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系統識別號 U0002-0602201814481300
中文論文名稱 軟實力和文化外交:美國在台灣的交流計劃
英文論文名稱 Cultural Diplomacy Through Educational and Cultural Exchange Programs: The Case of Fulbright Program in Taiwan
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 莫妮卡
研究生英文姓名 Monica Katarina Ashley Jordan
學號 602330374
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-01-15
論文頁數 124頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-翁明賢
委員-曾怡碩
中文關鍵字 文化外交  富布萊特計劃  美國  台灣  軟實力 
英文關鍵字 Cultural Diplomacy  Fulbright Program  United States  Taiwan  Soft Power 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 摘要

外交是一種是複雜和具有挑戰性的軟力量,為促進世界國際關係,運作於「吸引力」和「合作」兩個面向。其中,文化外交(Cultural Diplomacy),定義為經由組織或個人交換思想、資訊、價值觀、傳統、藝術,來達到加強相互理解和雙方關係的目的。幾個世紀以來,每個人都參與了文化外交,然而,由於文化外交最近被作為一種理論,加上實踐行為上很少有經驗證據,這樣的外交形勢逐漸削弱中。

這項研究的目的在於探討透過Fulbright,這項加強國際關係中的文化外交,並加強實踐文化外交的計劃,來探索21世紀文化外交的重要性。

研究方法為文獻分析和定性研究。研究人員使用軟權力理論(Soft Power Theory)和邏輯模型(The Logic Model)作為框架,以幫助描述、分析和評估此項研究。

研究報告認為,台灣Fulbright的教育交流計劃帶出了不同的文化觀點,並且分析推斷出參與者的態度變化,是最直接干涉短期和長期外交的重點。研究指出,Fulbright計劃實現了美國21世紀文化外交的目標。


關鍵字: 文化外交,富布萊特計劃,美國,台灣,軟實力。
英文摘要 Diplomacy is an intricate and challenging practice of fostering relationships around the world. It is a tool of soft power, which operates in the aspects of ‘attraction’ and ‘cooperation.’ One of its branches is Cultural Diplomacy (CD) that is defined as the exchange of ideas, information, values, traditions, art and other aspects of culture practiced by institutions or individuals with the goal of enhancing mutual understanding and strengthening relationships. However, it continues to be undermined in international relations. The purpose of the study is to shed some light on the growing importance of CD in the 21st century. By exploring the Fulbright Program in Taiwan, it strengthens the cultural diplomacy in theory and in practice. The research methods are document analysis and qualitative approach. The researcher used soft power theory and ‘The Logic Model’ as the frameworks to describe, analyze, and assess the study. The research study concludes that the educational exchange program, Fulbright program in Taiwan, embodies outcomes with cultural aspects. The research study analyzes that the participants’ develop ‘attitude change.’ This is the most significant outcome, both intermediate and long lasting. The research concludes that the Fulbright program fulfills the goal of U.S. cultural diplomacy in the 21st century.
論文目次 Table of Contents


Table of Contents iii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Goal 4
1.2 Literature Review 6
1.2.1 Soft Power 6
1.2.2 Cultural Diplomacy 8
1.2.3 The American Experience: Cultural Diplomacy 11
1.2.4 American Educational and Cultural Exchange Programs 14
1.2.5 The Fulbright Program 16
1.2.6 Other Exchange Programs 18
1.3 Methodology 20
1.4 Scope and Limitations 21
1.5 Frameworks 23
1.5.1 Theoretical Framework 23
1.5.2 Conceptual Framework 26
1.6 Significance of the Study 29
1.7 Summary of Chapters 30
Chapter 2 Cultural Diplomacy 31
2.1 Cultural Diplomacy 31
2.1.1 Definition 32
2.1.2 Advantages 33
2.1.3 Challenges 35
2.2 The Relationship with Soft Power 36
2.2.1 Definition of Soft Power 37
2.2.2 Limitations of Soft Power 39
2.2.3 Advantages of Soft Power 41
2.2.4 Soft Power and Cultural diplomacy 41
2.2.5 Significance 43
2.3 A Tool of Cultural Diplomacy: International Exchange Programs 44
2.3.1 Cultural and Educational Exchange Programs 46
2.4 Summary 49
Chapter 3 The American Experience 52
3.1 U.S. Cultural Diplomacy 52
3.1.1 Brief Historical Background 54
3.1.2 Issues on American Cultural Diplomacy 57
3.2 American Exchange Programs 60
3.2.1 Role of American Exchange Programs 61
3.2.2 Educational Exchange Programs 63
3.2.3 Failed U.S. Cultural Diplomacy 65
3.3 Relationship with Other Countries 66
3.4 Summary 70
Chapter 4 The Fulbright Program 74
4.1 The Fulbright Program 75
4.2 Fulbright Program in Taiwan 77
4.2.1 The Establishment and Collaboration 78
4.2.2 The Exchanges and Grants 80
4.3 During The Obama Administration (2012-2016) 83
4.3.1 Funding 84
4.3.2 The Exchanges 92
4.3.3 Reflections 95
4.4 Summary 100
Chapter 5 Analysis and Assessment 104
5.1 Analysis 104
5.2 Assessment 107
Chapter 6 Conclusion 109
Bibliography 113



Table of Figures
Figure 1.1. 26
Figure 1.2. 29

Table of Graphs
Graph 4.1. 86
Graph 4.2. 87
Graph 4.3. 88
Graph 4.4. 89
Graph 4.5. 90
Graph 4.6. 91
Graph 4.7. 94
Graph 4.8. 95
Graph 4.9. 97
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U.S. State Department. The Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs: Fact Sheet. U.S.-Taiwan Relations. September 13, 2017. Accessed March 2, 2017. https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35855.htm.


Webpages

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “A Tradition of Excellence.” Accessed March 10, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/fulbright/fulbright-alumni/notable-fulbrighters.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “About Fulbright.” Accessed May 20, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/fulbright/about-fulbright/history/j-william-fulbright.


Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “About the Bureau: Office of Academic Exchanges.” Accessed May 23, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/about-bureau-0/organizational-structure/office-academic-exchanges.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Annual Report 2012.” PDF File. Accessed November 27, 2017, https://eca.state.gov/fulbright/about-fulbright/j-william-fulbright-foreign-scholarship-board-ffsb/ffsb-reports.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Annual Report 2013.” PDF file. Accessed November 27, 2017, https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/fulbright_annual_report_2013_web.pdf.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Annual Report 2014.” PDF File. Accessed November 27, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/ffsb-annual-report_final_printready_12-18.pdf.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Annual Report 2015.” PDF File. Accessed November 27, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/160909_ffsb-report-2015.pdf.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Annual Report 2015.” PDF File. Accessed November 27, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/160909_ffsb-report-2015.pdf.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Cultural Diplomacy.” In Programs and Initiatives. Accessed May 26, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/programs-and-initiatives.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “FFSB: Annual Reports.” PDF Files and Excel Files. Accessed November 27, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/fulbright/about-fulbright/j-william-fulbright-foreign-scholarship-board-ffsb/ffsb-reports.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Fulbright Program History.” Accessed March 20, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/fulbright/about-fulbright/history.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “History.” Accessed May 12, 2017. https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Bureau_of_Educational_and_Cultural_Affairs.html.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA). “Facts and Figures: ECA Facts and Infofigures.” Accessed March 17, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/impact/facts-and-figures.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Program History.” Accessed May 12, 2017. https://eca.state.gov/ivlp/about-ivlp/program-history.

Council for International Exchange of Scholars. “The Fulbright Program.” Accessed December 5, 2017. https://www.cies.org/sites/default/files/documents/CIES-US-VS-Brochure-2017.pdf.

Foundation for Scholarly Exchange. “What is Fulbright?.” Accessed on March 2, 2017. http://www.fulbright.org.tw/dispPageBox/MainEn.aspx?ddsPageID=FOSEENGHP&.

Fulbright Taiwan. “About Research and Reflections.” Accessed March 1, 2018. http://journal.fulbright.org.tw/index.php/homepage/about-research-reflections.

Fulbright Taiwan. “Cultural Insights.” Accessed May 27, 2017. http://journal.fulbright.org.tw/index.php/browse-topics/new-cultural-insights.

Fulbright Taiwan. “Fulbright Taiwan: Background.” Accessed November 12, 2017. http://taiwan-etaprogram.org/history.

Fulbright Taiwan. “The Fulbright Program: Grantees’ Profiles.” Accessed September 27, 2017. http://www.fulbright.org.tw/dispPageBox/CtEn.aspx?ddsPageID=FOSEENGEC&.

Fulbright Taiwan. “Fulbright Taiwan English Teaching Assistantship (ETA).” Accessed March 5, 2017. http://taiwan-etaprogram.org.

Institution of Cultural Diplomacy. “History of Cultural Diplomacy.” (N.d.). Accessed March 28, 2017. http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php?en_culturaldiplomacy.

Institution of Cultural Diplomacy. "What is Cultural Diplomacy.” Accessed October 13, 2014. http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php?en_culturaldiplomacy.

Le Forum des étudiants de Sciences Po et des IEP. “The Concept of Soft Power.” Accessed May 17, 2017. http://www.forum-scpo.com/geopolitique/concept-soft-power.htm.

National Geographic. “Diplomacy.” Accessed October 26, 2017, https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/diplomacy/.


Online Sources

Adamowicz, Stephanie. “21st Century Cultural Diplomacy Objectives,” Huffingtonpost, n.d.. Accessed November 12, 2017. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/stephanie-adamowicz/21st-century-cultural-dip_b_532683.html.

Badilllo, Angel. “Soft Power, Foreign Influence, and Cultural Diplomacy.” The Diplomat, December 6, 2010. Accessed May 15, 2017. http://thediplomatinspain.com/en/soft-power-foreign-influence-cultural-diplomacy/.

The Alliance of International and Cultural Exchange. “The Impact of International Exchange Programs.” PDF file. Accessed December 10, 2017. http://www.alliance-exchange.org/sites/default/files/2_Impact_of_Exchanges_2013_FINAL.pdf.

The Alliance for International Exchange. “Academic Exchange.” Accessed October 30, 2017. http://www.alliance-exchange.org/academic-exchange.

The Alliance for International Exchange. “The Role of International Exchanges.” Accessed November 2, 2017. http://www.alliance-exchange.org/role-exchanges.


Magazines

Wpengine. “Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy.” Public Diplomacy Magazine, January 1, 2010. Accessed March 17, 2017. http://www.publicdiplomacymagazine.com/soft-power-and-cultural-diplomacy/.


Web Images

Fulbright Program. “Photo Gallery.” American Institute in Taiwan. Accessed November 12, 2017. http://www.fulbright.org.tw/dispPageBox/CtEn.aspx?ddsPageID=PHOTO&kind=FULBRIGHT.
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