||Terrorism, Piracy, Kidnapping and Related Non-Traditional Security Threats in the INDOMALPHI’s Tri-Border Area: A Multidisciplinary, Integrated Approach
||Doctoral Program, Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
Tri-Border Region (TBA)
||位於印尼、馬來西亞和菲律賓 (INDOMALPHI) 交匯點的戰略位置，並作為印度洋和太平洋之間的交叉點，三邊區 (TBA) 長期以來一直以歷史、地理和社會經濟的獨特組合為特徵、政治和文化因素導致該地區變成了非人為和人為的非傳統安全 (NTS) 威脅的熔爐，這些威脅由不同的非國家暴力行為者 (NSVA) 實施，其影響超越了當地層面並承擔跨國特徵。該地區作為恐怖分子、海盜和綁架者的物流樞紐、中轉站和避風港發揮著至關重要的作用，這些構成了十年來阻礙該地區安全、穩定和發展的核心威脅三位一體。迄今為止，為阻止該地區的此類核心威脅三元組和其他 NTS 威脅而採取的安全方法已證明無法為長期穩定提供可行的安全框架。 該研究通過調查三個主要研究問題，為分析和解決 INDOMALPHI-TBA 中的核心威脅三元組和相關 NTS 威脅提供了一種新方法。該地區的安全現狀、安全生態系統的現狀和不足、其不足以及可能的解決方案。該研究廣泛側重於對 INDOMALPHI-TBA 的地緣政治、威脅和安全性質的分析，以全面了解 TBA 的威脅和安全格局。 這一目標是通過使用約翰杜威實用主義分析模型的修改版本作為理論視角，並通過解構-重構轉型方法實現的，提供地緣政治、威脅和安全方法的重新概念化視角，提供對該地區的全新、創新視角以及它的威脅。 由此產生的場景將 TBA 確定為一個由犯罪和恐怖之間的混雜產生的多元化治理系統，其中各種性質的威脅和權力通過合作和競爭無縫相互作用，產生自動催化、自我延續的過程，其中核心威脅三合會只是多重威脅中的一個。威脅和乾預因素的集群，其影響影響所有地緣政治層，遠遠超出 TBA 的狹窄地理邊界。 威脅分析確定了五個主要的威脅集群和相互交互的相關變量，導致威脅週期的延續，其中原因和後果承擔可互換的角色。 對安全形勢的分析認為，當前的安全方法以過度使用強制性軍事力量、分散的方法和缺乏合作為特徵，不適合緩解固有的整體性和跨國性挑戰。分析進一步確定了三個宏觀領域的缺陷：地緣政治法律、物質和概念。 特別是，傳統分析經常忽略的概念方面在威脅和解決方案的重新概念化中起著至關重要的作用。由此產生的解決方案是一個整體的、綜合的和多維的理論與實踐 3 階段方法，其總體目標是安全生產、更好的治理和發展，以實現長期區域穩定。
||Strategically situated at the intersection between Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines (INDOMALPHI), and acting as a crossing point between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Tri-Border Area (TBA) has long been characterized by a unique combination of historical, geographic, socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have contributed to turn the region into a crucible of non-human made and human-made non-traditional security (NTS) threats carried out by different Non-State Violent Actors (NSVAs, whose implications transcend the local dimension and assume transnational traits. The region plays a crucial role as a logistic hub, transit point and a safe haven for terrorists, pirates and kidnappers. This core threat triad is but the most prominent of a set of clusters of threats that have, for decades, hindered the security, stability and development of the region. The security approaches adopted to stem such core threat triad and other NTS threats in the region have to date proved unable to provide a viable security framework for long-term stability.
The study offers a new approach to the analysis of causes and solutions for the mitigation of the core threat triad and associated NTS threats in the INDOMALPHI-TBA by investigating three main research questions. The current status of security in the region, the status and the shortcomings of the security ecosystem, its shortcomings, and the potential solutions. The study broadly focuses on the analysis of geopolitics, threats and the nature of security across the INDOMALPHI-TBA to gain a holistic understanding of its threats and security landscape.
Such goal is achieved by using a modified version of John Dewey’s Pragmatist model of analysis as a theoretical lens, and through a transformative approach providing a reconceptualized perspective of geopolitics, threats and security methods, offering a fresh, innovative perspective on the region and of its threats.
The resulting scenario identifies the TBA as a diversely governed system resulting from a conflation between crime and terror where threats and powers of various nature interact seamlessly through cooperation and competition, generating autocatalytic, self-perpetuating processes where the core threat triad is but one of multiple clusters of threats and intervening factors whose effects affect all geopolitical layers, reaching well beyond the narrow geographical boundaries of the TBA.
The analysis of threats identifies five major clusters of threats and related variables that interact with each other, contributing to the perpetuation of a threat cycle, where causes and consequences assume interchangeable roles once the process becomes autocatalytic.
The analysis of the security landscape argues that current security methods, characterized by an excessive use of coercive, military force, fragmented approaches and lack of cooperation are ill suited for the mitigation of a challenge that is inherently holistic and transnational. The analysis further identifies three macroareas of shortcomings: geopolitical-legal, material and conceptual.
In particular, the conceptual aspect, often overlooked by traditional analysis, plays a crucial role in the reconceptualization of threats and solutions. The resulting solution is a holistic, integrated and multidimensional theory-cum-praxis 3-stage approach revolving on a combination of narratives and actions aimed at producing a mindset and environmental transformation whose overarching goals are the production of security, better governance and development for long term regional stability.
List of Tables and Figures X
Chapter I – Introduction 1
1.1 - Research Background and Research Questions 1
1.1.1 - Relevance of the Study. 10
1.1.2 – Research Questions 11
1.2 – Literature Review 11
1.2.1 – The lack of an Asian School of IRs and Why it Matters for the Security of ASEAN and the INDOMALPHI-TBA. 12
184.108.40.206 – The Debate on IR in Southeast Asia 15
1.2.2 - The Elephant in the Room: The Shortcomings of Western IR Theory and the Absence of Non-Western Theory in Asia. 26
1.2.3 - The State of Security Theory in the Sea: Between Western-Centrism and the Lack of a Real Regional Security Model. 28
220.127.116.11 –The Copenhagen School and the Others 29
18.104.22.168 - The New Wave of Security Scholars 34
22.214.171.124 – The Status of Security Analysis in the INDOMALPHI-TBA: A Tale of Coercion and Contingency 39
126.96.36.199 - The Insecurity Industry 46
188.8.131.52 - Understanding ASEAN’s Role and Process in the Security Ecosystem of the SEA Region: Ambiguity and Aversion to Metrics 48
1.3 – Research Approach and Research Method 51
1.3.1 – Understanding Variables: Dependent, Independent, Intervening Variables and the Threat Cycle. 52
1.3.2 - Research Approach and Research Method: Pragmatism as a Theoretical Lens 56
1.3.3 – Research Method 63
1.4 – Research Framework and Study Layout 64
Chapter II – A Historical Background of the INDOMALPHI-TBA: Pre-colonialism, Colonialism, Post-colonialism and the Rise of Islamism 68
2.1 – The Three Major Stages in the History of INDOMALPHI-TBA and the Relationship Between Colonialism and Islam 69
2.2 - Patterns of Islamization in the INDOMALPHI: The Colonial and the Postcolonial Eras 75
2.2.1 - Indonesia 81
184.108.40.206 - Indonesia Under Sukarno and the Era of Guided Democracy 82
220.127.116.11 - Suharto and the New Order 84
18.104.22.168 - The Fall of Suharto and the Democratization of Indonesia 86
22.214.171.124 - The Rise of Political Islam and the First Terrorist Groups in Indonesia 87
126.96.36.199 - Jemaah Islamiyah: Origins, Role and Evolution 89
2.2.2 - Malaysia 92
2.2.3 - Philippines 96
3.1 – Understanding How Threats Shaped in the INDOMALPHI-TBA 105
Figure 3.1. Mapping of the main terrorist and insurgent groups in the INDOMALPHI: Source: Author 108
3.1.1 – The Status of Terrorism in the Philippines: A Prime of Dynamics and Main Groups 109
188.8.131.52 - Mindanao and the TBA After the BARMM: Between Opportunities and Uncertainties 112
184.108.40.206 – Quick Profiles of the Main Terrorist Groups in the INDOMALPHI-TBA 115
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) 115
Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) 117
Maute Group 119
Jemaah Islamiyah Philippines (JIP) 120
Ansar Khalifa Philippines (AKP) 122
Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) – National Democratic Front (NDF) - New People’s Army (NPA) 123
3.1.2 - The Status of Terrorism in Indonesia and Malaysia: A Primer 128
3.1.3 – Maritime threats: Piracy, Kidnapping for Ransom and the Land-Sea Nexus 134
3.1.4 - Transnational Nature of Threats and the Land-Sea Nexus in the INDOMALPHI-TBA. 139
3.1.5 - The Role of Islam in Terrorism and Radicalization: Myth and Reality 142
3.1.6 – Associated Crimes and Emerging Threats 146
3.2 – Causes 149
3.2.1 - Socioeconomic, Historical Grievances and Local Power Politics as Driving Causes of Instability 149
3.2.2 – Climate Change, Natural Disasters, Pandemics 150
3.2.3 – Intervening Factors as Modifiers, Enablers Catalyzers and Multipliers 151
220.127.116.11 – Clannism, Dynastic Power, Elites, Kinships; the Nexus Between Politics, Terrorism, Crime and Corruption 152
18.104.22.168 – The Overlooked Role of Narratives 153
3.3 - Understanding the Threat Cycle: Terrorism and Related Threats as Part of a System. 158
Chapter IV – The Security Ecosystems of ASEAN and INDOMALPHI-TBA. 166
4.1 – Origins and Evolution of ASEAN’s Security Ecosystem: A Primer 166
4.2 – Security Ecosystems in the INDOMALPHI-TBA: The Weight of History, Interests, Contingencies and Constraints 175
4.3 – The Security Ecosystem in the INDOMALPHI-TBA. 184
4.3.1 - 3 Different Legal and Operational Cultures in Counterterrorism And Deradicalization 184
The Indonesian Model 185
The Malaysian Model 190
The Philippines Model 192
4.3.2 – Cooperation Between INDOMALPHI Countries 193
4.3.3 – The INDOMALPHI and the Others: Security Cooperation with Foreign Countries 198
The Philippines 211
Chapter V – Challenges and ways forward: Towards an integrated, multidisciplinary approach for the security of the INDOMALPHI-TBA. 224
5.1 – Three Macrogroups of Issues 224
5.2 - A New Security Model for the INDOMALPHI-TBA: A Three-Staged Process to Change Temperature in the Water. 228
5.2.1 - Introducing the Model 229
5.2.2 – Identifying and Operationalizing the Mainstays: The Whos, the Whats and the Hows 231
The Whos: Determining and Addressing Power Sources and Power Dynamics 232
The Whats: Core Measures and Prioritization Rationale 235
The Hows: Operationalizing a Multi-Stage Process of Theory Cum Praxis 238
Stage I - Transformation 240
Stage II – Expansion-Consolidation 244
Stage III – Refinement-Consolidation 246
5.3 – The Role of Key Factors 247
5.3.1 – The Role of the Communities. 247
5.3.2 – The Role of Political and Business Elites. 249
5.3.3 – The Role of Academe Educators, Analysts and the Others 250
5.3.4 - The Role of the Military 252
5.3.5 – The Role of Cooperation and Integration 253
5.3.6- The Role of Socio-Economic Measures 254
5.3.7 – The Role of Corruption 255
5.3.8 - The Role of Extremism Prevention and Counter-Terrorism Measures. 257
5.3.9 - The Role of Material Capabilities 259
22.214.171.124 - What capabilities? 259
126.96.36.199 – Funding Procurement. 261
5.4 – Assessing Progresses and Results 264
Chapter VI – Conclusions. 267
6.1 – Genesis of The Study 267
Reconceptualizing Geopolitics 268
Reconceptualizing Threats 268
Reconceptualizing the Security Landscape 269
6.2 – Finding Solutions 270
Future Research in the Area of Political Analysis: Investigating the Strategic Relevance of the TBA in the Context of Great Power Competition. 272
Annex 1. Amitav Acharya’s Modified Model of Security Framework of Analysis 275
List of Tables and Figures
Figure 1.1. The Tri-Border Area 1
Figure 1.2. Representation of the reconceptualized geopolitical layers. Source: Author 6
Figure 1.3. Philosophy-to-Praxis Pyramid 13
Figure 1.4. Variables, threat clusters and the dynamics of the threat cycle. 53
Figure 1.5. Dewey’s classic model of inquiry (Source: Morgan, David L. "Pragmatism as a Paradigm for Social Research.") 61
Figure 1.6. Modified model of inquiry by D. Morgan (Source: Anil Kaushik. "Computer-based collaborative concept mapping: Motivating Indian secondary students to learn science." Massey University, 2017. 61
Figure 1.7. Modified model of analysis based on Morgan’s Pragmatist model (Source: Author) 63
Figure 1.8. Research framework 66
Figure 2.1. Spheres of interest in Southeast Asia during the high colonial age, 1870-1914 77
Figure 3.1. Mapping of the main terrorist and insurgent groups in the INDOMALPHI: Source: Author 107
Figure 3.2. Structure of Daulah Islamiyah in the Philippines (as of June 2020. Source: Author.) 123
Figure 3.3. The land-based cycle feeding maritime security threats in the Sulu and Celebes Seas. (Source: STABLE SEAS: Sulu and Celebes Seas - Executive Summary, February 2019) 138
Figure 3.4. Network of strategic chokepoints in the SEA region. Source: Stable Seas – Sulu and Celebes Seas 140
Figure 3.5. The cycle of terror arbitrage and geopolitical hierarchy of the INDOMALPHI countries in the threat cycle. Source: Author 147
Figure 3.6. Sources and effects of narratives on three major macrogroups in the security ecosystem of the INDOMALPHI-TBA. Source: Author 156
Figure 3.7. Distances between INDOMALPHI capitals and the TBA. Source: Stable Seas – Sulu and Celebes Seas. 161
Figure 3.8. The Threat Cycle. Source: Author 164
Figure 3.9. Behavioral dynamics of the threat cycle in the INDOMALPHI-TBA. Source: Author 165
Figure 4.1. Diagram of the Main Structure of ASEAN’s Security Ecosystem Source: Author from various sources 175
Figure 5.1. Graphic representation of the strategic stalemate. Source: Author 229
Figure 5.2. Actionable vs non-actionable areas in the initial approach to the resolution of the Strategic Stalemate 231
Figure 5.3. Representation of power dynamics, power layers and power stakeholders across the INDOMALPHI and the TBA proper. Source: Author 235
Figure 5.4. Schematics of the 3-Stage Process and its overarching goals 239
Figure 5.5. Philosophy-to-Praxis Pyramid and its basic dynamics 252
Figure 5.6. The Theory-to-Praxis Cycle. Source: Author 263
Figure 5.7. Modified Dewey’s pragmatist model adopted for performance assessment. 265
Table 3.1. Key properties of systems according to systems theory 159
Table 4.1. Regulations on counterterrorism in Indonesia 188
Table 4.2. Number and location of incidents reported in Asia during 2007-2020. 196
Table 4.3. Philippine Defense Cooperation with Indo-Pacific partners 221
Table 5.1. Overview of the three macroareas of shortcomings and the major areas affected. 225
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Reports and Studies
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"BTI 2020 Philippines Country Report." BTI Blog. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/country-report-PHL-2020.html.
"Chapter Four: The siege of Marawi: significance and implications." In Asia-Pacific Regional Security Assessment 2018. International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS), 2019.
"Global Data." Fragile States Index | The Fund for Peace. Accessed January 25, 2021. https://fragilestatesindex.org/data/.
Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Outlook - WHAT DRIVES INNOVATION IN ASIA? Special Topic: The Impact of the Coronavirus Outbreak—An Update. Metro Manila - Philippines: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK - ADB, n.d. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/575626/ado2020.pdf.
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Douglas, Jeremy, Angela Me, Inshik Sim, Shawn Kelley, Magali Lapouge, Akara Umapornsakula. Transnational Organized Crime in Southeast Asia: Evolution, Growth and Impact. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2019. https://www.unodc.org/documents/southeastasiaandpacific/Publications/2019/SEA_TOCTA_2019_web.pdf.
Ercan, Nesrin. "IMB Report: Sea Kidnappings Rise in 2016 Despite Plummeting Global Piracy." Home. Last modified January 10, 2017. https://icc-ccs.org/index.php/news/1218-imb-report-sea-kidnappings-rise-in-2016-despite-plummeting-global-piracy.
Ginkel, Michael Van. A Pathway To Policy Change: Improving Philippine Fisheries, Blue Economy, And Maritime Law Enforcement In The Sulu And Celebes Seas. STABLE SEAS, 2020. https://www.stableseas.org/sites/default/files/pathway-poloicy-change-sulu-celebes-seas.pdf.
Global Terrorism Index 2020. Institute for Economics & Peace, 2020. https://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GTI-2020-web-1.pdf.
Harold, Scott, Gregory Poling, Et al. The Thickening Web of Asian Security Cooperation - Deepening Defense Ties Among U.S. Allies and Partners in the Indo-Pacific. Rand Corporation, 2019. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3125.html.
Hofmeister, Wilhelm, and Patrick Rueppel. Maritime Security and Piracy - Common Challenges and Responses from Europe and Asia. Singapore: Konrad-Adenauer Stiftung and European Union, 2014. https://www.kas.de/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=00ca482c-6ebf-8d25-4ac9-cee4c44df207&groupId=252038.
Idris, Iffat. Youth vulnerability to violent extremist groups in the Indo-Pacific. Applied Knowledge Services, 2018. https://gsdrc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/1438-Youth-Vulnerability-to-Violent-Extremist-Groups-in-the-Indo-Pacific.pdf.
INTERPOL. ASEAN cyberthreat assessment 2020 - key insights from the ASEAN cybercrime operations desk. n.d. https://www.interpol.int/en/Crimes/Cybercrime/Cybercrime-operations/ASEAN-Cybercrime-Operations-Desk.
Martin, Eugene, Astrid S. Tuminez. toward peace in the Southern Philippines: A Summary and Assessment of the USIP Philippine Facilitation project, 2003–2007. Washington: United States Institute of Peace - USIP, 2008. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/47978/sr202.pdf.
Nordqvist, Pernilla, and Florian Krampe. "Climate Change and Violent Conflict: Sparse Evidence From South Asia and South East Asia." SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security 201842018 (April 2018).
Operation Pacific Eagle Philippines - Lead Inspector General Report To The United States Congress Operation Pacific Eagle–Philippines - April 1, 2020‒June 30, 2020. Department of Defense of the United States, 2020. https://www.stateoig.gov/system/files/ope-p_q3_june2020.pdf.
Parreño, Al A. Report on the Philippine Extrajudicial Killings (2001 –August2010)*. The Asia Foundation, 2011. http://forum-asia.org/2010/37530361-FULL-Report-on-the-Philippine-EJKs-2001-2010.pdf.
Porous Peace In Mindanao’s Free Trade Area. International Alert, 2014. https://www.international-alert.org/sites/default/files/Philippines_PolicyBriefBorderTrade_EN_2014.pdf.
Quintos, Mary Fides A. Finding Solutions For Maritime Security Challenges In The Tri-Border Area. Philippines: Center for International Relations and Strategic Studies (CIRSS) of the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), 2017. http://www.fsi.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Vol-IV-No-27-Finding-Solutions-to-Challenges-in-Tri-Border-Area-Quintos.pdf.
Rabasa, Angel, and Peter Chalk. Non-Traditional Threats and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Tri-Border Area of Southeast Asia: The Coast Watch System of the Philippines. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2012.
Rabasa, Angel, and Peter Chalk. Non-Traditional Threats and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Tri-Border Area of Southeast Asia - The Coast Watch System of the Philippines. Santa Monica, CA: RAND - National Defense Research Institute, 2012. https://www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/OP372.html.
Rabasa, Angel, Peter Chalk, William Rosenau, and Leanne Piggot. "The Evolving Terrorist Threat to Southeast Asia." RAND Corporation. Last modified 2009. https://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG846.html.
Rabasa, Angel, Steven Boraz, Peter Chalk, Kim Cragin, and Theodore W. Karasik. Ungoverned Territories -Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 2007.
Rabasa, Angel, Theodore W. Karasik, Jennifer D. P. Moroney, Kevin A. O’Brien, John E. Peters, Kim Cragin, Peter Chalk, and Steven Boraz. "Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks." RAND Corporation. Last modified 2007.
ReCAAP Annual Report - Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships in Asia. Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia - ReCAAP, 2020. https://www.recaap.org/resources/ck/files/reports/annual/ReCAAP%20ISC%20Annual%20Report%202020%20v1(1).pdf.
ReCAAP. Guidance on Abduction of Crew in the Sulu-Celebes Seas and Waters off Eastern Sabah. Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia - RECAAP, 2020. https://safety4sea.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/ReCAAP-ISC-Guidance-on-Abduction-of-Crew-in-the-Sulu-Celebes-Seas-and-Waters-off-Eastern-Sabah-2019_07.pdf.
Rhoades, Ashley L., and Todd C. Helmus. Countering Violent Extremism in the Philippines - A Snapshot of Current Challenges and Responses. Santa Monica - California: RAND Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA233-2.html.
Rhoades, Ashley L., Todd C. Helmus. Countering Violent Extremism in the Philippines: A Snapshot of Current Challenges and Responses. Rand Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RRA200/RRA233-2/RAND_RRA233-2.pdf.
Seah, Sharon, Hoang Thi Ha, Melinda Martinus, and Pham Thi Phuong Thao. The State of Southeast Asia - Survey Report. Singapore: ASEAN Studies Centre at ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute, 2021. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/The-State-of-SEA-2021-v2.pdf.
Sim, Inshik, Shawn Kelley, Magali Lapouge, and Akara Umapornsakula. Transnational Organized Crime in Southeast Asia: Evolution, Growth and Impact. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2019. https://www.unodc.org/documents/southeastasiaandpacific//Publications/2019/SEA_TOCTA_2019_web.pdf.
Simon, Sheldon W. The Economic Crisis and Southeast Asian Security: Changing Priorities. the National Bureau of Asian Research, 1998. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/144374/vol9no5.pdf.
Southeast Asia Regional Centre For Counter-Terrorism - Searcct. Malaysia: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2017. https://www.searcct.gov.my/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Prospectus2017.pdf.
Srinivasan, Ancha, and Robert Dobias. Climate Change in Southeast Asia. Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2019. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/27474/climate-change-sea.pdf.
Stable Seas. Accessed January 28, 2021. https://www.stableseas.org/.
Storey, Ian. Trilateral Security Cooperation in the Sulu-Celebes Seas: A Work in Progress. SINGAPORE: YUSOF ISHAK INSTITUTE, 2018. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/ISEAS_Perspective_2018_48@50.pdf.
Swain, Richard, and Booz Allen Hamilton. Case Study - Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines. U.S. Army Counterinsurgency Center, 2010. https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a532988.pdf.
Temby, Quinton. Terrorism in Indonesia After Islamic State. Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute, 2020. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/TRS3_20.pdf.
The anti-Salafi campaign in Aceh - IPAC Report N. 32. Indonesia: Institute for Policy Analysis and Conflict (IPAC), 2016.
The Star/Asia News Network. "Abu Sayyaf Subleader Idang Susukan Spotted with Nur Misuari in Davao City." INQUIRER.net. Last modified August 13, 2020. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/190238/abu-sayyaf-subleader-idang-susukan-spotted-with-nur-misuari-in-davao-city.
Trade in the Sulu Archipelago: Informal Economies Amidst Maritime Security Challenges. San Francisco: The Asia Foundation, n.d. https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Trade-in-the-Sulu-Archipelago-Informal-Economies-Amidst-Maritime-Security-Challenges.pdf.
Worldwatch List 2020. Norway: OpenDoors, 2020. https://www.opendoorsusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/2020_World_Watch_List.pdf.
Dissertations and Conference Material
Kaushik, Anil. "Computer-based collaborative concept mapping: Motivating Indian secondary students to learn science." PhD diss., Massey University, 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322925426.
Mr Chiang Chie FooSenior Advisor Ministry of Defence. "Insights on the ADMM and the ADMM-Plus: The Road to Realisation, and What Lies Ahead." Paper presented at Goh Keng Swee Command and Staff College Seminar 2014, Singapore, October 9, 2014.
Ness, Marielle. Bayond the Caliphate: Islamic State Activity Outside the Group's Defined Wilayat - Southeast Asia. Combating Terrorism Center - West Point, 2018. https://ctc.usma.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Beyond-the-Caliphate-SE-Asia-Final.pdf.
Non-Traditional Security in Asia: The Dynamics of Securitization - An IDSS Workshop held from the 2-4 September 2004 at Traders Hotel, Singapore. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), 2004. https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/nts/2439-non-traditional-security-in-as/.
Salem, Allan A. J. "Nexus of crime and terrorism: the case of the Abu Sayyaf Group." PhD diss., Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate Schoo, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10945/51611.
Saroda Mitrasing, Ingrid. "The Age of Aceh and The Evolution of Kingship 1599 – 1641." PhD diss., Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen, 2011.
News Articles and Web Sources
"A Long Row to Hoe: A Critical Assessment of ASEAN Cooperation on Counter- Terrorism." Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia. Accessed December 16, 2018. https://kyotoreview.org/issue-11/a-long-row-to-hoe-a-critical-assessment-of-asean-cooperation-on-counter-terrorism/.
"Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)." Counter Extremism Project. Last modified July 22, 2020. https://www.counterextremism.com/threat/abu-sayyaf-group-asg.
"Acting U.S. Defense Secretary Turns Over Php1.4 Billion in Military Equipment to Strengthen Security Cooperation." U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. Last modified December 8, 2020. https://ph.usembassy.gov/acting-us-defense-secretary-turns-over-php1-4-billion-in-military-equipment-to-strengthen-security-cooperation/.
"Almost Half of AFP's 2018 Budget to Be Spent in Fight Vs Communists." BusinessMirror. Last modified June 25, 2018. https://businessmirror.com.ph/almost-half-of-afps-2018-budget-to-be-spent-in-fight-vs-communists/.
"ASEAN Counter-terrorism Weaknesses." ASEAN Counter-terrorism Weaknesses | Theindependentbd.com. Accessed December 16, 2018. http://www.theindependentbd.com/arcprint/details/119314/2017-10-18.
"ASEAN Summit: Leaders Pledge Co-operation on Terrorism, Trade and South China Sea Dispute." SBS News. Accessed December 10, 2018. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/asean-summit-leaders-pledge-co-operation-on-terrorism-trade-and-south-china-sea-dispute.
"BenarNews." BenarNews. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.benarnews.org/english/.
"Communist Party of the Philippines–New People's Army." Stanford University. Accessed December 1, 2020. https://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/print_view/149.
"Declaration on Terrorism by the 8th ASEAN Summit Phnom Penh, 3 November 2002." ASEAN. Last modified November 3, 2002. https://asean.org/?static_post=declaration-on-terrorism-by-the-8th-asean-summit-phnom-penh-3-november-2002.
"Defense Minister Bolsters Bakamla’s Capability to Protect Indonesia’s Sovereignty in Natuna." OBSERVER, Jakarta Indonesia. Last modified February 5, 2021. https://observerid.com/defense-minister-bolsters-bakamlas-capability-to-protect-indonesias-sovereignty-in-natuna/.
"Document: Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement Between the Philippines and the United States. GOVPH." Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Last modified April 29, 2014. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2014/04/29/document-enhanced-defense-cooperation-agreement/.
"Five Indonesian Fishermen Kidnapped by Abu Sayyaf in Sabah Waters." The Straits Times. Last modified January 18, 2020. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/five-indonesian-fishermen-kidnapped-by-abu-sayyaf-off-lahad-datu-waters.
"Focus on the Sulu Sea | The Maritime Security Review: Www.marsecreview.com. Accessed December 12, 2018. http://www.marsecreview.com/2017/03/focus-on-the-sulu-sea/.
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