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系統識別號 U0002-0607201714354300
中文論文名稱 基於低功耗藍牙網狀網路之定位應用實作
英文論文名稱 Implementation of a Locationing Application based on Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Network
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系資訊網路與多媒體碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master’s Program in Networking and Multimedia, Department of Computer Science and Information Engine
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 林祐瑋
研究生英文姓名 You-Wei Lin
電子信箱 z00728326@gmail.com
學號 604420066
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2017-06-20
論文頁數 63頁
口試委員 指導教授-林其誼
委員-蔡智強
委員-林振緯
中文關鍵字 物聯網  低功耗藍牙  iBeacon  網狀網路  定位 
英文關鍵字 Internet of Things  Bluetooth Low Energy  iBeacon  Mesh Network  Locationing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 最近的無線感測網路技術發展使感測器與質致動器能積極地跟彼此互相通訊溝通與一起執行來完成特定的目標,這就是所謂的物聯網(IoT)。現在的物聯網中有非常多種低耗能無線鏈結層協定,如:ZigBee、低功耗藍牙。為了輕鬆部署物聯網裝置,ZigBee的IP規範已經支援了基於RPL路由協議的網狀拓墣。然而藍牙是基於Master-Slave架構形成星狀拓墣,它的Piconet由一個Master與最多7個Slave所組成。雖然在藍牙4.1之後一個裝置可以同時扮演Master與Slave的角色,理論上可以藉此形成網狀網路,但裝置們需要在互相交換數據之前先建立連線。
因此在本研究中我們使用藍牙廣播性質的優勢來實現基於廣播訊息的低功耗藍牙網狀網路,並建立一個互動式定位以及追蹤系統來證明我們低功耗藍牙網狀網路的可用性。特別的是在我們的低功耗藍牙網狀網路裡,每個低功耗藍牙裝置廣播beacon訊息都符合Apple公司的iBeacon協議規範,因此一個支援低功耗藍牙的智慧型手機就能夠根據收到的beacon訊息來執行定位的動作。在定位完成後,智慧型手機能傳送它的定位結果,並經由在網狀網路裡的低功耗藍牙裝置中繼到我們的後端伺服器中。當定位結果被後端伺服器收到後,後端伺服器亦可以利用低功耗藍牙裝置所組成的網狀網路將確認訊息回傳到使用者端。利用特定使用者的定位結果歷史紀錄,我們能追蹤使用者的移動模式,並為他們提供個人化的適地性服務。實驗結果顯示在我們的低功耗藍牙網狀網路中,雙向傳輸延遲時間是在適當的範圍內,做為一個定位與追蹤系統是可行的。
英文摘要 Recent development of wireless sensor network technologies has enabled sensors and actuators to actively communicate with each other and work together to achieve specific goals. This scenario is the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). There are a variety of low-power wireless link-layer protocols for IoT such as ZigBee and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). To ease the deployment of IoT devices, the ZigBee IP Specification has already supported the mesh topology based on the RPL routing protocol. However, Bluetooth is based on a master-slave architecture to form a star topology, where a piconet consists of a master and up to 7 active slaves. Although later in Bluetooth 4.1 a device can act as a master and a slave simultaneously, and theoretically a mesh network can be formed, it would require devices to establish a connection before they can exchange data. Therefore, in this research we take advantage of the broadcasting nature of Bluetooth devices to implement a BLE mesh network based on advertisement messages, and build an interactive positioning and tracking system to demonstrate the usefulness of our BLE mesh network. Specifically, in our mesh network every BLE device broadcasts beacon messages compliant with the Apple iBeacon protocol, so a BLE-enabled smartphone can perform locationing based on the received beacon messages. After the locationing process completes, the smartphone can send its locationing result back to our backend server, via the relay of BLE devices in the mesh network. Once the locationing result is received at the backend server, a confirmation message will be sent to the smartphone user, again via the relay of BLE devices. With the history records of the locationing results from specific users, we can track the moving patterns of the users and provide them with personalized location-based services. Our experimental results show that our system is practicable with moderate transmission latencies in the BLE mesh network.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究範圍與重要性 2
1.3 研究動機與目的 3
1.4 論文架構 4
第二章 技術背景與相關研究 5
2.1 BLE架構說明 5
2.1.1 Attribute Protocol(ATT) 6
2.1.2 Generic Access Profile(GAP) 6
2.1.3 Generic Attribute Profile(GATT) 7
2.2 CSRmesh 9
2.2.1 介紹 9
2.2.2 解決方案探討 9
2.3 nRF OpenMesh 11
2.3.1 介紹 11
2.3.2 Trickle演算法 11
第三章 BLE Mesh網路實作 14
3.1 實作架構 14
3.2 Mesh Beacon與Mesh Router實作 16
3.2.1 介紹 16
3.2.2 運作模式 17
3.3 Mesh網路運作設計 18
3.3.1 Advertising 20
3.3.2 Advertising Mesh Beacon Location 23
3.3.3 Mesh Packet 25
3.4 使用者端行動應用裝置App設計 29
3.5 應用伺服器設計 35
3.6 雲端資料庫設計 37
3.6.1 介紹 37
3.6.2 Firebase Realtime Database 38
第四章 實驗與分析 40
4.1 使用情境說明 40
4.2 實驗環境 40
4.3 實驗結果與分析 42
4.3.1 實驗1 42
4.3.2 實驗2 43
4.3.3 實驗3 44
4.3.4 實驗4 45
4.3.5 實驗分析 46
4.4 問題與討論 48
第五章 結論與未來展望 51
參考文獻 52
附錄 — 英文論文 53

圖目錄
圖 1 Scatternet 2
圖 2 BLE 架構 6
圖 3 GATT Profile 7
圖 4 CSRmesh運作原理 10
圖 5 Mesh架構 15
圖 6 Redbear Duo 17
圖 7 advertising封包 21
圖 8 advertising封包組成架構 22
圖 9 iBeacon封包架構 22
圖 10 iBeacon架構簡化 23
圖 11 Mesh封包架構圖 26
圖 12 0xD121 Service封包內容架構 28
圖 13 0xD122 Service封包內容架構 28
圖 14 0xD123 Service封包內容架構 29
圖 15 App使用者登入頁面 30
圖 16 App使用者註冊頁面 31
圖 17 App定位中畫面 32
圖 18 App定位完成後畫面 32
圖 19 App接收到Ack後畫面 33
圖 20 App Location通知伺服器功能 34
圖 21 Firebase功能 38
圖 22 Realtime Database JSON tree 39
圖 23 實驗環境配置圖 41
圖 24 使用者移動情況原始資料 45

表目錄
表 1 各點標準流程定位結果表 42
表 2 各位置點強制多Hop的Ack Received Time測試 43
表 3 使用者1的定位結果 46
表 4 使用者2定位結果 46
參考文獻 [1]
"Internet of thing," International Telecommunication Union, [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/techwatch/Pages/internetofthings.aspx. [Accessed 1 June 2017].
[2]
"Bluetooth SIG," Bluetooth SIG, [Online]. Available: https://www.bluetooth.com. [Accessed 1 June 2017].
[3]
"Bluetooth Low Energy," [Online]. Available: https://www.bluetooth.com/what-is-bluetooth-technology/how-it-works/low-energy. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[4]
"CSRmesh," Qualcomm, [Online]. Available: https://www.qualcomm.com/products/features/csrmesh. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[5]
"Nordic," Nordic Semiconductor, [Online]. Available: http://www.nordicsemi.com. [Accessed 1 June 2017].
[6]
"Trickle Algorithm," [Online]. Available: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6206. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[7]
"Node.js," Joyent Inc., [Online]. Available: https://nodejs.org/en/. [Accessed 1 June 2017].
[8]
"Redbear," https://redbear.cc. [Online]. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[9]
"iBeacon," Apple Inc., [Online]. Available: https://developer.apple.com/ibeacon/. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[10]
"SHA-1," [Online]. Available: http://cpansearch.perl.org/src/GAAS/Digest-SHA1-2.13/fip180-1.html. [Accessed 7 June 2017].
[11]
"Swift," Apple Inc., [Online]. Available: https://developer.apple.com/swift/. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[12]
"Firebase," Google Inc., [Online]. Available: https://firebase.google.com. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[13]
"Admob," [Online]. Available: https://www.google.com.tw/admob/. [Accessed 31 May 2017].
[14]
"Firebase Realtime Database," Google Inc., [Online]. Available: https://firebase.google.com/docs/database/. [Accessed 1 June 2017].
[15]
"Introducing JSON," [Online]. Available: http://www.json.org. [Accessed 1 June 2017].
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2017-07-17公開。
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