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中文論文名稱 歐盟生質燃料的發展—能源永續性之探討與評估
英文論文名稱 A Debate on Biofuel in the European Union: Energy Sustainability Scheme
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 陳怡欣
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Sin Chen
學號 695290436
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-01-07
論文頁數 154頁
口試委員 指導教授-苑倚曼
委員-楊之遠
委員-高思懷
中文關鍵字 歐盟  再生能源  生質燃料  生質酒精  生質柴油  石油危機  糧食危機 
英文關鍵字 biomass  biofuel  bio-energy  bio-refinery  EU  Europeanization  Biofuel Directive  renewable energy  oil crisis  food crisis  Sustainable Development 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文旨在探討近年來爭議聲浪高漲的液態生質燃料,聚焦該替代能源於歐盟地區的發展與政策研究。促使歐盟發展生質燃料的外部因素,主要為七零、八零年代的石油危機,京都議定書象徵的國際間減少碳排放量趨勢,以及讓歐盟越來越感到急迫的能源自主(以避免繼續被俄國以天然氣供應與否要脅)。
  本論文的研究目的,在於辯證以下兩個層次:
(一) 歐體於2003年頒布的生質燃料指令,是否促使各會員國的生質燃料使用比率趨同?
(二) 綜觀歐盟所需的進口或自產生質燃料之料源、會員國之再生能源法規與環境稅、各
會員國的生產能力等,除了有助於評估第一個辯證層次,大規模種植陸生能源作物引發的糧食危機等負面現象,以及種種生質燃料的正負面影響都將在第二個辯證層次討論。
  論文主要可分為四個大區塊:歐洲料源、歐盟與會員國政策、生質燃料導致的全球性負面影響與正面功能、生質燃料科技與研發的趨勢。筆者認為並非所有區域都適合採用生質燃料做為交通部門的替代能源,應該以該地區的生質燃料料源供應穩定與否,以及料源的耕種與生質燃料製造過程是否合乎永續性為前提做初步評估;歐盟各國政府推行的政策與課稅或減稅方式,或許也能提供臺灣當局作為再生能源稅法與相關法規制定的參考。
  此外,筆者綜合論文兩個層次、與四大區塊的研究,導出的結論為:
(一) 生質燃料的推動與發展需經過審慎的環境評估;
(二) 朝向永續性的能源生產與消費模式,除了政府與企業有責任外,民眾(消費者)的
自覺與落實環境教育才是決定合乎永續生產之商品充滿市場競爭力的重要因素;
(三) 相較於歐洲土地幅員廣大,台灣地小人稠,應朝向海洋資源的永續利用,投入研發藻類生質燃料以及其他第二代、第三代生質燃料。
英文摘要 As the climate change issue under spotlight, governments and officials all over the world are looking for solution by inter-governmental conference and agreement as Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, under the shadow of the oil crisis in the 70’s and 80’s, many western industry countries have begun to develop and invest in renewable energy; for European Union, renewable energy is not just to combat with climate change, but also a key for regional energy security.

Among the renewables, biofuel gains a lot of critique and attention these year mostly because of food crisis. This thesis aims at evaluating and analyzing the biofuel development in the EU through two perspectives of debate:
1. Whether there will be “Europeanization” between EU Member States? And whether the target of Biofuel Directive is realistic and effective in the promotion of biofuel?
2. The positive and negative side of first generation biofuel development—points of view from both the pro-biofuel camps and the anti-biofuel camps.

This thesis will survey the debate based on the biofuel feedstock, EU-level and national level policy, consequence of the first generation biofuel, and biofuel R&D and technology in the near future. To achieve the ultimate goal—energy sustainability—the critique will infuse environmental concern to form the debate; namely, thorough environmental impact assessment must be done before launching biofuel promotion, and it is not just the government and business have to pay attention to sustainable development, individuals are also responsible for their consumer behavior.
論文目次 Contents
Chapter I. Introduction...............................................................................................1
I-1. Proposal.....................................................................................................................1
I-2. Approach...................................................................................................................2
I-3. Structure.....................................................................................................................3
I-4. Restriction of researches............................................................................................8
I-5. Nomenclature.............................................................................................................8
I-6. Summary of successive chapters...............................................................................9
Chapter II. EU’s biofuel resources and application (practice)................................11
II-1. Biofuel resources(energy crops) in the member states.....................................11
(II-1.1)Virgin Biomass--Terrestrial Biomass and Aquatic Biomass.................................11
Terrestrial Biomass—energy crops...................................................................13
Terrestrial Biomass—Land Use for energy crops.............................................17
Aquatic Biomass...............................................................................................18
Member States’ biofuel and biomass resources................................................20
(II-1.2)Waste Biomass—Municipal Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes.....................22
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).........................................................................23
Agricultural Solid Wastes..................................................................................25
II-2. Bioethanol and Biodiesel classification..............................................................29
Early history of ethanol application..................................................................29
Characteristic of Bioethanol..............................................................................30
Early history of vegetable diesel application....................................................32
Characteristic of Biodiesel................................................................................34
Chapter III. Towards Sustainable Development:EU’s biofuel policy...................39
III-1. EU’s sustainable strategy towards world trend...............................................39
(III-1.1)A Historical Snap-shot of Sustainable Development in the world context..........39
(III-1.2)EU’s Greening path..............................................................................................42
(a)White Paper and Green Paper.......................................................................42
1997 White Paper—Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy.......42
2000 Green Paper—Towards a European strategy for the security of energy
supply................................................................................................................44
(b)2001 Göteborg European Council................................................................46
III-2. Biofuel policy—EU level....................................................................................49
(III-2.1) Biofuel Directive.................................................................................................49
(a)Content of Biofuel Directive.........................................................................49
(b)Outcome of implementation.........................................................................52
(III-2.2)Biomass Action Plan (COM(2005) 628 final)&EU strategy for biofuels
(COM (2006) 34 final)......................................................................................................55
(III-2.3)Common Agriculture Policy—with regard to EU’s biofuel promotion...............56
III-3. Biofuel policy—National policy versus Regional policy.................................57
(III-3.1)Biofuel use in Sweden..........................................................................................58
(III-3.2)Biofuel use in Germany........................................................................................65
(III-3.3)Biofuel use in France............................................................................................73
(III-3.4)Biofuel use in other Member States—which is abundant in agro-feedstock.......82
(III-3.5)Biofuel use in other Member States.....................................................................84
(III-3.6)Internalize the externality : Eco-tax, Carbon tax, Environmental tax..................85
Chapter IV. Emerging debate derived from biofuel : positive and negative
concerns...........................................................................................................................89
IV-1. Doubt and worry go along with social and environmental outcome..............90
Malthus on population.......................................................................................................90
The limits to growth..........................................................................................................91
(a)Economic and social impact: food price hikes...............................................94
(b)Ecological degradation...................................................................................95
-Deforestation......................................................................................................95
-Biodiversity losses in Europe/ tropical countries..............................................96
-Consequence followed intensive agriculture.....................................................96
(c)Net energy output...........................................................................................97
(d)Regarding North –South................................................................................97
IV-2. Feasible technological innovation and effort....................................................98
(a)Role as CO2-cutting salvation........................................................................98
(b)Replace the running-out and pollutant fossil fuel..........................................99
(c)Convenience.................................................................................................103
(d)Comparison with other alternative fuel/ substitute energy in the transport
sector.................................................................................................................103
(e)Invigorate rural development.......................................................................104
IV-3. Interim summary..............................................................................................104
Chapter V. EU’s biofuel development—emerging and future R&D orientations107
V-1. Biomass & Bio-energy.......................................................................................107
(a)Photosynthesis—energy requiring process.................................................................107
(b)Aerobic respiration—energy-releasing process..........................................................108
(c)Anaerobic respiration & fermentation........................................................................109
(d)The role of enzyme.....................................................................................................110
V-2. Bioenergy technology and R&D orientation....................................................113
(a) Biomass conversion technology................................................................................113
(b) Bio-refinery: a Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE).......................................115
Chapter VI. Conclusion—toward a sustainable production and consumption chain
.......................................................................................................................................119
Bibliography..................................................................................................................125
Annex I Biofuel Directive..........................................................................................134
Annex II Biofuels Glossary.......................................................................................144
Annex III Bioethanol & Biodiesel development in Europe (from 1989 to 2007).146
Annex IV EU’s biodiesel standards..........................................................................154


Figures and tabl
es
Figure 1. Thesis structure, designed by author (Yi-sin Chen).............................................5
Figure 2. The three dimensions of biofuel practice.............................................................6
Figure 3. The three sectors involved in biofuel pratice.......................................................7
Figure 4. Renewable energy and exhaustible energy..........................................................8
Figure 5. Share of renewable energy and bioenergy on total gross inland consumption by country 2002..................................................................................................................................12
Figure 6. Primary energy production from renewable energy sources(EU-27,2005).......13
Figure 7. Productivity of different ecosystems.................................................................19
Figure 8. Primary energy potential of the theoretically available crop residues and livestock waste in EU-14............................................................................................................................28
Figure 9. Primary energy potential of the theoretically available crop residues and livestock waste in the Accession Countries................................................................................................28
Figure 10. Share of final energy consumption by sector in 2003, EU-25.........................49
Figure 11. Soil acidification (there is about 40% forest land in the black area)...............59
Figure 12. Primary energy supply in Sweden (2004)........................................................60
Figure 13. Domestic production in Sweden (2004)..........................................................61
Figure 14. Total energy supply in Sweden by 2006 energy carriers, 624 TWh................61
Figure 15. Primary energy supply in Germany (2004).....................................................66
Figure 16. Domestic production in Germany (2004)........................................................67
Figure 17. Contribution of renewables to final energy by type of source, 1975-2007.....68
Figure 18. Primary energy supply in France (2004).........................................................74
Figure 19. Domestic production in France (2004)............................................................75
Figure 20. Arable land.......................................................................................................92
Figure 21. Feedback loops of population, capital, agriculture, and pollution...................93
Figure 22. Outlook for world crop prices to 2016.............................................................94
Figure 23. Outlook for world livestock product prices to 2016........................................95
Figure 24. g CO2-eq per kWh fuel......................................................................................98
Figure 25. Photosynthesis...............................................................................................109
Figure 26. Lock and Key analogy...................................................................................111
Figure 27. Biofuel production processes.........................................................................115
Figure 28. Bio-refinery concept of NREL......................................................................116
Figure 29. The fully integrated agro-biofuel-biomaterial-biopower cycle for sustainable technologies....................................................................................................................117
Figure 30. Food, agriculture and biotechnology research: developing the KKBE
........................................................................................................................................118
Figure 31. Oikos—sustainable management of resources..............................................121
Figure 32. Biofuel share regarding Europeanization in year 2005.................................122
Figure 33. Biofuel filling station in EU...........................................................................123
Figure 34. Share of biofuels in total transport consumption 1994-2002.........................147
Table 1. Biofuel crops in Europe/imports.........................................................................14
Table 2. Other crops for energy and fuel use in Europe....................................................15
Table 3. Land use requirements for different biofuel-crop combinations.........................18
Table 4. Product/residues ratio (wet basis) and moisture content of the main agricultural crop residues for Europe............................................................................................................27
Table 5. Biodiesel and diesel standards in Europe............................................................35
Table 6. Progress in the use of biofuels in the Member States, 2003-2005......................52
Table 7. Swedish national land-use on biofuel crop..........................................................62
Table 8. Fuel quota from 2007 to 2015.............................................................................70
Table 9. Energy contents of biofuel and conventional fuel (Megajoule/Liter).................71
Table 10. Calculation of the minimum quota for biodiesel...............................................71
Table 11. Tax and tax rate on car CO2 emission (year 2006)...........................................78
Table 12. Tax and tax rate on car CO2 emission (year 2008-2012)..................................79
Table 13. Tax on car according to horsepower (year 2006)..............................................80
Table 14. Tax on car according to horsepower (from year 2008).....................................81
Table 15. EN 590 diesel specifications and VOME........................................................102
Table 16. EN 226 EuroSuper specifications and Ethanol/ VOME..................................103
Table 17. The contributions made by various RES to the Total Primary Energy Production in 1989 and 1998.................................................................................................................146
Table 18. Production of transport biofuels in 2002, 1000 tons oil equivalent................147
Table 19. EU-25 biofuel production in 2003...................................................................148
Table 20. Member States they only/mainly produce biodiesel (EU-27, 2004)...............148
Table 21. Member States they only/mainly produce bioethanol (EU-27, 2004).............149
Table 22. MSs produce no biofuel up to this statistics (EU-27, year 2004~2006).........150
Table 23. Other Member States (EU-27, 2004)...............................................................150
Table 24. Biofuels Consumption in European Union in 2005 (in toe)............................151
Table 25. Biofuels consumption for transport in European Union in 2006 (in toe)........152
Table 26. Biofuels consumption for transport in European Union in 2007 (in toe)........153
Equation 1. Simple equation of photosynthesis..............................................................107
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˙websites
(1) Official website
European Commission—Energy ( http://ec.europa.eu/energy/index_en.htm)

European Environment Agency (http://www.eea.europa.eu/ )

Intelligent Energy Europe (http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/)

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) (http://www.bmu.de/english/renewable_energy/aktuell/3860.php )

Ministère de l’Écologie, de l’Énergie, du Développement durable et de l’Aménagement du territoire (http://www.medad.gouv.fr/ )

(2) Company and business website
European Biomass Industry Association (http://www.eubia.org/188.0.html)

Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (http://www.ecn.nl/en/ )

Swedish Bioenergy Association (SVEBIO) (http://www.svebio.se/?p=780&m=523 )

European Biomass Association (www.aebiom.org)

(3) NGO website
Climate Action Network Europe, CAN-E (http://www.climnet.org/index.htm ) --NGO

(4)Chinese website
生質能源資訊網 (http://s-nova.tobid.tw/front/bin/home.phtml)

國科會化學中心—綠色/永續化學網路資源共享網 (http://gc.chem.sinica.edu.tw/index.html)


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