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中文論文名稱 論果許《惡潮水》中的歷史與救贖
英文論文名稱 History and Redemption in Amitav Ghosh's The Hungry Tide
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 郭怡廷
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Ting Kuo
學號 699110366
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2016-06-13
論文頁數 88頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡振興
委員-杜德倫
委員-張雅蘭
中文關鍵字 歷史  救贖  《惡潮水》  班雅明  歷史唯物論  旅行  記憶  翻譯  彌賽亞力量  神話  革命 
英文關鍵字 history  redemption  The Hungry Tide  Walter Benjamin  historical materialism  journey  memory  translation  messianic power  myth  revolution 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本文以果許著作的《惡潮水》為文本,從歷史著手去分析果許的寫作技巧和觀點,並澄清作者的獨特歷史觀。透過班雅明的歷史唯物論,本文也與印度的神祈意象連結,指出班雅明歷史唯物論的救贖觀念可用來解讀《惡潮水》中被遺忘的歷史脈絡。

論文分為三部分。第一章用班雅明的歷史唯物觀解讀《惡潮水》。歷史並非單純的線性紀錄。若只將歷史當作編年史看待,歷史將由統治者話語所支配。如此一來,歷史本身的完整性、獨立性和正確性將不再存在。本章就旅行和記憶的特質探討歷史和自我歷程的關連做剖析,試圖瞭解歷史背後真正的含義和多元的文化定義。

第二章從語言和翻譯研究來分析小說。由於語言本身的獨特性,再加上不同的歷史與文化脈絡,翻譯的呈現與根本的起源絕對不同。不論是果許,還是班雅明,兩者均不難發現受迫者長期處於沉默的境況中。頻繁地使用本土語彙即是為對抗主權的手法之一。因此,傳統的歷史框架須被打破,弱勢族群的聲音才得以重回歷史行列之中。

第三章探討歷史救贖的力量。歷史為何需要救贖和用何種方式救贖都是班雅明在〈歷史哲學論綱〉中的重要命題。果許在《惡潮水》中拋出神話和革命主題,確切地表達救世主的含義和具有微弱的「彌賽亞力量」的過去。在小說中,果許嘗試在歷史中找到定位與對未來的希望,而且神話偏向對過去的尊崇與傳承也能延續前人的故事力量。故事因被賦予救贖的力量,重新書寫歷史也能讓過去不完整性的歷史擁有其見光性。

總結來說,本文並不是針對統治者和被迫者的二分法來進行論述分析,而是利用班雅明式的論點來闡述果許在《惡潮水》中提出的歷史困境和衝突,並藉由救贖的力量,凸顯歷史中不被承認的文化差異和片斷的歷史援引。
英文摘要 This thesis takes Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide as the text to develop the postcolonial concept by the setting of characters and plots. Structurally, this thesis is divided into three chapters. Chapter One introduces the traces of history. In this chapter, I use Benjamin’s “historical materialism”to flesh out the meanings of history with a particular emphasis on his seminal essay “Theses on the Philosophy of History.” In Chapter Two, I regard “translating history” as my focal point. For me, translating history refers to everyone’s own stand because each part of memory will be saved by people with different emotions, status, or ages and so on. Different ways to look at the same thing will construct distinct outcomes and perspectives ultimately. In The Hungry Tide, Kanai has managed to link the content of the diary to his past image of Uncle Nirmal and Kusum while he was reading Nirmal’s diary in order to understand Nirmal’s mental state at that time. From reading, Kanai will have his own attitude toward events written down in the diary. If it wasn’t read by Kanai, readers would read another version of the story probably. The translation of facts is extremely important here. On the other hand, the interpretation of historical facts can retrieve the flaw of faded memory. In Chapter Three, I look into the relationship between history and its afterlife. This chapter is rooted in Benjamin’s conception of redemption. Why do we need to emphasize the significance of parts omitted by historians? The answer is redemption. No matter whether Ghosh’s view or Benjamin’s argument, both of them show one idea: history will shoulder the task of redemption which is a way to see history in the past and to connect to its future. In conclusion, the chief discourse of this paper is to propose in The Hungry Tide the historical dilemmas and conflicts mentioned by Ghosh in Benjamin’s approach. Instead of the methodology of dichotomies, I argue that the power of redemption highlights the refusal of cultural differences in historical performance and the citation of fragmented history. The completeness of history should be stemmed from its incomplete parts. Incompleteness also has the oppressed hold the position of voicing within history in order to prove its historical situation in the flood of history in which the oppressed plays a key role.
論文目次 Introduction……………………………………………………………………… 1
Chapter One
Traces of History……………………………………………………………… 15
Chapter Two
Translating History……………………………………………………………… 36
Chapter Three
History and Its Afterlife……………………………………………………… 60
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………… 80
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………… 86
參考文獻 Abdu, Khalid Sultan Thabet. Travel as Discovery: A Reading of the Selected Works of Amitav Ghosh. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2013. Print.
Aldama, Frederick Luis. “An Interview Wíth Amitav Ghosh.” World Literature Today 76.2 (2002): 84-90. Print.
Bajpai, Abhishek. Amitav Ghosh: A Novelist of Excellence: A Novelist Whose Works Are Modern in Nature but Connected to His Roots. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishin, 2011. Print.
Bakhtin, M. M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981. Print.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. Ed. Hannah Arendt. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken, 1968. Print.
Brockmeier, Jens. “Stories to Remember: Narrative and the Time of Memory.” StoryWorlds: A Journal of Narrative Studies 1 (2009): 115-32. Print.
Chakraborty, Nilanjan. “Myth, Politics and Ethnography in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 2.2 (2013): 24-28. Print.
Comay, Rebecca. “Perverse History: Fetishism and Dialectic in Walter Benjamin.” Research in Phenomenology 29.1 (1999): 51-62. Print.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature. Minneapolis, London: U of Minnesota P, 1986. Print.
Ghissing, Samiran George. “The Storm of History: Memory, Witnessing and Archiving Betrayal in Amitav Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide and Sunil Gangopadhyay’s Arjun.” An International Literary Journal 5.1 (2015): 263-75. Print.
Ghosh, Amitav. The Hungry Tide. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004. Print.
Gur-Ze'ev, Ilan. “Walter Benjamin and Max Horkheimer: From Utopia to Redemption.” The Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 8.1 (1999): 119-55. Print.
Hawley, John C. Amitav Ghosh: An Introduction. Delhi: Foundation, 2005. Print.
Landy, Joshua. Philosophy as Fiction: Self, Deception, and Knowledge in Proust. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004. Print.
Leslie, E. "Walter Benjamin: Traces of Craft." Journal of Design History 11.1 (1998): 5-13. Print.
Löwith, Karl. Meaning in History; the Theological Implications of the Philosophy of History. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1949. Print.
Lucero-Montano, Alfredo. Astrolabio: Revista internacional de filosofía Núm. 10. (2010): 126-131. Print.
Morrison, K. A. “Myth, Remembrance, and Modernity: From Ruskin to Benjamin via Proust.” Comparative Literature 60.2 (2008): 125-41. Print.
Nagarajan, B. K. Amitav Ghosh: A Critical Study. New Delhi: Omega Publications, 2011. Print.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Untimely Meditations. Trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 1983. Print.
Rollason, Christopher. ‘“In Our Translated World’: Transcultural Communication In Amativ Ghosh’s The Hungry Tide.” Diasporic Literature in English. Ed. Jaydeep Sarangi. Kolkata: Books Way, 2009. 11-30. Print.
Sankaran, Chitra. History, Narrative, and Testimony in Amitav Ghosh’s Fiction. Albany: State U of New York, 2012. Print.
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