淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-0508201418015200
中文論文名稱 水下聲波感測網路下具頻道感知與深度調適之繞徑協定
英文論文名稱 A Channel-aware Depth-adaptive Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 陳昱維
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Wei Chen
學號 601410078
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-06-13
論文頁數 58頁
口試委員 指導教授-石貴平
委員-王三元
委員-王勝石
委員-石貴平
中文關鍵字 頻道感知  深度調適  雜訊  傳播延遲  繞徑協定  水下感測網路 
英文關鍵字 Channel-Aware  Depth-Adaptive  Noise  Propagation Delay  Routing Protocol  Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 在地球上,有超過70%的表面被海水所覆蓋,近年來許多科學家與學者紛紛將眼光投向大海中蘊藏的各種可能性,因此水下的無線傳輸技術開始被廣泛的討論及研究,各種應用也隨之而生。在水下感測網路中,由於無線電波與光波的特性並不適合在以水為媒介的環境中進行長距離的傳輸,取而代之的則是聲波,然而聲波在水中具有高傳播延遲與高位元錯誤率等特性,對於需要即時性與資料正確性的應用來說,是迫切需要解決的重大問題,且由於水下環境的種種特性,針對無電線波所設計之繞徑協定,將無法直接應用在水下聲波感測網路中。本論文主要探討水下雜訊與聲速變化對於位元錯誤率與傳播延遲之影響,並利用其特性設計一適用於水下感測網路之繞徑協定。透過分析水下雜訊在不同深度之變化,估測一路徑上每一步之預期傳輸次數,並結合聲速變化得出該路徑之傳輸時間,進而評估兩者對路徑選擇之影響,並以此為根據設計一繞徑協定。最後透過實驗模擬,發現本論文所提出之繞徑協定,在傳輸時間與封包抵達率上皆有較好之表現。
英文摘要 In underwater acoustic networks, a transmission is done by means of acoustic wave. However, acoustic transmissions suffer long propagation delay and high bit error rate, especially for real time applications. Since speed of sound and underwater noises are varied with water depth, therefore, this thesis takes sound speed and underwater noises into account and proposes a channel-aware depth-adaptive routing protocol, named CDRP, for underwater acoustic sensor networks to relief propagation delay and transmission error rate. In CDRP, the source constructs a virtual ideal path to the sink while it has data to send. According to its one-hop neighbor information, the source then chooses one or several proper forwarders to relay the data. Likewise, the forwarders select next forwarders in the same way until the data is sent to the sink. To our best knowledge, CDRP is the first routing protocol considering the effects of underwater noise and sound speed with depth variation. The simulation results show that CDRP has better performance in end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio.
論文目次 Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 3
1.2 Organization 4
2 Preliminaries 5
2.1 Noise in Underwater 6
2.2 Speed of Sound in Underwater 7
2.3 Routing Schemes in Underwater 10
3 Path Analysis 13
3.1 Numerical Analysis 14
3.2 End-to-End Transmission Time Estimation of Straight Path 19
3.3 End-to-End Transmission Time Estimation of Upward Path 20
3.4 End-to-End Transmission Time Estimation of Downward Path 21
3.5 Analysis Result 22
4 Channel-Aware Depth-Adaptive Routing Protocol(CDRP) 24
4.1 Ideal Virtual Path 25
4.2 Transmission Mode 26
4.3 Relay Selection 27
5 Performance Evaluations 31
5.1 Packet Delivery Ratio 32
5.2 End to End Delay 37
6 Conclusions 42
6.1 Contributions 42
6.2 Future Work 43
Bibliography 44
Appendix 48

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 A common scenario of UASNs. 2
Figure 2.1 Noise power in terms of frequencies in different wind speed. 8
Figure 2.2 Sound speed in terms of underwater depth. 10
Figure 3.1 Attenuation of acoustic waves with different frequencies in terms
of different distance. 16
Figure 3.2 Attenuation of PN in terms of water depth. 17
Figure 3.3 Upward, straight, and downward paths in the network. 19
Figure 3.4 Straight path. 20
Figure 3.5 Straight path. 21
Figure 3.6 Straight path. 22
Figure 4.1 Structure of ideal path table. 26
Figure 4.2 The schematic of the transmission mode switching. 27
Figure 4.3 The schematic of the symbols used in Eq. (4.1). 29
Figure 5.1 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 3 km. 33
Figure 5.2 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 5 km. 34
Figure 5.3 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 7 km. 35
Figure 5.4 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the wind speed and the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 3 km. 36
Figure 5.5 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the wind speed and the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 3 km. 37
Figure 5.6 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the wind speed and the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 7 km. 38
Figure 5.7 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the wind speed and the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 7 km. 39
Figure 5.8 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of PSTinc and PSTdec and the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 3 km. 39
Figure 5.9 Comparisons of the packet delivery ratio in terms of the wind speed and the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 7 km. 40
Figure 5.10 Comparisons of the end-to-end delay in terms of the width of the network while the source node is located at the depth of 3 km. 40
Figure 5.11 Comparisons of the end-to-end delay in terms of the width of thenetwork while the source node is located at the depth of 5 km. 41
Figure 5.12 Comparisons of the end-to-end delay in terms of the width of thenetwork while the source node is located at the depth of 7 km. 41

List of Tables
Table 1.1 The differences between UASNs and WSNs. 2
Table 3.1 Symbol descriptions. 19
Table 5.1 System parameters in the simulations. 32
參考文獻 [1] G. Acar and A. E. Adams, "Acmenet: an underwater acoustic sensor network protocol for real-time environmental monitoring in coastal areas," in IEEE Proceedings Radar, Sonar and Navigation, Aug. 2006, pp. 365–380.
[2] I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, "Underwater acoustic sensor networks: Research challenges," Journal of Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257–281, Mar. 2005.
[3] I. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, "State-of-the-art in protocol research for underwater acoustic sensor networks," in Proceedings of the ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks (WuWNet), 2006, pp. 7–16.
[4] L. Berkhovskikh and Y. Lysanov, Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics. New York: Springer, 1982.
[5] Y.-D. Chen, C.-Y. Lien, C.-H. Wang, and K.-P. Shih, "Darp: A depth adaptive routing protocol for large-scale underwater acoustic sensor networks," in Proceedings of the OCEANS, May 2012, pp. 1–6.
[6] R. Coates, Underwater Acoustic Systems. New York: Wiley, 1989.
[7] I. X. Gao, F. Zhang, and M. Ito, "Underwater acoustic positioning system based on propagation loss and sensor network," in Proceedings of the OCEANS, May 2012, pp. 1–4.
[8] R. Headrick and L. Freitag, "Growth of underwater communication technology in the u.s. navy," in IEEE Communications Magazine, Jan. 2009, pp. 80–82.
[9] M. T. Isik and O. B. Akan, "A three dimensional localization algorithm for underwater acoustic sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 4457–4463, 2009.
[10] J. M. Jornet, M. Stojanovic, and M. Zorzi, "Focused beam routing protocol for underwater acoustic networks," in Proceedings of the ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks (WuWNet), Sep. 2008, pp. 75–81.
[11] J. Kong, J.-H. Cui, D. Wu, and M. Gerla, "Building underwater ad-hoc networks and sensor networks for large scale real-time aquatic applications," in IEEE Military Communications Conference, Oct. 2005, pp. 1535–1541.
[12] A. Kurniawan and H.-W. Ferng, "Projection-based localization for underwater sensor networks with consideration of layers," in TENCON Spring Conference, Apr. 2013, pp. 425–429.
[13] U. Lee, P. Wang, Y. Noh, L. F. M. Vieira, M. Gerla, and J.-H. Cui, "Pressure routing for underwater sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM, the Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–9.
[14] G. Liu and Z. Li, "Depth-based multi-hop routing protocol for underwater sensor network," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Industrial Mechatronics and Automation (ICIMA), May 2010, pp. 268–270.
[15] K. V. Mackenzie, "Nine-term equation for the sound speed in the oceans," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 70, pp. 807–812, Sep. 1981.
[16] S. W. Marshall, "Depth dependence of ambient noise," Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 275–281, Apr. 2005.
[17] J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. N. Levine, "A survey of practical issues in underwater networks," in Proceedings of the ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks (WuWNet), Sep. 2006, pp. 17–24.
[18] R. H. Rahman, C. R. Benson, and M. R. Frater, "Routing challenges and solutions for underwater networks," in Military Communications and Information Systems Conference, Nov. 2012, pp. 1–7.
[19] T. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 2002.
[20] J. A. Shooter, T. E. DeMary, and A. Wittenborn, "Depth dependence of noise resulting from ship traffic and wind," Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 292–298, Oct. 1990.
[21] E. M. Sozer, M. Stojanovic, and J. G. Proakis, "Underwater acoustic networks," IEEE journal of oceanic engineering, vol. 25, pp. 72–83, Jan. 2000.
[22] I. Tolstoy and C. S. Clay, Ocean Acoustics: Theory and Experiment in Underwater Sound, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, 1987.
[23] R. J. Urick, Ambient noise in the sea. Undersea Warfare Technology Office, Naval Sea Systems Command, Dept. of the Navy, 1984.
[24] L. F. M. Vieira, U. Lee, and M. Gerla, "Phero-trail: a bio-inspired location service for mobile underwater sensor networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 553–563, May 2010.
[25] P. Xie, J.-H. Cui, and L. Lao, "Vbf: Vector-based forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IFIP Networking, May 2005, pp. 1216–1221.
[26] P. Xie, Z. Zhou, Z. Peng, J.-H. Cui, and Z. Shi, "Void avoidance in mobile underwater sensor networks," in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications, 2009, pp. 305–314.
[27] Z. Zhou, Z. Peng, J.-H. Cui, and A. C. Bagtzoglou, "Scalable localization with mobility prediction for underwater sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 335–348, 2011.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2019-08-07公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-08-07起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信