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系統識別號 U0002-0509201122041900
中文論文名稱 學習環境以及其對第二語言習得之影響
英文論文名稱 Learning Context and its Effects on SLA: A Comparative Study of Taiwanese English Language Learners and Their Beliefs
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 史芬妮
研究生英文姓名 Stephanie Linnk
學號 698110748
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-08-22
論文頁數 69頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡映雪
委員-Forsythe, Ruth M
委員-胡映雪
委員-蔡瑞敏
中文關鍵字 學習環境  第二語言習得  台灣英語學習者  信念  影響 
英文關鍵字 context  SLA  Taiwanese English language learners  beliefs  effects 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 本研究在調查學生對在習得文法、字彙以及閱讀理解技巧時,學生對於環境所扮演的角色之信念。參與者為七十八位擁用相似母語被背景的非英語為母語的學習者。此研究根據國內大學或是在國外美國中西部留學學習英語的環境將研究參與者分成兩組,並透過密西根測驗比較英語技巧習得。本研究目的有兩部份,第一、闡明在目標語環境裡學習,是增進語言學習各方面最好方式之假定;第二、比較學生在語言發展裡對於語言學習與環境所扮演的角色之信念。第一個研究目的透過相隔大約六個月之密西根測驗的前、後測來評量文法、字彙以及閱讀理解。為達到第二個研究目的,兩個學習環境裡各組出一組參與者;兩組都參與了面談來了解他們對於學習環境與第二語言學習的觀點。初步的研究結果顯示在國外學習的學生在所有方面都進步,但在字彙方面的結果有統計上的顯著性,等於在總得分上有成長。此成長可歸功於密集作業、主動及自然的學習過程、互動時間、自我努力的結合。相對之下,在國內大學學習的學生除了閱讀之外,在其它方面都退步,尤其文法及字彙方面在統計上有顯著的退步,原因包括缺乏密集作業、學習被動、互動時間有限、在密集的標準化測驗後,不願學習以及缺乏自我學習和互動的課外接觸。經主要分析後,結果顯示數據上三個主要的趨勢,第一、在國外學習環境之下,廣泛的第二語言接觸是必要的,能讓文法充分累積,同時也迅速學到字彙;第二、台灣成功的英語雜誌業可說略提升了在國內大學學習之學生的閱讀理解力,這也是國內大學學習環境唯一進步的技能;第三、即使學生對於他們的學習經驗有很深的感覺,但他們的信念通常跟他們的學習成就這事實有所衝突。結果整體證明在環境所提供的資源跟學生如何交互利用這些資源之間擁有強烈的關係是非常重要的。
英文摘要 The current study investigates students’ beliefs about the role of context in the acquisition of grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension skills. Participants included 78 non-native speakers of English with similar L1 backgrounds. They comprised two groups according to their English learning in one of two learning contexts—an at-home university (AH) in Taiwan and a study-abroad (SA) setting in the Midwest United States. The study compares the acquisition of English skills observed through the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP). The purpose of the study is twofold: (1) to shed light on the assumption that studying in the target language context is the best way to improve various aspects of language learning, (2) to compare students’ beliefs about language learning and the role of context in their linguistic development. The first purpose was investigated through a pre- and posttest, approximately six months apart, using the MTELP, which measures knowledge of grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. Two focus groups were formed for the second goal of the study, one group from each learning context. The two groups participated in interviews based on their perspectives of the learning context and their L2 learning. Preliminary findings showed that SA students improved in all areas, but results were statistically significant in vocabulary, which equaled a gain in total test scores. This gain is attributable to a combination of intense coursework, active and natural learning processes, time of interaction, and self-initiated efforts. Comparatively, the AH students decreased in all areas except reading, but showed statistically significant decreases in grammar and vocabulary because of lack in intense coursework, passiveness in learning, limited time of interaction, unwillingness to study after intense standardized testing, and lack of self-initiated learning and interactive out-of-class contact. After primary analysis, main findings uncovered three main trends in data: (1) extended L2 exposure while in the SA context is needed to accumulate sufficient gains in grammar while SA vocabulary is quickly acquired, (2) the successful English magazine industry of Taiwan has arguably led to the marginal gain in AH reading comprehension, the only improved skill in the AH context, and (3) although students had deep perceptions based on their learning experiences, their beliefs often conflicted with the reality of their achievements. The entirety of these findings demonstrate the importance of having a strong relationship between what the context offers and how the student utilizes these offerings interactively. Nonetheless, the circumstances are ever-changing for stakeholders in education and so is the need to investigate contexts from in-depth comparative angles.


論文目次 Table of Contents
Page
Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................…...iii
中文摘要 .......................................................................................................................................iv
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………v
List of Tables..................................................................................................................................ix
List of Figures.................................................................................................................................x
Chapter 1: Introduction....................................................................................................................1
Background.................................................................................................................................1
Purpose of the Study...................................................................................................................4
Chapter 2: Review of Literature......................................................................................................6
Contextualized Research Measuring the Gains in L2 Grammar................................................8
Contextualized Research Measuring the Gains in L2 Vocabulary...........................................11
Contextualized Research Measuring the Gains in L2 Reading Comprehension......................13
Students' Beliefs about Language Learning..............................................................................16
Chapter 3: Methods and Materials.................................................................................................21
Participants................................................................................................................................21
Setting.......................................................................................................................................22
Procedure..................................................................................................................................23
Materials and Data Collection.............................................................................................24
Data Analysis.......................................................................................................................25
Chapter 4: Results..........................................................................................................................27
Paired-samples T-test................................................................................................................30
One-way Between-Groups ANOVA with Planned Comparisons............................................32
Focus Group Interviews............................................................................................................34
In-class Context...................................................................................................................36
Out-of-class Learning..........................................................................................................41
Additional Beliefs about Language Learning......................................................................45
Discussion.................................................................................................................................50
Grammar Knowledge……………………………………………………………….……..51
Vocabulary Acquisition…………………………………………………………………...53
Reading Comprehension…………………………………………………………………..56
Conclusions....................................................................................................................................58
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research…………………….……………...….62
References......................................................................................................................................65
Appendices.....................................................................................................................................68

List of Tables

Table 1 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test of Normality among Dependent Variables within Groups....................................................................................................................28
Table 2 Paired Sample T-test for Difference in Pre- and Posttest Results within the At-home Context...................................................................................................................30
Table 3 Paired Sample T-test for Difference in Pre- and Posttest Results within the Study-abroad Context.......................................................................................................31
Table 4 One-way Analysis of Variance for Effects between Contexts on Four Dependent Variables................................................................................................................33
Table 5 Comparative Beliefs about General Language Learning in Two Different Contexts.................................................................................................................44

List of Figures
Figure 1 Institute of International Education’s Open Doors Report on International Student Trends across the U.S....................................................................................................2
Figure 2 Means between Two Groups and Four Variables Representing Differences from
Pretest to Posttest........................................................................................................32

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