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系統識別號 U0002-0607200717211400
中文論文名稱 無人直昇機之系統鑑別應用於R90直昇機
英文論文名稱 System Identification of Unmanned Helicopter: Applications to R-90
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aerospace Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 曾仁宏
研究生英文姓名 Jen-Hung Tseng
電子信箱 694370767@s94.tku.edu.tw
學號 694370767
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-07-02
論文頁數 50頁
口試委員 指導教授-蕭富元
委員-蕭飛賓
委員-王怡仁
委員-蕭富元
中文關鍵字 系統鑑別  旋翼機  Raptor-90  無人飛行器 
英文關鍵字 system identification  rotorcraft  Raptor-90  unmanned aerial vehicle 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學航空太空
中文摘要 本論文在探討發展小型自主飛行直昇機”翔蛉”(H-ling, 為雷虎翼手龍90級搖控直昇機)的參數化模型,及利用頻域響應的系統鑑別技術來重建R-90的動力學模型。本研究的目的,則是為了自主停懸的姿態控制器設計做準備。因為考量到日後控制器設計的應用,本研究採用轉移函數(transfer function)做為探討的動力學模型,而且此模型亦考慮了平衡桿(stabilizer bar)對整體動力的影響。
本論文同時採用多種演算理論和軟體來探討這問題。首先, 我們使用 ARX 來做為演算法則, 並用現有的Yamaha R-50參數,來驗證本演算法的可用性。然後我們把ARX所得到的結果,拿來做為另外兩種演算法 – CIFER 和 PEM 的參考,並和這兩種演算法所得的結果交互比對。 本文亦提供若干數值模擬的結果,以驗證結果的可靠度。希望有朝一日,能將本論文中的研究成果推廣並發展出一架具有全功能性的自主飛行懸翼機。
英文摘要 The development of a parameterized model for a small-scale unmanned helicopter “H-ling” (a Thunder Tiger Raptor-90) and its identification using a frequency domain identification technique are described in this thesis. The construction of the R-90 dynamics using system ID techniques in this work is for potential applications to the control of autonomous hovering. Taking into consideration the future controller design, we adopt transfer functions of main channels as our dynamics model that explicitly accounts for the stabilizer bar, which has a strong influence on the flight dynamics characteristics.
Several algorithms and software are utilized to investigate this problem. In specific, we first adopt ARX as the primary identification algorithm, whose applicability has been verified with the Yamaha R-50 parameters. Results obtained from ARX are then cross-checked with those from CIFER and PEM. Numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the validity of our results. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to extend the current work to build a fully functional autonomous rotorcraft.
論文目次 Contents
List of Figures iii
List of Tables v
Nomenclature vi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation ................................................................... 1
1.2 Literature Review ........................................................... 2
1.3 Research Methodology ................................................... 2
1.4 Characteristics of R-90 ................................................... 3
1.5 Flight Test Equipment .................................................... 4
2 Dynamics Model 7
2.1 General equations of motion .......................................... 7
2.2 Coupling Dynamics of Fuselage and Rotor ................... 9
2.3 Yaw Dynamics and Flybar Dynamics ........................... 12
2.4 Overall model ................................................................ 13
2.5 Transfer function at hovering ........................................ 15
3 System Identification 17
3.1 Mathematics Background ............................................. 18
3.2 Applicability of ARX .................................................... 21
4 R-90 Dynamics Construction 24
4.1 Data Collection ............................................................. 24
4.2 Identified Dynamics using ARX ................................... 28
4.3 Identified dynamics using CIFER ................................ 30
4.4 Identified grey-model of R-90 by using PEM .............. 38
4.5 Discussion ..................................................................... 38
5 Conclusion and Future Work 43
5.1 Conclusion .....................................................................43
5.2 Future Work .................................................................. 44
Bibliography 49

List of Figures
1.1 Finished products for PWM Decoder circuit .................. 6
2.1 The Axis System ............................................................. 8
2.2 Definition of Rotor Parameters ..................................... 10
2.3 Definition of Rotor Parameters ..................................... 10
2.4 Definition of Rotor Parameters ..................................... 11
2.5 Flybar Mechanisms ....................................................... 12
3.1 Applicability of ARX algorithm .................................... 21
3.2 The Bode plot of p(s)=δlat(s). The solid line denotes the original system
while the dashed line denotes identified system ................. 22
3.3 The Bode plot of q(s)=δlon(s). The solid line denotes the original system
while the dashed line denotes identified system ................. 22
3.4 The Bode plot of r(s)=δped(s). The solid line denotes the original system
while the dashed line denotes identified system …………. 23
3.5 The Bode plot of w(s)=δcol(s). The solid line denotes the original system
while the dashed line denotes identified system ................. 23
4.1 Sample of lateral records ............................................... 27
4.2 Sample of longitudinal records ..................................... 27
4.3 Collected input data using X-Plane ............................... 28
4.4 Collected output data using X-Plane ............................. 29
4.5 Frequency response of experimental data and identified model for p(s)=δlat(s) 30
4.6 Frequency response of experimental data and identi‾ed model for Á(s)=±lat(s) 31
4.7 Frequency response of experimental data and identi‾ed model for q(s)=±lon(s) 31
4.8 Frequency response of experimental data and identi‾ed model for µ(s)=±lon(s) 32
4.9 Flow Chart for NAVFIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.10 Identi‾ed frequency response of p(s)=±lat(s) using CIFER . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.11 Identi‾ed frequency response of q(s)=±lon(s) using CIFER . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.12 Identi‾ed frequency response of r(s)=±ped(s) using CIFER . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.13 Identi‾ed frequency response of w(s)=±col(s) using CIFER . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.14 Flow chart with identi‾ed grey-model of R-90 by using PEM . . . . . . . . 40
4.15 Compare °ight data identi‾ed grey-model of R-90 by using PEM . . . . . . 41
4.16 Predict error with identi‾ed grey-model of R-90 by using PEM . . . . . . . 42

List of Tables
1.1 Characteristics of R-90 . . . . . 4
1.2 Performance of Crossbow AHRS400CC-100. . . 5
1.3 Performance of GPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1 Compare time constant with identi‾ed and theoretical . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2 Scaling rules of Froude and March . . . . . 33

參考文獻 Bibliography
[1] H. Baruh. Analytical Dynamics. McFraw-Hill, 1999.
[2] R. Chen. Effects of primary rotor parameters on flapping dynamics. Technical Report TP 1431, NASA, 1980.
[3] M. Elshafei, S. Akhtar, and M. S. Ahmed. Parametric models for helicopter identification using ann. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 36(4):1242-1252, 2000.
[4] S. K. Kim and D. M. Tilbury. Mathematical modeling and experimental identification of an unmanned helicopter robot with flybar dynamics. Journal of Robotic Systems,
21(3):95{116, 2004.
[5] L. Ljung. System identification theory for the user. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, second edition, 1999.
[6] L. Ljung. System Identification Toolbox 7 User's Guide. The Mathworks Inc., 2007.
[7] B. Mettler. Identification modeling and characteristics of miniature rotorcraft. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2003.
[8] B. Mettler, C. Dever, and E. Feron. Identification modeling, flying qualities, and dynamic scaling of miniature rotorcraft. International Conference on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). 15th. Held in Las Vegas, pages 511-515, 2002.
[9] B. Mettler, M. Tischler, and T. Kanade. System identification of a model-scale helicopter. Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-00-03, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, January 2000.
[10] J. C. Morris, M. van Nieuwstadt, and P. Bendotti. Identification and control of a model helicopter in hover. American Control Conference, 2:1238-1242, 1994.
[11] G. D. Padfield. Helicopter flight dynamics : the theory and application of flying qualities and simulation modelling. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1996.
[12] H. M. Raghunath. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic model testing. Bombay : Asia Publishing House, 1967.
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