣告手法的使用對於購買意願與廣告態度則有顯著的研究結果。雙面性/單面性廣告與名人代言廣告在廣告可信度上均沒有顯著的結果。

再者,在單面性廣告排除名人代言的研究中發現,性別在影響購買意願,廣告可信度和廣告態度是個重要的因素。女性顯然相較於男性有著更高的購買意願,認為廣告較為可信與對廣告有較正面的態度。

英文摘要 In today's open society, freedom of speech has been used and abused. Advertisers do not hesitate to take advantage of this freedom to promote products regardless of the long-term effect on consumers as a whole. Many of these information or claims are exaggerated and some are even deliberately distorted.

This study is an effort to seek an alternate path to attracting consumers through advertisement, which though unconventional as it might seem, dwells within the boundaries of ethical practice. Here, a two-sided advertisement, which is a bit more transparent as it provides positive as well as negative information on the product, is used alongside with one-sided advertisement that only use positive information. The use of spokesperson is also taken into consideration as a lot of corporations use them on their advertisements and they are known to have a positive impact on purchase intention, credibility of ad and attitude toward ad of consumers. Hence a combination of advertisements having one-sided or two-sided messages that includes and excludes a celebrity endorser is prepared and their effects on purchase intention, credibility of advertisement, and attitude towards advertisement studied.

Data was gathered from Tamkang University and the participants included undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 152 samples were collected. Participants were asked to complete an instrument that included purchase intention, credibility of ad and attitude toward ad.

They also filled in demographic data that included gender, education level, and age. The data was then analyzed using SPSS. Statistical techniques used include reliability scale, t-tests, factor analysis, and 2-way ANOVA.

While the result failed to indicate any significant difference on purchase intention, credibility of ad and attitude toward ad for sidedness, the endorsement of celebrity did result in a significant difference on purchase intention and attitude toward ad. There wasn’t any statistical significance on credibility toward ad for either sidedness or celebrity endorsement.

Also, within audience demographics for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement, gender played a significant role in influencing purchasing intention, credibility of ad and attitude toward ad. Females seemed to have a higher purchase intention, accept the advertisement as more credible and had a more positive attitude toward advertisement than men.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of contents I
List of tables VIII
List of figures IX
Print advertisements IX


Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background 1
1.2 Significance of study 2
1.3 Purpose of study 4

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Two-sided versus one-sided advertisements 6
2.1.1 Elaboration Likelihood Model 7
2.1.2 Inoculation Theory 7
2.1.3 Attribution Theory 8
2.1.4 Optimal Arousal Theory 8
2.2 Celebrity endorsement 11
2.3 Research framework 15
2.4 Research hypothesis 16

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Subjects 17
3.2 Procedure 17
3.3 Stimulus material 18
3.4 Advertisements 19
3.5 Questionnaire design 19
3.6 Independent variables 19
3.6.1 Sidedness 19
3.6.2 Celebrity endorsement 20
3.6.3 Audience demographics 21
3.7 Dependent variables 21
3.7.1 Purchase intention of consumers 21
3.7.2 Credibility of advertisement 22
3.7.3 Attitude toward advertisement 22
3.8 Data analysis 23
3.8.1 Descriptive statistics 24
3.8.2 Reliability of scale 24
3.8.3 Factor analysis 24
3.8.4 Two- way ANOVA 24
3.8.5 Mean and standard deviation 25
3.8.6 T-tests 25

Chapter 4: Research Analysis and Statistical Results

4.1 Introduction 26
4.2 Descriptive analysis 26
4.2.1 Data collection 26
4.2.2 Characteristics of respondents 26
4.2.3 Habits of respondents related to mobile phones 28
4.2.4 Respondent’s opinion on the BlackBerry 31
4.3 Reliability analysis 32
4.4 Factor Analysis 33
4.4.1: Factor Analysis on Purchase intention 33
4.4.2: Factor Analysis on Credibility of advertisement 35
4.4.3: Factor Analysis on Attitude toward advertisement36
4.5 Two-way ANOVA 38
4.5.1 Effect on Purchase intention 38
4.5.2 Effect on Credibility of advertisement 39
4.5.3 Effect on Attitude toward advertisement 39
4.6 Mean and Standard Deviation 40
4.6.1 Mean and Standard deviation of interaction effect of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Purchase intention40
4.6.2 Mean and Standard deviation of interaction effect of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Credibility of advertisement 42
4.6.3 Mean and Standard deviation of interaction effect of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Attitude toward advertisement 43
4.7 T-tests 43
4.7.1: T-test of gender on Purchase intention for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 47
4.7.2: T-test of gender on Credibility of advertisement for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 47
4.7.3: T-test of gender on Attitude toward advertisement for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 47
4.7.4: T-test of age on Purchase intention for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 48
4.7.5: T-test of age on Credibility of advertisement for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 48
4.7.6: T-test of age on Attitude toward advertisement for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 48
4.7.7: T-test of education level on Purchase intention for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 49
4.7.8: T-test of education level on Credibility of advertisement for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 49
4.7.9: T-test of education level on Attitude toward advertisement for one-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 49
4.7.10: T-test of gender on Purchase intention for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 50
4.7.11 T-test of gender on Credibility of advertisement for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement50
4.7.12: T-test of gender on Attitude toward advertisement for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement51
4.7.13: T-test of age on Purchase intention for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 51
4.7.14: T-test of age on Credibility of advertisement for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 51
4.7.15: T-test of age on Attitude toward advertisement for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 52
4.7.16: T-test of education level on Purchase intention for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement52
4.7.17: T-test of education level on Credibility of advertisement for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 53
4.7.18: T-test of education level on Attitude toward advertisement for one-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 53
4.7.19: T-test of gender on Purchase intention for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 53
4.7.20: T-test of gender on Credibility of advertisement for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 54
4.7.21: T-test of gender on Attitude toward advertisement for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 54
4.7.22: T-test of age on Purchase intention for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 54
4.7.23: T-test of age on Credibility of advertisement for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 55
4.7.24: T-test of age on Attitude toward advertisement for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 55
4.7.25: T-test of education level on Purchase intention for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 56
4.7.26: T-test of education level on Credibility of advertisement for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 56
4.7.27: T-test of education level on Attitude toward advertisement for two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 56
4.7.28: T-test of gender on Purchase intention for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 57
4.7.29: T-test of gender on Credibility of advertisement for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement57
4.7.30: T-test of gender on Attitude toward advertisement for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement58
4.7.31: T-test of age on Purchase intention for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 58
4.7.32: T-test of age on Credibility of advertisement for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 58
4.7.33: T-test of age on Attitude toward advertisement for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 59
4.7.34: T-test of education level on Purchase intention for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement59
4.7.35: T-test of education level on Credibility of advertisement for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 60
4.7.36: T-test of education level on Attitude toward advertisement for two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 60
4.8 Hypothesis 61

Chapter 5: Conclusion, Discussion and Recommendations

5.1 Research conclusions and discussions 64
5.2 Managerial implications 68
5.3 Future directions and limitations 69

References list 71
Appendix A: Questionnaires 82
Appendix B: Advertisements 90

List of Tables and Figures

Tables

Table 4-1: Profile of respondents 27
Table 4-2: Mobile phone purchasing habits of respondents30
Table 4.3: Respondent's opinion on the BlackBerry Pearl32
Table 4-4: Cronbach’s alpha for dependent variables 33
Table 4-5: Correlation matrix of Purchase intention 34
Table 4-6: KMO and Bartlett’s Test 34
Table 4-7: Total variance explained 34
Table 4-8: Correlation matrix of Credibility of advertisement 35
Table 4-9: KMO and Bartlett’s Test 36
Table 4-10: Total Variance Explained 36
Table 4-11: Correlation Matrix of Attitude toward advertisement 37
Table 4-12: KMO and Bartlett’s Test 37
Table 4-13: Total Variance Explained 37
Table 4-14: ANOVA: Effect of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Purchase intention 38 Table 4-15: ANOVA: Effect of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Credibility of advertisement 39
Table 4-16: ANOVA: Effect of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Attitude toward advertisement 40
Table 4-17: Mean and Standard deviation of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Purchase intention 41
Table 4-18: Mean and Standard deviation of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Credibility of advertisement 42
Table 4-19: Mean and Standard deviation of sidedness and celebrity endorsement on Attitude toward advertisement 43
Table 4-20: T-test of gender on the 4 different types of advertisements 44
Table 4-21: T-test of age on the 4 different types of advertisements 45
Table 4-22: T-test of age on education on the 4 different types of advertisements 46
Table 4-23: Summary of Hypothesis 63

Figures

Figure 2.1: Research Framework 15

Print Advertisements

I. One-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 90
II. One-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 91
III. Two-sided advertisement with celebrity endorsement 92
IV. Two-sided advertisement without celebrity endorsement 93



參考文獻 References

Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Atkin, C. & Block, M. (1983). Effectiveness of celebrity endorsers. Journal of Advertising Research, 23(1), 57-61.

Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 16 (Series B), 296-298.

Belch, G. E. (1981). An examination of comparative and noncomparative television commercials: The effects of claim variation and repetition on cognitive response and message acceptance. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(8), 333-349.

Berlyne, D.E. (1971). Aesthetics and Psychobiology. New York: Meredith.

Bettinghaus, E. P. & Baseheart, J. R. (1969). Some specific factors affecting attitude change. Journal of Communication, 19(3), 227.

Bither, S. W. (1977). Resistance to persuasion: Inoculation and distraction. Consumer and Industrial Buying Behavior, eds. Arch Woodside, Jagdish Sheth, & Peter Bennett, New York: North-Holland, 243-250.

Bither, S. W., Dolich, I. J., & Nell, E. B. (1971).The application of attitude immunization techniques in marketing. Journal of marketing research, 8, 56-61

China Post Staff (2007, January 22). Cellphone number 1 fashion item for students. The China Post, p. 20.

Cho, J. K. (1995). An examination of the attitudinal effects of comparative vs. non comparative advertising and their causal paths in the context of message sidedness and product involvement. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Connecticut).

Choi, S. J., Lee, W. N., & Kim, H. J. (2005). Lessons from the rich and famous: A cross-cultural comparison of celebrity endorsement in advertising. 34(2), 85-98.

Crowley, A. E. & Hoyer, W. D. (1994). An integrative framework for understanding two-sided persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 561

Cutler, B. D. & Javalgi, R. G. & Lee, D. (1995). The portrayal of people in magazine advertisements: The United States and Korea. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 8(2), 45- 48

Dean, D. H. & Biswas, A. (2001). Third party organization endorsement of products: An advertising cue affecting consumer prepurchase evaluation of goods and services. Journal of Advertising, 30(4), 41-57.

Demori, M. One-sided versus two-sided messages: Theories of persuasive communication and consumer decision making. (2003). http://www.ciadvertising.org/student_account/fall_01/adv382j/hurtado/paper1/OneVsTwo%20dh.htm

Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K.B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of price , brand and store information on buyers' product evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.

Erdogan, B. Z., Baker, M. J. & Tagg. S. (2001). Selecting celebrity endorsers: the practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(3), 39-48.

Etgar, M. & Goodwin, S. M. (1982). One-sided versus two-sided comparative message appeals for new brand introductions. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(3), 460-465.

Evans, R. B. (1988). Production and creativity in advertising, Pitman Publishing, London.

Faison, E.W. J. (1961). Effectiveness of one-sided and two-sided mass communications in advertising, Public Opinion Quarterly, 7(11), 468-469.

Fitzsimmons, J. A. & Fitzsimmons, M. J. (2006). Service Management (5th Ed) McGraw Hill.

Forkan, J. (1980). Product matchup key to effective star presentations. Advertising Age, 51, 42

Freiden, J. B. (1984). Advertising spokesperson effects: An examination of endorser type gender on two audiences. Journal of Advertising Research, 24(5), 33-41.

Golden, L. L. & Alpert, M. I. (1987). Comparative analyses of the relative effectiveness of one-sided and two-sided communications for contrasting products. Journal of Advertising, 16(1), 18-28.

Hovland, C., Lumsdaine, A. & Sheffield, F. (1949). Experiments in mass communication: studies of Social Psychology in World War II. Ann Arbor, Association for Consumer Research, pp. 287-291.

Jones, E. E. & Davis K. E. (1965). From acts to dispositions. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, ed. L. Berkowitz, New York: Academic Press, Inc., 219-266.

Kahle, L. R. & Homer, P. M. (1985). Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: A social adaptation perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(4), 954-961.

Kaiser, H. (1970). A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika, 35, 401-415

Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.

Kamins, M. A. (1989). Celebrity and noncelebrity advertising in a two-sided context. Journal of Advertising Research, 29(3), 34.

Kamins, M. A. (1990). An investigation into the “match-up” hypothesis in celebrity advertising: When beauty may be only skin deep. Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 4-13.

Kamins, M. A. & Assael H. (1987). Two-sided versus one-sided appeals: A cognitive perspective on argumentation source derogation, and the effect of disconfirming trial on belief change. Journal of Marketing Research, 24, 29-39.

Kamins, M. A. (1989). Celebrity and noncelebrity advertising in a two-sided context. Journal of Advertising Research. 29(6), 34-42

Kamins, M. A., Brand, M. J., Hoeke, S.A., & Moe. J. C. (1989). Two-sided versus one-sided celebrity endorsements: The impact of advertising effectiveness and credibility. Journal of Advertising, 18(2), 4

Kamins, M. A. & Gupta, K. (1994). Congruence between spokesperson and product types: A matchup hypothesis perspective. Psychology and Marketing, 11(6), 569-586.

Kamins, M. A. & Marks, L. J. (1987). Advertising puffery: The impact of using two-sided claims on product attitude and purchase intention. Journal of Advertising, 16(4), 6-15.

Lee, S. J. & Lee, W. N. (2000). Internet as a potential political communication tool: A content analysis of political web sites. Proceedings of the 2000 conference of the American Academy of Advertising, 162-168

Lin, C. A. (1993). Cultural difference in messaging strategies: A comparison between American and Japanese commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 33(5), 40-48.

Louie, T. A. & Obermiller, C. (2002). Consumer’s response to a firm’s endorser (dis)association decisions. Journal of Advertising, 30(4), 41-52.

Lutz, R. J., MacKenzie, S. B. & Belch, G. E. (1983). Attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: Determinants and consequences. Advance in Consumer Research, 10, 384-391.

MacKenzie , S. B., Lutz, R. J., & Belch, G. E. (1986). The role of attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: A test of competing explanations. Journal of Marketing Research, 23(2).

McGuire, W. J. (1954). The nature of attributes and attitude change. Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 3, Cambridge: Addison-Wesley, pp. 136, 314.

McGuire, W. J. (1961). The effectiveness of supportive and refutational defenses in immunizing and restoring beliefs against persuasion. Sociometry, 24, 184-97

McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-321.

Ohanian, R. (1991). The impact of celebrity spokesperson’s perceived image on consumers’ intention to purchase. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(1), 46-52.

Noggle, R & Palmer, D. E. (2005). Radials, rollovers and responsibility: An examination of the Ford-Firestone case. Journal of Business Ethics, 56(2), 185

Pashupati, K. (2003). I know this brand, but did I like the ad? : An investigation of the familiarity-based sleeper effect. Psychology and Marketing, 20(11), 1017.

Pechmann, C. (1992). Predicting When two-sided ads will be more effective than one-sided ads: The role of correlational and correspondent inferences. Journal of Marketing Research, 29, 441-53.

Petty, R.E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Goldman, R. (1981). Personal involvement as a determinant of argument-based persuasion, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 847-855.

Petty, R. E. & Cacioppo, J. T. (1983). Central and peripheral routes to persuasion application to advertising, in Percy, L. and Woodside, A (Eds). Advertising and Consumer Psychology, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA.

Petty, R.E. & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. L. Berkowitz, 19, Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 123-205.

Praet, C. (2002). Japanese advertising, the world’s number one celebrity showcase? A cross-cultural comparison of the frequency of celebrity appearances in TV advertising in International Conference Proceedings of the American Academy of Advertising, Marilyn S. Roberts and Robert L. King, eds., Gainesville, FL: American Academy of Advertising, 32-42.

Ray, M. L. (1977). The present and potential linkages between the microtheoretical notions of behavioral science and the problems of advertising: A proposal for a research system. Behavioral and Management Sciences in Marketing, H. L. Davis and A. J. Silk, eds. New York: Ronald Press, 99-141.

Salisbury, W. D; Pearson, R. A.; and Harrison, A. W. (1998). Who’s afraid of the World Wide Web? An initial investigation into the relative importance of two salient beliefs on Web shopping intent. Proceedings of the Fourth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Baltimore: Association for Information Systems, 338-341.

Sawyer, A. G. (1974). The effects of repetition: Conclusions and suggestions about experimental laboratory research. Buyer/Consumer Information Processing, G. D. Hughes and M. L. Rays, eds. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Settle, R. B. & Golden, L. L. (1974). Attribution theory and advertiser credibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 11, 181-185.

Shapiro, M. (2001, February 28-March 6). In ads, US stars shine for Japanese eyes only. Moscow News, p. 10.

Shrimp, T. A. (2000). Advertising promotion: Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. 5th ed., Dryden Press, Fort Worth, TX.

Silvera, D. H. & Austad, B. (2004). Factors predicting the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisements. European Journal of Marketing, 38, 1509.

Smith, R. E. & Hunt, S D. (1978). attrubutional processes and effects in promotional situations. Journal of Consumer Research, 5 (12), 149-58.

Swinyard, W. R. (1981). The interaction between comparative advertising and copy claim variation. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (5), 175-186.

Szybillo, G. J. & Richard, H (1973). Resistance to persuasion, innoculation theory in a marketing context. Journal of Marketing Research, 10 (9), 396-403.

Till, B. D. & Busler, M. (1998). Matching products with endorsers: attractiveness versus expertise. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(6), 576-586.

Till, B. D. & Busler, M. (2000). The match-up hypothesis: Physical attractiveness, expertise, and the role of fit on brand attitude, purchase intent and brand beliefs. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 1-13.

Till, B. D. & Shrimp, T. A. (1998). Endorsers in advertising: The case of negative celebrity information. Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 67-82.

Tripp, C., Jensen, T. D. & Carlson, L. (1994). The effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities on consumers’ attitudes and intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 535-547.

Walker, M., Langmeyer, L. & Langmeyer D. (1992). Commentary – Celebrity endorsers: Do you get what you pay for? The Journal of Service Marketing, 6(4), 35.

References (Chinese)

1.劉弘文, 廣告代言人類型、產品創新屬性對購買意願影響之研究—以高科技產品為例,輔仁大學管理學研究所所碩士論文(2004)。

論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2009-08-08公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-08-08起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信