淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0607201319535100
中文論文名稱 未來退休族再回工作職場之動機分析:以人格特質理論之觀點
英文論文名稱 Motivations Analysis of Retiring People Returning to the workforce: Perspective on Personality Traits
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際商學碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Executive Master's Program of Business Administration (EMBA) in International Commerce
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 張玉宜
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Yi Goldsmith
學號 799520167
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-06-06
論文頁數 50頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾義明
委員-洪英正
委員-何志峰
中文關鍵字 未來退休族  再回職場  人格特質  需求 
英文關鍵字 Retiring People  Returning to the Workforce  Personality Traits  Needs 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣每年退休人口,正急速地增加目前已達數百萬的退休族群。基於下降的實際退休年齡、增高的壽命預期、增長的退休期、及良好的健康條件等因素,越多人計畫在退休後再回職場,追求發揮潛能的需求,而非基本生存與保障的需求。但是,重回職場,也因工作環境與本身人格特質相違,而遭致挫折。人格特質已廣泛定義為天生既定的特性,並且有持久與特定的行為模式。這論述引發觀察的研究:天生的人格特質乃為決定因素前提下,是否對需求的不同有所影響。因此,本研究將針對未來退休族再回職場工作需求的過程中,以人格特質與需求的關係作探討。研究對象則限定45歲以上的未來退休族,期望能以族群切身的再職需求,提供更有意義的數據。
第一部份研究檢驗人口變數與需求的關係,包括性別、年齡、職業、教育背景、婚姻、健康、及月所得。第二部份研究探討人格特質對需求的影響關係。人格特質以 2003 年 Costa and McCrae的五大人格特質為自變數:外向型、友善型、嚴謹型、開放型、與神經質型。需求文獻探討則採用1970年Maslow 的理論中三項為依變數:歸屬感與愛、自尊及自我實現。限於資源與時間,本研究採取便利問卷方式,發放於北台灣區域。時間從2013年2月1日至2013年2月28日截止。收集有效問卷312份後,進行SPSS WIN13軟體統計分析,包括(1)變異數分析:衡量人口變數與需求的關係,(2)迴歸分析:探討人格特質對需求的影響關係
第一部份研究結論:大專/大學與高中/高職教育背景的不同,對自我實現需求有顯著差異;月所得NT$150,000以上與月所得NT$30,000以下,對自我實現需求有顯著差異。另外,性別、年齡、職業、婚姻、與健康的不同,與歸屬感與愛、自尊、 及自我實現等需求,並沒有任何顯著差異。
第二部份研究結論:歸屬感與愛的需求與外向型、友善型、開放型等人格特質相關;自尊的需求與外向型、友善型、嚴謹型等人格特質相關;自我實現的需求與外向型、友善型、嚴謹型、開放型等人格特質相關。再者,部份人格特質對歸屬感與愛、自尊、及自我實現等需求,皆有顯著影響。甚者,外向型、友善型、開放型等人格特質對歸屬感與愛的需求,有中度顯著影響;外向型、嚴謹型等人格特質對自尊的需求,有中度顯著影響;外向型、嚴謹型、開放型等人格特質對自我實現的需求,有強度顯著影響。
增加人格特質對歸屬感與愛、自尊、及自我實現等需求的因果關係認識,可以幫助未來退休族計畫退休後,成功地再回職場工作,以及有效地充分發揮潛能。總言,藉由本研究探討,了解人格特質對需求的影響關係後,重新定位與重視退休族群的經驗與貢獻,能對創新的職場上管理與雇用準則有所助益。


英文摘要 Taiwan’s existing retired population is in the millions, and the current of retiring people are adding to this number at a fast pace every year. The combination of younger retirement age, longer life expectancy, longer period of retirement and better health, more people plan to return to the workforce after retirement because of the motivations of pursuing the higher needs, not for the basic physiological and safety needs, as they wish to live to their full potential. However, returning to the workforce can lead to frustration, for the nature of the job environment can contradict with the nature of an individual’s personality. Further, personality traits have been widely recognized as innate dispositions that result in a pattern of behavior over time. This leads to the observation that if, under circumstance of personality traits being the innate determinant factor, personality traits have an effect on different needs pursuits. Thus, this research, comprised of two studies, investigates retiring people’s transition upon returning to the workforce, with the focus upon the relationships between personality traits and the needs. The studied population for this research is restricted to retiring people in the age group 45 years and older. This restriction was intentional, based on the assumption that data from the older age group would provide more meaningful data regarding how they view their needs to return to the workforce.
Study 1 examines the relationships between Demographics and Needs, involvement in gender, age, profession, education, marital status, health and monthly income. Study 2 explores the effects of Personality Traits (Costa and McCrae, 2003) on Needs (Maslow, 1970), consisting of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness and Neuroticism for Personality Traits and Belongingness and Love, Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization for Needs.
A convenient sampling style methodology is adapted for the questionnaire distribution to accommodate the limited resources and the limited timeframe. The questionnaire distributed in north Taiwan from 1st of February, 2013, to 28th of February, 2013, produced 312 valid responses. The responses were analyzed by utilizing SPSS Windows 13, including (1) the relationships between Demographics and Needs by one-way ANOVA, and (2) the relationships between Personality Traits and Need by regression analysis.
Study 1 analysis concludes that education has a significant relationship with Self-Actualization between the university/college group and the senior/vocational high school group. Monthly income has a significant relationship with Self-Actualization between the income group of NT$ 150,000 and over and the lower income group of NT$ 30,000 and under. On the other hand, gender, age, profession, marital status and health do not find any significant relationships with Belongingness and Love, Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization.
Study 2 analysis concludes the relationships of Personality Traits to Needs as followed: Belongingness and Love correlate with Extraversion, Agreeableness and Openness; Self-Esteem correlates with Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness; and Self-Actualization correlates with Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness. Furthermore, the results show that Personality Traits have a partial positive effect on Belongingness and Love, Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization. In addition, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Openness have a moderate significant effect on Belongingness and Love. Extraversion and Conscientiousness have a moderate significant effect on Self-Esteem. Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Openness have a strong significant effect on Self-Actualization.
Results increase in an understanding of the influence of Personality Traits on Belongingness and Love, Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization. This increased understanding will also assist retiring people to effectively establish their plans of returning to the workforce after retirement by being aware that their nature is compatible with the underlying motivations, so they may enjoy their full potential successfully by returning to the workforce.
To conclude, a further implication of this research is the understanding of factors that may be beneficial for renovated management and employment policies by relocating and treasuring the experiences and contribution of retired people within the business sector.

論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ABSTRACT (Chinese) ii
ABSTRACT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation 4
1.3 Research Objectives 5
1.4 Research Procedure 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Retiring People 7
2.2 Workforce 7
2.3 Demographics 8
2.4 Personality Traits Theories 8
2.4.1 Personality 9
2.4.2 Traits 10
2.4.3 Personality Traits 11
2.5 Need Theories 12
2.5.1 Need 12
2.5.2 Needs 13
2.5.3 Hierarchy of Needs 13
2.6 Relationship between Hierarchy of Needs and Workforce 14
2.7 Relationships between Personality Traits and Hierarchy of Needs 15
2.8 Conceptual Framework 17
2.9 Research Hypothesis 18
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 19
3.1 Conceptual Model 19
3.1.1 Definition of Operational Variables 21
3.2 Research Design .............................22
3.2.1 Questionnaire Design ...................23
3.2.2 Sampling Plan ..........................23
3.3 Statistical Analysis ........................24
3.3.1 One-Way ANOVA ..........................24
3.3.2 Regression Analysis ....................24
3.4 Reliability and Validity ....................25
3.5 Demographic Analysis ........................25
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH ANALYSIS .......................27
4.1 Reliability Analysis ........................27
4.2 ANOVA Analysis on Demographics and Needs ....28
4.3 Correlation between Personality Traits and
Needs .......................................29
4.3.1 Correlation between Personality Traits and Belongingness and Love ...............................29
4.3.2 Correlation between Personality Traits and Self-Esteem ..........................................30
4.3.3 Correlation between Personality Traits and Self-Actualization ...................................30
4.4 Regression Analysis .........................31
4.4.1 Regression Analysis on Personality Traits and Belongingness and Love................................31
4.4.2 Regression Analysis on Personality Traits and Self-Esteem ..........................................32
4.4.3 Regression Analysis on Personality Traits and Self-Actualization ...................................32
4.5 Summaries of Relationships and Hypothesis Testing .............................................33
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...........35
5.1 Conclusion ..................................35
5.2 Recommendation ..............................36
5.3 Limitation ..................................37
REFERENCES ...........................................38
APPENDICES ...........................................42
Appendix 1 Questionnaire (English Version) ......42
Appendix 2 Questionnaire (Chinese Version) ......46
Appendix 3 Personality Disposition Descriptor ...50

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1-1 Structure of Manpower by Age ................2
Table 2-1 Employed Population in the Workforce ........8
Table 2-2 Definition of Personality ...................9
Table 2-3 Eysenck’s Trait Structure and Four Greek Temperamental Types ..................................10
Table 2-4 Characteristics of Personality Traits and Needs .............................................15
Table 3-1 Definition of Conceptual Variables .........20
Table 3-2 Definition of Operational Variables ........21
Table 3-3 Summary of Questionnaire Distribution and Collection ...........................................24
Table 3-4 Demographic Profile of Respondents .........26
Table 4-1 Reliability of Personality Traits ..........27
Table 4-2 Reliability of Needs .......................28
Table 4-3 ANOVA Analysis on Demographics to Self-Actualization ........................................29
Table 4-4 Correlation between Personality Traits and Belongingness and Love ...............................30
Table 4-5 Correlation between Personality Traits and Self-Esteem ...............................................30
Table 4-6 Correlation between Personality Traits and Self-Actualization ........................................31
Table 4-7 Regression Analysis on Personality Traits and Belongingness and Love ...............................31
Table 4-8 Regression Analysis on Personality Traits and Self-Esteem ..........................................32
Table 4-9 Regression Analysis on Personality Traits and Self-Actualization ...................................33
Table 4-10 Summary of Relationships between Personality Traits and Needs .....................................33
Table 4-11 Summary of Hypothesis Testing .............34

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1 Research Procedure .........................6
Figure 2-1 Hierarchy of Needs ........................14
Figure 2-2 Maslow’s Hierarchical Needs Relating with Development of Personality ...........................16
Figure 2-3 Conceptual Framework ......................17
Figure 3-1 Conceptual Model ..........................20



參考文獻 REFERENCES
Allport, Gorden (1937). Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New York: Holt
Allport, Gorden (1961). Pattern and Growth in Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Atchley, R. C. (1976). The Sociology of Retirement. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W., & Engel, J. F. (2007). Consumer Behavior, 10th Edition. CT, USA: Thomson Learning.
Brown, J. D. (1998). The Self. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Buss, D. M. (1982). Paradigm for Personality? Contemporary Psychology, 27, 341-342.
CBC, Central Bank of the Republic China. Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://cbc.gov.tw/np.asp?ctNode=3028
Chen, A. K. (2008). A Research of the Reemployment and Social Adaptation on the Veterans-Taking the Retired Military Education Instructors as an Example. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Soochow University, Taipei.
Costa, P.T. & McCrea, R. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Costa, P.T. & McCrea, R. (1984). Affective Process in Adult Development and Aging. In C. Matesta & C. Izard (Eds.), Personality as a Lifelong Determinant of Well-Being. Beverly Hill: Sage.
DGBAS, Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, (2011) Taipei: Executive Yuan. Retrieved Feb, 02, 2013 from http://www.dgbas.tw/point.asp?index=1
Fang, Hsien-Meng (2012). A Study on the Impact of Personality Traits on Volunteers with Different Religious Beliefs on Participation, Motives and Organization commitment, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Ling-Tung University, Taichung.
Ferry, T. (2013). Upgrading Industry. Topic, 43(3), 16-23.
Foot, D. & Stoffman, D. (1996) Boom Bust & Echo: How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift. Toronto, CA: Stoddart.
Fromm, E. (1947). Man for Himself: in Inquiry into Psychology of Ethics. New York: H. Holt.
Goldberg, L.R. (1981). Language and Individual Differences: The Search for Universals in Personality Lexicons. Beverley Hills: Sage.
Heckhausen, H. (2010). Historical Trends in Motivation Research, p23-29. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and Action. New York:Cambridge University.
Hjelle, L., & Zieglar, D. J. (1992). Personality Theories: Basic Assumption, Research and Application, 3rd Edition. USA: McGraw-Hill.
Hoang, C. H. (2004). A Study of the Correlation among Personality Traits, Participating Motivation, and Job Satisfaction of Adult Volunteers. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung.
Johnston, William, & Parker, Arnold (1987). Work and Workers for the Twenty-First Century. Workforce. Indiana: Hudson Institute.
Kelly, G. (1961). A Nonparametric Method of Factor Analysis for Dealing with Theoretical Issues, Unpublished manuscript. Mimeograph: Ohio State University.
Lahey, Benjamin B. (1998). Psychology: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
Lee, W. L. (2003). Rich Age Is Money. Taipei: Zhupiter.
Lieberman, A. (2007). Retire to Something- Not from Something. Wealth Styles. Canada:Retirement Education Centre.
Lin, M. H. (2008). The Study of Continuing Learning Behavior of Retirees in Taiwan. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Min-Chun University, Taipei.
Loehlin, J. C. (1982). Rhapsody in G. Contemporary Psychology, 27,623.
Lykken, D. T. (1971). Multiple Factor Analysis and Personality Research. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 5, 161-170.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Maslow, A. (1968). Toward A Psychology of Being, 2nd Edition. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
Matthews, G., Deary, I., & Whiteman, M. (2009). Personality Trait, 3rd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.
McCrea, R. & Costa, P. (1990). Personality in Adulthood. New York: Guilford Press.
McCrea, R. & Costa, P. (1988). Age, Personality, and Spontaneous Self-Concept. Journal of Gerontology, 43(6), 177-185.
McCrea, R. (1997). Validation of the Five-factor Model of Personality across Instruments and Observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
Mischel, W. (1976). Introduction to Personality, 2nd Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Mooradian, T. A., David, M., & Matzler, K. (2011). Dispositional Empathy and The Hierarchical Structure of Personality. American Journal of Psychology, 124(1), 99-109.
Norman, W.T. (1963). Toward an Adequate Taxonomy of Personality Attributes. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(6), 574-583.
Pauchant, T. & Associates. (1995). (Eds.). In Search of Meaning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pervin, L.A. (1993). Personality: Theory and Research, 6th Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Peters, T., & Waterman, R. (1982). In Search of Excellence. New York: Warner.
Peterson, D.R. (1965). Scope and Generality of Verbally Defined Personality Factors. Psychological Review, 72, 48-59.
Phares, E.J. (1991). Introduction of Personality. 3rd Edition. New York: Harper Collins.
Quinn, J., Burkauser, R., & Myers, D. (1990). Passing the Torch: The Influence of Economics on Work and Retirement. Mich., USA: W. F. Upjohn.
Rogers, Carl (1961). Client-Centered Therapy: It’s Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable..
Schultz, D. (2010) Psychology and Work Today. New York: Prentice Hall.
Sheffer, D. & Heckhausen, H. (2010) Traits Theories of Motivation, p42-57. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds), Motivation and Action. New York:Cambridge University.
Shih, S. H. (1997). A Study on the Library Volunteers-Their Characteristic, Participation in the Public Library, Unpublished Master Thesis, Tamkan University, Taipei.
SOCS, Standard Occupational Classification System. (2011). Yearbook of Manpower Survey Statistics in Taiwan Area, Republic of China. Taiwan Census Bureau. Taipei: Executive Yuan. Retrieved Feb, 05, 2013 from http://www.dgbasey.gov.tw
Teuscher, Ursina (2003). Transition to Retirement and Aging Change and Persistence of Personality Identities. Unpublished Dissertation, University de Fribourg, Suisse.
Tomkins, S.S. (1962). Commentary: the Ideology of Research Strategies, p285-294. In S. Messick & J. Ross (Eds.), Measurement in Personality and Cognition New York: Wiley.
Wahba, M. A. & Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15, 212-240.
Westen, D. & Gabbard, G. O. (2003) On Therapeutic Action. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 84,823-841.
Wiggins, J. & Pincus, A. (1992). Personality: Structure and Assessment. Annual Review of Psychology, 43,473-504.
Wu, M. L. & Tu, G. T. (2005). SPSS :The Application and Analysis of Statistics. Taipei: Wu-Nan Culture.
Wu, T. X. (1981). Social Survey: Application of Telephone Investigation. Taipei:Linking.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2013-07-17公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-07-17起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信