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系統識別號 U0002-0508201319514800
中文論文名稱 創業家精神與生涯承諾關係之研究-以中小企業創業為例
英文論文名稱 The Study of The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Career Commitment - The Ventures of SME for Instance
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master’s Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 謝覲宇
研究生英文姓名 Chin-Yu Hsieh
學號 600620172
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-07-12
論文頁數 132頁
口試委員 指導教授-牛涵錚
委員-王耀德
委員-陳海鳴
中文關鍵字 創業家精神  科學素養  自我效能  生涯承諾  生活滿意  快樂 
英文關鍵字 Entrepreneurship  Scientific Literacy  Self-efficacy  Career Commitment  Life Satisfaction  Happiness 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著知識經濟時代的來臨,關於就業與創業形態已經跳脫過去的模式,掌握資訊與知識,就有創造機會的優勢。根據瑞士洛桑國際管理學院(IMD)「2012年世界競爭力年報」指出,台灣創業家精神指標排名全球第一,較2011年進步3名,且為歷年最佳表現(行政院經建會綜合計畫處,2012)。而創業家精神的高低,往往會影響一個國家的經濟成長(Acs & Szerb, 2007;Wennekers & Thurik, 1999)。
本研究以台灣地區18歲以上之創業家為研究對象,探討創業家的自我效能、生涯承諾、科學素養、快樂、生活滿意與人格特質。並以六位相關領域之專家進行訪,彙整訪談資料後,進而對創業家歷程進行了解。本研究問卷以紙本與網路輔助方式進行發放,為期三個月,回收之有效樣本為215份。
知識、技術與態度是創造個人競爭力的元素,也是科學素養的內涵,因此本研究以Niu and Yang(2012)發展之科學素養量表構面來探討創業家精神,並以SPSS和AMOS進行結構分析與純化。在信度分析方面,Cronbach’s α值皆大於0.781,顯示使用量表皆具備良好信度。以迴歸、集群與對應分析對變數之因果與類別進行探究。研究發現,創業家之科學素養會完全中介其自我效能對生涯承諾的關係,具嚴謹性或經驗開放性創業家之科學素養較高。生活滿意方面,30歲以上或已婚之創業家生活滿意較高。除此之外,本研究以Niu and Yang(2012)之科學素養量表為基礎進行純化,欲發展創業家精神導向之量表,並以AMOS 18.0進行配適度、組成信度與區別效度之分析,結果發現該量表具備信效度,並與績效呈現正相關。故本研究在創業家人格特質、創業家精神相關議題研究不僅從訪談去了解創業家該具備之特質也突顯人格特質在科學素養上的差異,並以期許發展之創業家精神量表有利於未來企業人才招募、遴選或學術應用之目的。
英文摘要 According to the knowledge economic generation coming, starting enterprises has become a trend. Grasping opportunities could create the advantage. Entrepreneurship will influence the economic development of countries (Acs & Szerb, 2007;Wennekers & Thurik, 1999).
This study tries to investigate the Self-efficacy, Career Commitment, Scientific Literacy, Happiness, Life Satisfaction and Personality Traits of entrepreneurs. This study uses the viewpoint of scientific literacy to explain the entrepreneurship and to choose the entrepreneurs who are older than 18 years old in Taiwan as samples. This study comprehends the process of starting up through the interview with 6 experts and the relevant some literatures. The questionnaires recovered 215 valid samples. As a result to knowledge, skills, attitudes are the elements of creating personal competitive strength. This study uses the dimensions of the research in Niu and Yang(2012) to confer entrepreneurship. The Cronbach’s α values are all above 0.781, it shows the scale has great validity and reliability.
The result shows the scientific literacy of entrepreneurs will mediate effects the self-efficacy to career commitment, and the entrepreneurs whose personality traits are conscientiousness or openness to experience have much higher scores in scientific literacy. In life satisfaction, the entrepreneurs who are older than 30 years old or married have much higher scores. Because the items of scientific literacy scale is too many in Niu and Yang’s research, this study tries to reduce the items to form the entrepreneurship scale. Then, this study uses the AMOS 18.0 to analyze the goodness-of-fit, construct validity and composite reliability. Finally, both the validity and reliability of the scale reaches the criterion. Consequently, this study hopes the results and the entrepreneurship scale will help the recruitment and selection in human resource management in the future.
論文目次 目錄
目錄………………………………………………………………………V
表目錄…………………………………………………………………VIII
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..IX
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的………………………………………………………2
第三節 研究流程………………………………………………………3
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………5
第一節 創業家精神與科學素養………………………………………5
第二節 自我效能………………………………………………………22
第三節 生涯承諾………………………………………………………30
第四節 快樂與生活滿意………………………………………………35
第五節 人格特質………………………………………………………41
第六節 家庭背景與人口統計變數……………………………………45
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………………47
第一節 研究架構與假設………………………………………………47
第二節 專家訪談………………………………………………………50
第三節 問卷設計………………………………………………………54
第四節 樣本前測分析…………………………………………………58
第五節 資料分析方法…………………………………………………67
第四章 資料分析………………………………………………………70
第一節 研究對象與抽樣方法…………………………………………70
第二節 信度與效度分析………………………………………………73
第三節 Pearson 相關分析……………………………………………74
第四節 迴歸分析與假設驗證…………………………………………74
第五節 集群分析………………………………………………………78
第六節 單因子變異數分析……………………………………………79
第七節 對應分析………………………………………………………86
第八節 探索性因素分析………………………………………………92
第九節 驗證性因素分析………………………………………………93
第十節 量表應用與績效實測…………………………………………95
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………………97
第一節 研究結果………………………………………………………97
第二節 管理意涵………………………………………………………99
第三節 研究限制與建議 ………………………………………..……100
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………102
一、中文文獻 …………………………………………………………102
二、英文文獻 …………………………………………………………104
附錄 ……………………………………………………………………122
附錄一(專家訪談之問題) …………………………………………..…122
附錄二(訪談內容與構面比較) ………………………………………..123
附錄三(本研究問卷) …………………………………………………..129
表 目 錄
表2-1 創業家精神定義……………………………………………….…8
表2-2 職能定義…………………………………………………………12
表2-3 科學素養定義……………………………………………………16
表2-4 自我效能定義……………………………………………………24
表2-5 生涯承諾定義……………………………………………………31
表2-6 快樂定義…………………………………………………………38
表2-7 生活滿意定義……………………………………………………39
表3-1 訪談名單…………………………………………………………50
表3-2 專家訪談 -創業家應具備之特質……………………………….51
表3-3 專家認為創業家該具備特質之次數表…………………………53
表3-4 創業生命週期評估表……………………………………………54
表3-5 前測基本資料分析表……………………………………………58
表3-6 科學素養信度前測………………………………………………61
表3-7 自我效能信度前測………………………………………………64
表3-8 生涯承諾信度前測………………………………………………64
表3-9 快樂信度前測……………………………………………………65
表3-10 生活滿意信度前測 ……………………………………………66
表3-11 信度標準 ………………………………………………………67
表3-12 相關分析判斷指標 ……………………………………………68
表3-13 迴歸判斷標準 …………………………………………………68
表4-1 中小企業比率與樣本比率………………………………………70
表4-2 人口統計變數分析………………………………………………71
表4-3 信度分析統整表格………………………………………………73
表4-4 各構面之Pearson相關分析 ……………………………..…….74
表4-5 自我效能對生涯承諾之迴歸分析………………………………74
表4-6 自我效能對科學素養之迴歸分析………………………………75
表4-7 科學素養對生涯承諾之迴歸分析………………………………75
表4-8 自我效能透過科學素養對生涯承諾之中介結果………………75
表4-9 自我效能對科學素養之迴歸分析………………………………76
表4-10 自我效能透過快樂對自我效能之中介結果 …………………76
表4-11 自我效能透過快樂對生涯承諾之中介結果 …………………77
表4-12 推論假設結果 …………………………………………………77
表4-13 科學素養與生活滿意集群分析 ………………………………78
表4-14 自我效能與生涯承諾集群分析 ………………………………78
表4-15 自我效能與人口統計變數之單因子變異數分析 …………...79
表4-16 自我效能與創業型態之LSD事後比較表………………….…79
表4-17 科學素養與人口統計變數之單因子變異數分析 …………...80
表4-18 科學素養與人格特質之LSD事後比較表………………….…81
表4-19 快樂與人口統計變數之單因子變異數分析 ………………...82
表4-20 快樂與創業型態之LSD事後比較表……………………….…82
表4-21 快樂與創業年資之LSD事後比較表………………….………83
表4-22 生活滿意與人口統計變數之單因子變異數分析 ……….…..84
表4-23 生活滿意與年齡之LSD事後比較表…………………….……84
表4-24 生涯承諾與人口統計變數之單因子變異數分析 …………...85
表4-25 生涯承諾與創業次數之LSD事後比較表……………….……85
表4-26 科學素養量表因素分析萃取結果 ……………………………92
表4-27 創業家精神量表之構面與題項 ………………………………92
表4-28 收斂效度分析結果 ……………………………………………94
表4-29 AVE法之區別效度分析……………………………………..…94
表4-30 模式配適度彙整表 ……………………………………………95
表4-31 創業家精神對績效之迴歸分析 ………………………………95
圖 目 錄
圖1-1 IMD對我國創業家精神指標之評比…………………………..…2
圖1-2 研究流程圖 ………………………………………………………4
圖2-1 內在職能與外顯職能……………………………………………14
圖2-2 科學素養與職能之內涵…………………………………………18
圖2-3 創業家精神本質…………………………………………………20
圖2-4 三元學習理論……………………………………………………24
圖2-5 自我效能-行為表現關係之模式圖 ……………………….……28
圖2-6 生涯承諾前因後果模式…………………………………………34
圖2-7 正向情緒層級……………………………………………………39
圖3-1 研究架構…………………………………………………………49
圖3-2 創業生命週期圖…………………………………………………55
圖4-1 自我效能與創業型態比較平均數圖……………………………80
圖4-2 科學素養與人格特質比較平均數圖……………………………81
圖4-3 快樂與創業型態比較平均數圖…………………………………82
圖4-4 快樂與創業年資比較平均圖……………………………………83
圖4-5 生活滿意與年齡比較平均數圖…………………………………85
圖4-6 生涯承諾與創業次數比較平均數圖……………………………86
圖4-7 自我效能相關變項之對應分析…………………………………87
圖4-8 科學素養與人格特質相關變項之對應分析……………………88
圖4-9 科學素養與家中排行相關變項之對應分析……………………88
圖4-10 自我效能與影響創業家創業意圖者之對應分析 ……………89
圖4-11 生活滿意與創業資本相關變項之對應分析 …………………89
圖4-12 生涯承諾與創業型態相關變項之對應分析 …………………90
圖4-13 創業相關變項之對應分析 ……………………………………91
圖4-14 SEM架構圖………………………………………………….…93
圖4-15 創業家精神量表得分與績效趨勢圖 …………………………96
參考文獻 參考文獻
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二、英文文獻:
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