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中文論文名稱 政治機器與政黨之關係:以芝加哥市為例
英文論文名稱 The Relationship between Political Machine and Political Party: A Case Study of Chicago City
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 鄧育承
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Chen, Teng
學號 697250214
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-25
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-紀舜傑
委員-陳一新
委員-陳信傑
中文關鍵字 美國政黨  政治機器  協商合作  酬庸管道  芝加哥 
英文關鍵字 U.S. political party  political machine  consultative cooperation  channel of patronage  Chicago 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美國的主要政黨(民主黨與共和黨)分為全國黨代表、州與郡層次。自主性高、黨紀鬆散、無固定黨員登記制度突顯「柔性政黨」的特質,各層次常因為選舉而進入「協商合作」的過程。透過郡黨部運作的政治機器,時常會因為良好的政治「協商合作」關係向聯邦全國黨代表獲取更多聯邦公共資源。
政治機器是政黨組織,並提供具體、無形亦或提供物質上的誘因給對黨部效忠的選民,以便於在未來的黨務問題上得到更多人民之青睞。政治上的酬庸管道就是政治機器團體派系權勢基礎,多數時候都是由黨頭目來安排人事卡位,特別是在大城市中,黨頭目的影響力相當具有權力。
安東•瑟馬柯是芝加哥第一位以庫克郡黨部運作政治機器的市長,「凱立•納虛雙軌政治機器」是開啟與聯邦民主黨新政的「協商合作」關係。理查--- 喬瑟夫•戴立因過去擔任約翰•甘迺迪總統核心輔選幕僚,與多位民主黨人士建立良好關係。1950年代至70年代中期,理查--- 喬瑟夫•戴立儼然成為支配芝加哥最大的政治機器。
埃爾羅德訴伯恩斯案與路登訴伊利諾州共和黨案使政府不可因個人政治信仰因素之不同將個人從非決策職位中解雇,或是以政治信仰因素做為升遷之標準。兩項法案有效打擊政治機器團體派系內部酬庸管道的權勢基礎,芝加哥政治機器轉型的原因是因為黑人註冊選民人數增加以及老戴立過逝後政治機器分裂嚴重。
芝加哥政治機器衰弱的最大原因主要是卡特聯邦民主黨嚴格檢視少數族裔公民參與,最後轉變為黑裔族群反衝的勢力並選出第一位黑裔市長: 哈羅德•華盛頓。1989年,理查--- 麥可•戴立當選芝加哥市長時,以個人競選組織的方式強調對市長的效忠,而非庫克郡民主黨部。
英文摘要 The major political parties of U.S. (Democratic party and Republican Party) are divided into national party representative, state and county layer. The U.S. party is loosely formed because of Greater independence, laxer party-disciple and slacker registering procedures. Due to a fiery election, each layer may get into “consultative cooperation” process. The closer the bilateral or trilateral relationship is, the better access the lowest one, as run by political machine in county, is going to get public resources through this channel. This happens only if the same party dominates the federal and state government.
A political machine is a party organization depending mainly on inducements like specific or non-material favors. The machine traded faithful voters whatever is needed to win election or to get party affairs done. However, The political channel of patronage is the groundwork for factional influence within the political machine; often, a party boss is predominant over the city or specific ward, dispensing job patronage, favors and personal services.
Anton J. Cermak is the first Chicago mayor running the political machine through Democratic Cook County board. Kelly-Nash machine is the watershed for “consultative cooperation” in 1933 during which federal Democratic government was undertaking the New Deal Program. Being a chief staff in JFK’s presidential campaign, Richard J. Daley, who dominated the greatest machine monolith from 1955 to mid-1976, got along well with Democratic inner circles.
Two judicial cases, Elrod v. Burns and Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois, strike the patronage practice in the government. The former constrained a government to fire a worker in a non-policy-making position on the sole ground of his political belief, while the latter ruled politically based hiring and promotions effectively deprived an individual of his or her First Amendment rights. In Chicago, the increase of black voter registration and the scattered power seized by different factions soon after Daley’s death constitute
machine transition.
Cater’s examination on citizen participation upon minority cause the decline of Chicago machine. Harold Washington is the product of backlash from black ethnicity. In 1989, Richard M. Daley started his mayor-centered machine; namely, he demands voters remain faithful to him, not the Democratic Cook County board.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 ……………………………………………………1

第一節 研究主旨……………………………………………1

第二節 研究動機與研究問題………………………………3

第三節 理論與文獻回顧……………………………………7

第四節 研究方法與研究範圍及限制………………………16

第二章 政黨與政治機器之形成……………………………….20

第一節 政黨發展與政黨結構………………………………20

第二節 政黨功能與都市政府………………………………24

第三節 都市政治機器之分析………………………………30

第三章 芝加哥政治機器之發展……………………………….40

第一節 政治機器之類型……………………………………40

第二節 政治機器的轉型……………………………………53

第三節 政治機器之近況……………………………………62

第四章 芝加哥政治機器之衰退…………………………………68

第一節 扼制政治機器發展之因素…………………………68

第二節 芝加哥改革之發展與難題…………………………75

第三節 多元權力分化與公民參與…………………………80

第五章 結論………………………………………………………87

參考書目…………………………………………………………100
參考文獻 壹、中文部分

一、書籍

余炳輝。《社會科學研究的方法》。杭州: 浙江人民,1987年。
施正鋒、謝若蘭。《當代愛爾蘭民主政治》。台北:翰蘆圖書,2009年。
陳義彥主編。《政治學》。台北:五南,2008。
雷飛龍。《政黨與政黨制度之研究》。台北:韋伯文化,2002年。

二、碩士論文

曾俊仁。《美國政治機器與國民黨/地方派系之比較研究》。台北:國立中山大學政治學研究所碩士論文,1998。

三、期刊

吳重禮,〈台灣地區「派系政治」研究文獻的爭議:美國「機器政治」分析途徑的啟示〉,《政治科學論叢》,2002年第17期,頁92。
彭錦鵬,〈美國各州與地方政黨的特色與發展〉,《美國月刊》,1990年第八期,頁31-32。

肆、網路資料

紀舜傑,〈問題不出在選舉〉,《蘋果日報》,2010 年3月15 日, (2010/05/02)

貳、英文部分

I. Governmental Documents & Official Sources

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 37, Voting and Registration in the Election of November 1980. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1982.

II. Books

Allswang, John M. Boss, Machines, and Urban Voters. New York: Kennikat Press, 1977.
Ammons, David N. & Glass, James J. Recruiting Local Government Executives. Oxford: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1989.
Banfied, Edward C. & Wilson, James Q. City Politics. New York: Vintage Books, 1963.
Bibles, Roger. Big City Boss in Depression and War: Mayor Edward J. Kelley of Chicago. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1984.
________. Richard J. Daley: Politics, Race, and the Governing of Chicago.
Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1995.
Breenstein, Fred I. & Polsby Nelson. ed. W. Governmental Institutions and Processes. Mass:Addison-Wesley, 1975.
Brown, Bernard E. Great American Political Thinker. New York: First Discus Printing, 1983.
Browning, Rufus P. & Rogers, Marshall Dale & Tabb, David H. Racial Politics in
American Cities. New York: Longman, 1990.
Burnham,Walter Dean. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics.
New York: W.W. Norton, 1970.
Burns, James MacGregor & Peltason, J. W. & Cronin, Thomas E. & Magleby, David B. Government by the People. New Jersey: A Simon & Schuster Company, 1993. (15ed )
Carman, Harry J. & Luthin, Reinhard H. Lincoln and the Patronage. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943
Chambers, William N. Political Parties in a New Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.
Clinton, William J My Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.
Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963.
Douglas, Paul. In the Fullness of Time. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971.
Duis, Perry R. Challenging Chicago: Coping with Everyday Life, 1837-1920. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
Duverger, Maurice. Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. London: Methuen Press, 1954.
Eisenstadt, S. N. & Patrons, Roniger, L. Clients and Friends. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Ferrell, Robert H. Truman and Pendergast. Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
Freedman, Anne. Patronage: An American Tradition. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publisher, 1994.
Green, Paul M. & Holli, Melvin G. eds. The Mayors: The Chicago Political Tradition. Illinois: Southern University Press, 2005.
Green, Philip ed. Key Concepts in Critical Theory Democracy. New Jersey:
Humanities Press, 1993.
Greenstone, J David & Peterson, Paul E. Race and Authority in Urban Politics: Community Participation and the War on Poverty. New York: Rusell Sage Foundation, 1973.
Gove, Samuel & Masotti, Louis. eds., After Daley: Chicago Politics in Transition.
Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.
Granger, Bill and Lori. Fighting Jane: Mayor Jane Byrne and the Chicago Machine.
New York: DoubleDay, 1980.
Grimshaw, William J. Bitter Fruit: Black Politics and the Chicago Machine 1931-1991. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Grofman, Bernard & Handley, Lisa & Niemi, Richard G. Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Guterbock, Thomas. Machine Politics in Transition: Party and Community in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Hirsch, Arnold R. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1983.
________. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Herrick, Mary J. The Chicago Schools: A Social and Political History. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1971.
Hofstadter, Richard. the American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made it. New
York: A. A. Knopf, 1948.
Holli, Melvin G. Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.
Holli, Melvin G. & Jones, Peter d'A. eds. Ethnic Group. Grand Rapid: Eerdman’s Publishing Company, 1984.
Huntington, Samuel P. American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 1981.
Ickes, Harold L. the Autobiography of a Curmudgeon. New York: Reynal and Hitckcock 1943.
Johnson, Lyndon B. the Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency 1963-1969 New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.
Jr., Alexander Callow, the Tweeed Ring. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.
Judd, Dennis & Kantor, Paul. Enduring Tensions in Urban Politics. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992.
Kleppner, Paul Chicago Divided: The Making of a Black Mayor. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1985.
Kotter, John P. & Lawrence, Paul R. Mayors in Action: Five Approaches to Urban Governance. New York: Wiley InterScience, 1954.
Mandelbaum, Seymour J. Boss Tweed’s New York. New York: Wiley, 1965.
McCullough, David. David McCullough: Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Merriam, Charles E. Chicago: A More Intimate View of Urban Politics. New York: Macmillan, 1929.
Merton, Robert K. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press, 1957.
O’ Donnell, Kenneth P. & Powers, David F. Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye: Memories of John Fitzgerald Kennedy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973.
Osofsky, Gilbert. Harlem: the Making of a Ghetto. New York: Hamper and Row, 1963.
Peterson, Virgil W. Barbarians in Our Midst: A History of Chicago Crime and Politics. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1952.
Rakove, Milton. Don't Make No Waves...Don't Back No Losers: An Insiders' Analysis of the Daley Machine. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.
Royko, Mike. Boss: Richard J. Daley of Chicago. New York: Signet Books, 1971.
Ross, Bernard H. & Levine, Myron A. Urban Politics: Power in Metropolitan American. Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1996.
Schmidt, John R. The Mayor Who Cleaned Up Chicago. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989.
Schwadron & Terry & Richter, Paul. California and the American Tax Revolt:
Proposition 13 Five Years Later. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press, 1984.
Sears, David O. & Citrin, Jack. Tax Revolt: Something for Nothing in California.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Stuart, William H. The Twenty Incredible Years. Chicago: M.A. Donahue, 1935.
Trounstine, Jessica. Political Monopolies in American Cities: The Rise and Fall of Bosses and Reformers. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 2008.
Trounstine, Philip J. & Christensen, Terry. Mayors and Shakers: The Study of Community Power. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.
Walch, Timothy. Immigrant America:European Ethnicity in the United States. New York:Garland Publishing, 1994.
Walker, David B. The Rebirth of Federalism. New Jersey: Chatham House, 1995.
_____________. Toward a Functioning Federalism Boston: Little Brown, 1981.
Ware, Alan. Political Parties and Party Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

III. Articles:

Akers, Milburn P. "Chicago Dumps Kelly," The Nation, 4 Jan. 1947: A8.
Arnstein, Sherry R. “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners, Vol. 35, No. 4 (July 1969): 217.
Bach, Ira “Byrne has Been Good for the City,” Chicago Tribune, 19 Feb. 1983.
Betancur, John J. and Douglas C. Gills, “Community Development in Chicago: From Harold Washington to Richard M. Daley,” American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 594(Jul 2004): 95.
Bile, Roger. "Big Red in Bronzeville': Mayor Ed Kelly Reels in the Black Vote," Chicago History, Vol. 10, No. 2(1981): 99-111.
Bradley, Donald S. & Zald, Mayer N. “From Commercial Elite to Political Administrator: The Recruitment of the Mayors of Chicago,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 71, No. 2(Sep 1965): 153-167.
Bruce, Dold R. “Jane Byrne elected mayor of Chicago: Chicago's first female mayor slays the machine and then brings it back to life,” Chicago Tribune, 27 February 1979.
Buenker, John D. “The Urban Political Machine and the Seventeenth Amendment,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 56, No. 2(Sep 1969): 316.
Burbank, Lyman B. “Chicago Public Schools and the Depression Years of 1928-1937,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. 64, No. 3: 365-381.
Center, Judith A. “1972 Democratic Convention Reforms and Party Democracy,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 2(Jun. 1974): 332-340.
Cheng, Joseph Y. S. “Shame on Us,” South China Morning Post, 1 Sep. 2003: A17.
Cushman, Robert Eugene. “Non-Partisan Nominations and Elections,” The Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 106(Mar 1923): 84.
Douglas, Paul. “Chicago’s Financial Muddle,” New Republic, Vol. 61, No. 2(Feb 1930): 324-326.
Downs, Amy, “Citizen Sponsored Initiatives: Filling the Legislative Vacuum on Discrimination Issues,” National Civic Review, Vol. 80(Fall 1991): 413-416.
Gardner, James A. “Can Party Politics Be Virtuous?,” Columbia Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 3(Apr 2000): 667.
Golden, Harry “Byrne’s Mercurial Record of Feats, Fests,” Chicago Sun Times, 15 Feb. 1983.
Gove, Samuel K. & Michael B. Preston, “State-Level (Chicago) Relations in Illinois: The Harold Washington Era, 1984,” Publius, Vol. 15, No.3(1984): 143. 147-148.
Hodes, Barnet. “The Illinois Constitution and Home Rule for Chicago,” The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 15, No. 1(1947): 81.
Jack, Alexander. "King Hanky-Panky of Jersey City." The Saturday Evening Post, 26
Oct. 1940: A9-11, A119, A121-124.
Jaenicke, Douglas W. “The Jacksonian Integration of Parties into the Constitutional System,” The Academy of Political Science, Vol. 101, No. 1(1986): 106.
Lijphart, Arend. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 3(Sep 1971): 691.
Lynch, William O. “Zachary Taylor as President,” The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 4, No. 3(Aug 1938): 279-286.
Meredith, Mamie. “"Hards" and "Softs" in American Politics,” American Speech, Vol. 5, No. 5(1930): 410.
Mladenka, Kenneth R. “The Urban Bureaucracy and the Chicago Political Machine: Who Gets What and the Limits to Political Control,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 74, No. 4(Dec 1980): 991.
Morgan, David R. & England, Robert E. “The Small Cities Block Grant Program: An Assessment of Programmatic Change under State Control”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 44, No. 6(Nov-Dec 1984): 478.
Orlebeke, Charles J. “CDBG in Chicago: The Politics of Control”, Publius, Vol. 13, No. 3(1983): 59.
Rosenfeld, Raymond A. “Local Implementation Decisions for Community Development Block Grants”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 39, No. 5(Sep-Oct 1979): 448-453.
Rupert, Helen. “Washington's Farewell,” The English Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2(Feb 1915): 122.
Scott, James C. “Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 63, No. 4(Dec 1969): 1143.

IV. Internet:

Bellandi, Deanna. “Obama and the Illinois Political Machine,” Washington Post,
February6, 2007
(2009/09/28)
Bilandic, Michael A. “An inventory of the collection at the University of Illinois at Chicago,” the University of Illinois at Chicago Library, 2008, (2010/04/11)
McCarthy, Thomas C. “Defeated in bid for re-election, Gunther pursues other interests: heading a hospital & a suburban railroad,” New York Correction History Society, 2001, < http://74.125.153.132/search?q=cache:NaKXTFBoLz8J:www.correctionhistory.org/html/chronicl/gunther/gunther07.html+McKeon+Democracy+Tammany+Hall&cd=4&hl=zh-TW&ct=clnk&gl=tw > (2010/03/12)
Karnoutsos, Carmela “Frank Hague, 1876-1956 Mayor of Jersey City, 1917-1947 (Retired),” Jersey City Past and Present, 2001, (2010/04/20)
Orum, Anthony. “Governing the Metropolis”, the Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, 2005, http://encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/531.html (2010/05/10)
Mayfield, Loomis. “Government, City of Chicago”, the Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago, 2005, < http://encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/532.html> (2010/05/10)
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