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系統識別號 U0002-0602200622171200
中文論文名稱 中文及英文之動詞語意與時貌在臺灣外語學習者時態詞素習得上所扮演之角色與影響
英文論文名稱 Taiwan EFL Learners' Acquisition of English Temporal Morphemes in Reference to Lexical Semantics of Verbs in Mandarin And English
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 李慧嫺
研究生英文姓名 Hui Hsien Lee
學號 890010076
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-01-09
論文頁數 244頁
口試委員 指導教授-范瑞玲
委員-林春仲
委員-陳秀潔
委員-魏叔倫
委員-劉顯親
中文關鍵字 時貌假設理論  詞素習得  母語的影響 
英文關鍵字 lexical aspect  the aspect hypothesis  verbal morphology 
學科別分類
中文摘要 於1970年代以來,外語學習者在時態(貌)詞素上的發展與習得一直是研究與教學者所著重的重點。語言學習者實際使用時態(貌)的狀況,無論正確與否,對於教學方法的設置與其是否有效是很重要的因素。因此本研究的目的在於調查動詞字尾詞素-ed與-ing的分佈是否符合時貌假設理論的預測,因為此可作為學生發展中第二語言時態系統的指標。此外,本研究的另一個目的則是調查學生的母語對於學習英文時態系統的角色與影響。
參與研究的人員共有105位主修英語的大學生。學生共參與五項測驗,分別是:寫作、克漏字、翻譯、翻譯選擇與時態(貌)選擇。測驗分兩階段實施,前三項測驗於第一階段發給受試者,相隔三週後復給與後兩項選擇測驗,所得資料藉由統計方式t檢定(t-test)、變異數分析(ANOVA)與時貌組內及跨組統計方式加以分析。
分析結果顯示受試者在使用動詞字尾詞素-ed與-ing時,的確符合時貌假設理論的預測。至於受試者母語對於發展中的英文時態系統的影響,本研究發現,在學習英文時,語言的形與意的發展並不同步。此外,時貌的發展較早或較優於時態,更發現受試者在英文現在完成式、過去完成式與動詞字尾詞素-ing的使用上,反映出母語的影響與限制。根據上述的發現研究者提出教學建議,本研究受限之處與未來研究的方向。
英文摘要 Since the morpheme studies of the 1970s, the investigation into how L2 learners acquire the tense and aspect morphology has been the focus of many descriptive and pedagogical accounts of languages. It is suggested that knowledge of how learners actually use the tense-aspect forms (both appropriately and inappropriately) would be a contributing factor to the implementation and effectiveness of certain pedagogical methodologies. Hence, the purpose of the study is to investigate whether the distributions of verbal inflections -ed and -ing were in accord with the predictions of Aspect Hypothesis since they are an indicator of the developing temporal system. In addition, the present study also concerns how temporal notions and structures of learners’ L1 affect their learning of English tense and aspect system.
Participants were 105 English majors from two universities and one institute of technology in northern Taiwan. They were asked to carry out a number of tasks including a narrative writing task, a cloze test, a translation test, a multiple choice test containing tense and aspect questions and a multiple choice translation test. Data were collected in two separate phases with an interval of three weeks and analyzed by means of across and within category analyses and SPSS. Specifically, the statistical procedures include descriptive analyses, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs.
The results indicate that learners’ use of verbal inflections -ed and -ing were in line with the predictions of aspect hypothesis in that the progressive -ing were mostly attached to activity verbs and the past -ed were often attached to accomplishment and achievement verbs. As to the role of L1 temporal notions in the development of English tense and aspect system, it is found that a) form and meaning did not develop to the same degree, b) aspect is developed prior to tense, and c) learners’ uses of English present perfect, past perfect and inflection -ing were under the constraint of their mother tongue. On the basis of the findings, pedagogical implications, the limitations of the present study and recommendations for further study are provided.
論文目次 Contents
Abstract (in Chinese) i
Abstract (in English) ii
Acknowledgements iv
Contents vi
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiv
References 201
List of Appendices 215

Chapter 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………...… 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study…………...………………………………………….. 3
1.3 Significance of the Study………………………………………………….. 6
1.4 Definitions of Terms………..………………………………….…………... 8
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation……..…………………………………….. 13
Chapter 2 Review of the Literature………………………………………………. 15
2.1 Tense and Aspect………………………………………………………...… 15
2.2 The Aspect Hypothesis………………………………………………….…. 18
2.3 Research on L1 Learners’ Development of Temporal Morphology……….. 21
2.4 Research on Aspect Hypothesis in L2 Acquisition……………………....… 26
2.5 Explanations for the Skewed Use of Verbal Inflections………………….... 30
2.5.1 The Discourse Hypothesis………………………………………….. 31
2.5.2 The Prototype Account……………………………………………... 34
2.5.3 The Distributional Bias Hypothesis……………………………...…. 37
2.6 Aspect Hypothesis Revisited and Motivation of the Study………………... 41
2.6.1 Tense and (Grammatical) Aspect of English………………………... 43
2.6.2 Aspects in Mandarin Chinese……………………………………….. 46
2.6.2.1 The Perfective Marker -le……………………………………. 50
2.6.2.2 The Imperfective Marker zai/-zhe……………….................... 52
2.6.2.3 The Experiential Marker -guo…….......................................... 54
2.6.3 A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Between Chinese and English
Aspectual Systems……...……………………………….................... 55
2.7 Summary of Chapter Two…………………………………………….. 64
Chapter 3 Methodology……………………………………………………………. 66
3.1 Research Questions and Hypotheses……………………………………….. 66
3.2 Methodology……………………………………………………………….. 67
3.2.1 Participants…………………………………………………………. 67
3.2.2 Procedures………………………………………………………….. 68
3.2.3 Data Collection and Instrumentation……………………………….. 73
3.2.4 Data Analysis……………………………………………………….. 78
3.3 Summary of Chapter Three……………………………………………...…. 89
Chapter 4 Results…………………………………………………………………... 90
4.1 The Influence of Lexical Aspect on the Use of Temporal Morphology:
The Written Narratives………………………………………………….… 91
4.1.1 The Distributions of the Progressive Marker -ing………………….. 93
4.1.2 The Distributions of the Past Tense Marker -ed……………………. 95
4.1.3 How Aspectual Categories Are Marked With Verbal Inflections........ 97
4.2 Across Category Analyses of Personal and Impersonal Narratives………… 101
4.3 The Influence of Lexical Aspect on the Use of Temporal Morphology:
The Cloze Tests…….…………………………………………………...… 103
4.3.1 The Distribution of the Progressive Marker -ing………………….... 103
4.3.2 The Distribution of the Past Tense Marker -ed………...………….... 105
4.3.3 The Distribution of Simple Verb Form and the Present Tense…..….. 105
4.3.4 How Aspectual Categories Are Marked With Verbal Inflections…… 106
4.4 Analyzing Form and Meaning: The Cloze Tests..………………………….. 107
4.5 Analyzing Tense and Aspect: The Multiple-Choice Test…..………………. 111
4.6 The Contrastive Notions and Temporal Structures Between Mandarin and English: The Translation Tests……………………….……………..…….. 115
4.6.1 Temporal Systems in English and Chinese…………………………. 117
4.6.1.1 Chinese Perfective vs. Past Tense in English………………... 118
4.6.1.2 Chinese Experiential -guo vs. English Experiential
“have been”………………………………………………………...... 121
4.6.1.3 Chinese Perfective/Experiential -guo With Adverb yijing and Sentence Final le Signaling Current Relevance vs. English Experiential……………...…….…………………………………….. 123
4.6.1.4 Chinese Past With Sentence Final le vs. Past Tense in English…………………………………………………………………..… 125
4.6.1.5 Chinese Perfective/Past With Sentence Final le and Adverbial
Phrase yijing vs. English Past Perfect/Past………………………..…. 127
4.6.1.6 Chinese Past vs. Past Tense in English……………………..... 129
4.6.1.7 Chinese Durative Marker -zhe vs. English Progressive
Marker -ing…………………………………………………………... 131
4.6.1.8 Chinese Durative Marker zai vs. English Progressive
Marker -ing…………………………………………………………... 133
4.6.1.9 The Influence of Lexical Aspect of si and Its English Renderings………………………………………………………........ 135
4.7 Summary of Chapter Four………………………………………………….. 137
Chapter 5 Discussion……………………………………………………………….. 140
5.1 Does the Interlanguage of Chinese-Speaking Learners of English Accord
With the Predictions of the Aspect Hypothesis?.....................................…. 140
5.1.1 The Distribution of the Progressive Marker -ing............................… 140
5.1.2 The Distribution of the Past Tense Marker -ed…..…………………. 144
5.1.3 Across Category Analyses of Personal and Impersonal Narratives…. 147
5.2 Can Aspect Hypothesis Account for the Non-Target-Like Use or Absence of Verbal Inflections in Learners’ Developing Interlanguage?…………….… 149
5.2.1 The Absence of Verbal Inflections and Non-Target-Like Use……… 149
5.2.2 The Distribution of Simple Verb Form………………………….….. 151
5.3 Does Learners’ Mother Tongue Have an Effect on Their Developing L2 Tense-Aspect System?......……………………………………….....……... 157
5.3.1 The Development of Form and Meaning in the Temporal System:
The Cloze Tests………………………………………………..…….. 158
5.3.2 The Development of Tense vs. That of Aspect……………………… 160
5.3.3 The Contrastive Notions and Temporal Structures: Mandarin vs.
English…………………………………………………………...…... 168
5.3.3.1 Chinese Perfective -le…………………………………...…... 169
5.3.3.2 Chinese Experiential: -guo……………………………...….... 174
5.3.3.3 Chinese Experiential -guo With Adverbial Phrase yijing and Sentence Final le……………………….………………………...…... 175
5.3.3.4 Chinese Past Expressed by Adverbial Phrase zuotian wanshang With Sentence Final le……………………………………….…..…... 180
5.3.3.5 Chinese Perfective/Past Expressed by Adverbial Phrases
zuotian wanshang and yijing With Sentence Final le Indicating
Current Relevance………………………………………….…..….… 181
5.3.3.6 Chinese Past Expressed by Adverbial Phrase zuotian wanshang
or Chronological Order of Events…….………………….…..….…... 183
5.3.3.7 Chinese Durative Marker -zhe vs. English Progressive -ing… 187
5.3.3.8 Chinese Durative Marker zai vs. English Progressive
Marker -ing…………………………………………………………... 190
5.3.3.9 The Influence of Lexical Aspect of si and Its English
Renderings………………………………………………………….... 191
5.4 Summary of Chapter Five...............................……....................................... 192
Chapter 6 Conclusions……………………………………………………………... 194
6.1 The Effect of Lexical Aspect on the Distribution of Temporal Morphology
in L2………………………………………………...…………………….. 194
6.2 The Influence of Learners’ Mother Tongue (Mandarin) on Their Perception
and Understanding of the L2 Temporal System…………………………... 195
6.3 Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………… 198
6.4 Limitations and Recommendations for Further Study……………………… 199

References…………………………………………………………………………… 201
Appendices………………………………………………………………………….. 215
List of Tables
2.1 Semantic features for Vendlerean classification of inherent lexical aspect..…….. 19
2.2 Research on Aspect Hypothesis in second language acquisition………….…….. 26
2.3 A cross-linguistic comparison between Chinese and English aspectual
systems………………………………………………………………………….. 56
3.1 The criteria and cutoff points for participant placement……………………….… 71
4.1 An overview of the across category analysis of the predicates in narratives……………………………………………………………………….. 92
4.2 The across category analysis of the predicates in participants’ narratives………. 94
4.3 An overview of the within category analysis of the predicates in narratives……………………………………………………………………….. 96
4.4 An overview of the across category analysis of the predicates in the personal
and impersonal narratives…………………………………….………………… 102
4.5 The across category analysis of the eight predicates in the cloze tests…...……... 104
4.6 Bivariate correlation of scores of official GEPT and of sample GEPT………….. 108
4.7 Learners’ scores on form and meaning in the cloze tests………………….…….. 109
4.8 One-way ANOVA: Formal accuracy and meaning accuracy……………………. 109
4.9 LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learner scores……...……………. 110
4.10 T-test pertaining to scores on formal accuracy and meaning accuracy..……….. 111
4.11 The relative degrees of difficulty on the basis of learners’ correct responses
in the tense-aspect multiple-choice test………………………………...………. 112
4.12 Learners’ scores on tense and aspect questions………………………………… 112
4.13 One-way ANOVA: Tense scores and aspect scores..……………...………….… 113
4.14 LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learner scores…….…………….. 114
4.15 T-test pertaining to scores on tense and aspect questions…..…………………... 114
4.16 Learners’ scores of the two translation tests…………………………..………... 115
4.17 T-test comparing mean scores of production tests and performance tests……… 115
4.18 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on overall performance…………. 116
4.19 LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learner scores………………….. 116
4.20 Learners’ scores on test item #1 and #5……………………………….………... 119
4.21 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the
performance test………………………………………………………………... 119
4.22 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance
in #1 and #5…………………………………………………………….………. 120
4.23 LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learner scores………………….. 120
4.24 Learners’ scores on test item #8…………………… ………………………….. 121
4.25 T-test comparing mean scores of #8 in the production test and in the
comprehension test………………..…………………….……………..……….. 122
4.26 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance
in #8…………………………………………………………………………….. 122
4.27 LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learners scores....…………….… 123
4.28 Learners’ scores on test item #10 and #14……………………..……………….. 124
4.29 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the comprehension test…………………………………………………………….. 125
4.30 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance
in test item #10 and #14………………………………………………………… 125
4.31 Learners’ scores on test item #7…………………………….....................…….. 126
4.32 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the comprehension test……………………………………………………..………. 126
4.33 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance
in test item #7…………………………………………………………….…….. 127
4.34 Learners’ scores on test item #3……………………………………..…………. 128
4.35 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the comprehension test……………………………………………………….….…. 128
4.36 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance in
test item #3………………………………………………………...…………… 129
4.37 Learners’ scores on test item #12 and #16……………………..……………….. 130
4.38 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the
comprehension test……………………………………………………………... 130
4.39 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance in
test item #12 and #16…………………………………………………………... 131
4.40 Learners’ scores on test item #19…………………………..…………………... 132
4.41 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the comprehension test……………………………………………………….…….. 132
4.42 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance in
test item #19….………………………………………………………………… 133
4.43 Learners’ scores on test item #9………….……………………………….……. 133
4.44 T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the comprehension test…………..…………………………………………………. 134
4.45 One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance in
test item #9……………………………………………………………………... 134
4.46. LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learner scores…………………. 135
4.47. Learners’ scores on test item #13 and #20…………………………………….. 136
4.48. T-test comparing mean scores of the production test with those of the comprehension test……………………………………………….…………….. 136
4.49. One-way ANOVA: The effect of proficiency on learners’ performance in
test item #20……….…………………………………………….……………... 136
4.50. LSD post hoc: English proficiency levels and learner scores….……………… 137
List of Figures

5.1 Distribution of past -ed across aspectual categories……………………….…….. 152
5.2 The use of English present tense on states…………………………………….… 153
5.3 Distribution of progressive -ing across aspectual categories……………………. 154
5.4 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #1…………………………………….. 172
5.5 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #5…………………………………….. 173
5.6 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #8…………………………………….. 175
5.7 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #10…………………………………… 177
5.8 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #14………………………………….... 179
5.9 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #7…………………………………….. 181
5.10 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #3…………………………………… 183
5.11 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #12………………………………….. 185
5.12 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #16………………………………….. 186
5.13 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #19………………………………….. 189
5.14 Crosstabulation of English renderings of #20………………………………….. 192
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