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系統識別號 U0002-0508201912254000
中文論文名稱 探討採購管理系統開發過程之需求變更
英文論文名稱 Exploring the changing requirements in the development process of the procurement management system.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Information Management
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 謝旻芳
研究生英文姓名 Min-Fang Shieh
學號 605630051
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2019-06-01
論文頁數 52頁
口試委員 指導教授-游佳萍
委員-黃莉君
委員-解燕豪
委員-游佳萍
中文關鍵字 需求變更  需求種類  紮根理論  採購管理系統 
英文關鍵字 Requirement Change  requirement type  grounding theory  procurement management system 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究之主要目的為了解在系統開發過程中,需求發生變動的過程和最後的結果。本研究以一個開發18個月的客製化採購管理系統專案為對象進行研究,依照紮根理論的方法,分成三個步驟來歸納分析系統開發過程中的文件資料。此外,本研究更進一步將資料按照系統開發生命週期,分成規劃階段、分析設計階段以及實作安裝與維護階段三個部分進行觀察分析。
本研究發現如下:一、在客製化系統的專案中,使用者是一個關鍵核心。二、客製化系統的開發過程中,主要是由技術配合實務。三、技術需求變更會在系統開發之初,大量被提出改進。四、若只考慮技術上的變動原因,技術需求的變更會隨系統發展而降低。五、技術需求的變更次數到系統開發後期沒有大幅降低,是因為其中有部分為新增加的技術需求。六、企業流程將依循系統的發展逐漸適應系統產生合適的流程。
根據研究結果本研究建議:(1)使用單位在指派關鍵使用者時要慎重,確保由業務經驗豐富、熟悉業務流程且表達能力良好的使用者擔任。(2)在客製化系統專案中,技術人員要優先讓系統達成使用者期望的結果。(3)由熟練的技術人員對使用者需求進行評估比較有參考價值,可以提早分析出無法達成的需求,避免浪費人力又造成專案進度壓力。(4)估算出準確的開發工時,有助於專案管理員安排專案時程。(5)專案管理員可以在開發後期預留一些時間給可能出現的需求改進,並在系統分析設計一開始,優先釐清系統的流程與權限。
英文摘要 The main objective of this study is to understand the process and the final result of requirements change during system development. This research is based on an 18-month customized procurement management system project. According to the grounded theory, it is divided into three steps to summarize and analyze the documents in the process of system development. In addition, the data is divided into three parts according to the System Development Life Cycle: Planning Stage, analysis and design stage and implementation, installation and maintenance stage. The conclusions of this study are as follows:
1. The user was a key core in the customization project. 2. In the development process of customization system, it was mainly made up of technology and practice 3. Changes in technical requirements were often introduced at the beginning of system development. 4. If only the reasons for technical changes were taken into account, changes in technical requirements would decrease with the development of the system. 5. The number of changes in technology requirements did not decrease significantly towards the end of the system development period because some of these changes were due to additional technology requirements. 6. The enterprise process would follow the development of the system to gradually adapt to the system to produce appropriate processes.
Based on our findings, first, we suggested the organizations should be careful in assigning key users, ensuring that they are filled by users with business experience, familiarity with business processes, and good presentation skills. Second, for the customization system project, the technical personnel should give priority to the system to achieve the user's desired results. Third, skilled technical personnel evaluate the user's needs and analyze the unmet requirements ahead of time to avoid wasting manpower and causing project schedule pressure. Thus, estimating the exact development time will help the project manager to schedule the project. Finally, the project manager can set aside some time for possible improvements later in the development phase and clarify system processes and permissions in the beginning of the system development process.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景與動機 1
1.2. 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻探討 4
2.1. 需求變更 5
2.2. 需求的分類 7
第三章 研究方法 10
3.1. 研究個案 10
3.2. 資料蒐集過程 12
3.3. 紮根理論分析流程 15
3.3.1. 開放性編碼 15
3.3.2. 主軸編碼 23
3.3.3. 選擇性編碼 24
3.4. 信度與效度衡量 24
第四章 資料分析 27
4.1. 開放性編碼 27
4.2. 主軸編碼 32
4.3. 選擇性編碼 40
第五章 結論 46
5.1. 研究結論 46
5.2. 研究貢獻 47
5.3. 研究限制 48
參考文獻 50


表目錄
表 3 1文件與參與單位於系統開發命週期中的對應關係 12
表 3 2規劃階段至分析與設計階段之文件建立時間與版本關係 14
表 3 3變更需求單文件建立時間與版本關係 15
表 3 4研究編碼定義表 17
表 4 1因實務需求而影響功能需求的細項編碼發生次數統計 33
表 4 2因實務需求而影響技術需求的細項編碼發生次數統計 34
表 4 3因技術需求而影響技術需求的細項編碼發生次數統計 36
表 4 4因功能需求而影響功能需求的細項編碼發生次數統計 37
表 4 5因功能需求而影響技術需求的細項編碼發生次數統計 38
表 4 6細項編碼在個案中作為變動原因與受影響目標發生次數統計 40
表 4 7以實務需求為原因的需求變動發生次數統計 41
表 4 8以技術需求為原因的需求變動發生次數統計 41
表 4 9以功能需求為原因的需求變動發生次數統計 42

圖目錄
圖 4 1需求變動的原因(類別次數) 27
圖 4 2需求變動的影響(類別次數) 28
圖 4 3需求變動的原因(分階段之類別次數) 29
圖 4 4需求變動的影響(分階段之類別次數) 30
圖 4 5需求變動因果關係之次數統計 42
圖 4 6以系統開發生命週期分三階段之需求變動因果關係次數統計 44

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