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系統識別號 U0002-0508201000182800
中文論文名稱 反恐與安全:歐盟在哈瑪斯執政時期的巴勒斯坦政策
英文論文名稱 Counter-Terrorism and security: EU policy toward Hamas-led Palestinian Authority.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 余亭妍
研究生英文姓名 Ting-Yen Yu
學號 695290329
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-28
論文頁數 184頁
口試委員 指導教授-張福昌
委員-汪毓瑋
委員-鄒忠科
中文關鍵字 巴勒斯坦  哈瑪斯  新現實主義  共同安全與防衛政策 
英文關鍵字 Palestine  Hamas  Neo-realism  Common Security and Defence Policy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 哈瑪斯緣起於埃及的穆斯林兄弟會,1987年成立後成為巴勒斯坦伊斯蘭反抗組織,透過運作完善的社會福利系統(Da’wa)逐步於基層擴展勢力。1982年哈瑪斯的精神領袖雅辛開始籌組秘密武裝部隊,1991年時,雅辛整合原有的安全部門組成卡薩姆軍團,成為哈瑪斯重要的一部分。2006年哈瑪斯參選巴勒斯坦國會議員選舉,大獲全勝成為國會最大黨,並推派總理入主內閣,其象徵的意義極其重要。
在「共同安全與防衛政策」的架構下,歐盟相當關注巴勒斯坦當局的新發展,同時執行2項民事危機管理任務,分別為:協助邊境管理的「歐盟拉法邊界協助任務」與協助民事警察的「歐盟警察任務」。遺憾的是,巴勒斯坦地區的安全情勢每況愈下,引發的後續效應著實影響歐盟巴勒斯坦政策的走向。歐盟基於安全考量,決定暫時終止拉法檢查哨的任務,而警察任務則僅限於約旦河西岸地區。歐盟的雙軌政策,可能將已分裂的巴勒斯坦當局導向更為分歧的局勢,而以歐盟目前的能力與政策效能觀之,實難以提出決定性的政策來解決膠著超過60年的以巴衝突現況。
英文摘要 Hamas, originated from the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, emerged as an Islamic resistant group after its establishment in 1987 and has been supported by its well-functioning social welfare system named Da’wa. Gradually, Hamas expanded and exerted its influence on the grassroots. In 1982, Hamas’ spiritual leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin started to organize an underground military wing and incorporated all security units into an Al-Qassam Brigade in the year of 1991. As a result, the Al-Qassam Brigade becomes the main part of Hamas. The sensational victory of the Palestinian Legislative Council Election in 2006 enabled Hamas to be the ruling party in the Palestinian Authority signifying its meaning and importance.
Within the structure of Common Security and Defence Policy, the EU has paid pertinent attention to the new development in the Palestinian Authority and launched two civilian Crisis Management Missions, namely EU BAM RAFAH and EUPOL COPPS, to Palestine. Unfortunately, the security situation in the Palestinian territory is getting worse. In 2006 Hamas unilaterally occupied Gaza Strip by force. Based on security reason, EU temporarily stopped the Rafah Crossing Mission and let the Police Mission merely work in the West Bank. In conclusion, EU’s two-way policy may lead the already separated Palestinian Authority to a new confrontation. At present, the EU cannot do any decisive contribution to the 60-year long Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
論文目次 目錄 I
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與研究目的 1
一、研究動機 1
二、研究目的 3
第二節 問題意識與研究理論 4
一、問題意識 4
二、研究理論 8
第三節 研究範圍與研究限制 15
一、研究範圍 15
二、研究限制 16
第四節 文獻探討與研究架構 16
一、文獻探討 16
二、研究架構 20
第五節 名詞闡釋 23
第二章 歐盟維護安全與打擊恐怖主義的戰略 31
第一節 歐洲安全戰略:面臨外部安全威脅的戰略目標 31
一、歐盟提出ESS的背景因素 32
二、ESS的內容 33
三、運用ESS解釋案例之分析 38
第二節 歐盟反恐戰略:全面打擊恐怖主義之途徑 46
一、產生的背景 46
二、重要的戰略方針 48
第三節 共同與安全防衛政策:維護外部安全的政策工具 55
一、從歐洲防衛共同體到CSDP 55
二、CSDP法源基礎與機構 60
第三章 哈瑪斯執政與歐盟的安全 69
第一節 哈瑪斯的崛起:一個恐怖組織成為執政黨的過程 70
一、1966-1987年:籌組哈瑪斯的歷程 70
二、1987-2000年:建構哈瑪斯的骨幹 76
三、2000-2009年:邁向執政之路 84
第二節 中東國家、美國與歐盟對哈瑪斯執政的反應 98
一、中東國家 99
二、美國 102
三、歐盟 105
第四章 歐盟在哈瑪斯執政時期的巴勒斯坦政策 107
第一節 歐盟與哈瑪斯的官方交流 107
一、歐盟外交事務與安全政策高級代表兼執委會副主席 108
二、中東和平進程特別代表 109
三、歐洲議會代表團 110
第二節 歐盟促進巴勒斯坦民主化的規範 110
一、巴塞隆納進程 111
二、歐洲睦鄰政策 115
三、民主化實踐案例:歐盟巴勒斯坦國會選舉觀察任務 121
第三節 協助巴勒斯坦維護安全的民事任務 125
一、歐盟拉法邊界協助任務(EU BAM-RAFAH) 126
二、歐盟警察任務(EUPOL COPPS) 131
第五章 歐盟巴勒斯坦政策評估 141
第一節 歐盟的雙軌政策 141
一、要求哈瑪斯放棄暴力與溫和轉型的問題 142
二、未來展望 143
第二節 民主化進程的缺失 144
一、歐盟機制的缺陷 145
二、恐怖主義與民主化 147
第三節 歐盟之巴勒斯坦民事行動成效評估 149
一、歐盟拉法邊界協助任務 149
二、歐盟警察任務 153
第六章 結論 157
參考文獻 161
壹、中文部份 161
貳、外文部份 163

圖 目 錄
圖 1:巴勒斯坦地圖 ............................................................................. 7
圖 2:結構現實主義的理論架構 ....................................................... 13
圖 3:論文研究架構圖 ....................................................................... 23
圖 4:歐洲安全戰略的重要意涵 ....................................................... 33
圖 5:歐盟反恐戰略 ........................................................................... 49
圖 6:歐盟CSDP重要機構 ............................................................... 65
圖 7:哈瑪斯政治領導階層關係圖 ................................................... 78
圖 8:哈瑪斯組織架構圖 ................................................................... 79
圖 9:Da‘wa系統:哈瑪斯的運作主力 ............................................ 83
圖 10:哈瑪斯成員組成方式 ............................................................. 84
圖 11:巴勒斯坦2006年國會選舉制度圖解 .................................... 91
圖 12:2006年國會選舉前政黨支持度民意調查 ............................ 93
圖 13 2000-2009歐盟援助巴勒斯坦年度款項 ............................. 120
圖 14:EU BAM RAFAH 組織架構 ................................................ 130
圖 15:歐盟巴勒斯坦政策發展圖解 ............................................... 144
圖 16:加薩走廊重要城市圖示 ....................................................... 150
圖 17:拉法檢查哨開關天數比較圖 ............................................... 151
IV
表 目 錄
表 1:現實主義與新現實主義的基本論點 ....................................... 10
表 2:ESS下之失敗國家與評估指數 ................................................ 40
表 3:2006年國會選舉席次分配表 .................................................. 94
表 4:哈瑪斯政權內閣閣員一覽表(2006) ......................................... 96
表 5:約旦河西岸臨時政府總統與內閣閣員一覽表(2010) ............. 97
表 6:「歐洲-地中海夥伴關係」與「地中海聯盟」夥伴國家比較表 ..................................................................................................... 115
表 7:歐洲睦鄰政策工具(ENPI)適用國家 ...................................... 115
表 8:「歐盟-巴勒斯坦當局行動計畫」重要行動內容表解 ....... 118
表 9:歐盟警察任務2005-2009年度預算一覽表 .......................... 138
附錄
附錄 1:哈瑪斯大事紀 ..................................................................... 180
附錄 2:政治單位領導人 ................................................................. 181
附錄 3:2006年巴勒斯坦當局國會各黨派獲選席次圖 ................ 182
附錄 4:區域國會議員席次與參選人與選民數量一覽表 ............. 183
附錄 5:以色列與埃及和帄條約西奈半島駐軍區域界線 ............. 183
附錄 6:1993-1999年間奧斯陸協議相關附約 ............................... 184
參考文獻 壹、中文部份
一、專書
呂亞力:政治學,台北市:三民書局,2005年。
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Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.著,蔡百銓譯:中東史,國立編譯館,台北市,2003年。
鄭啟榮(編):全球視野下的歐盟共同外交和安全政策,北京:世界知識出版社,2008年5月。
二、期刊
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吳玲君:中共APEC策略與角色的轉變:新現實主義的解析,刊載於:問題與研究,第40卷,第3期,2001年5、6月,頁1-21。
吳釧燮:衝突降低與爭端解決:以九0年代以阿和談為例,刊登於:問題與研究,第35卷,第7期,1996年7月,頁33-35。
卓忠宏:歐盟地中海政策,刊登於:問題與研究,第43卷,第4期,2004年7-8月,頁95-113。
俞正粱:國際無政府狀態辨析,刊載於:外交學院學報,2002年,第1期,頁1-6。
徐正祥:9/11之後的中東恐怖主義與反恐戰爭,論文發表於第四屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術研討會,2008年12月15日,頁195-216。
莫大華:國際關係理論大辯論研究的評析,刊載於:問題與研究,第39卷,第12期,2000年12月,頁65-90。
陳忠志:原子彈研發的始末,刊載於:科學發展,第404期,2006年8月,頁62-69。
陸京:後阿拉法特時代的以巴關係:對中東和平進程三大關鍵因素的分析,外交學院學報,第80期,2005年2月,頁31。
詹世亮:中東問題的歷史與現狀,外交學院學報,2003年,第一期,頁1-6。
梁濤∕丁亮:民主和平理論的負面影響,刊載於:國際關係學院學報,2005年,第二期,頁1-4。
劉鳳華∕劉磊:哈瑪斯勝選與中東和平進程,天府新論,2006年,第5期,頁11-12。
三、會議論文
汪毓瑋:歐盟打擊恐怖主義與組織犯罪現況及未來推動台歐相關合作之啟示,論文發表於:第一屆「國境安全與人口移動」學術研討會,2007年12月26日), 頁141-156。
徐正祥:9/11之後的中東恐怖主義與反恐戰爭,論文發表於第四屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術研討會,2008年12月15日,頁195-216。
張福昌:歐盟反恐戰略研究:制度、運作與網路,論文發表於「第三屆歐洲聯盟人權保障學術研討會」,中央研究院歐美研究所,台北,2007年10月19-20日,頁1-44。
張福昌:歐洲警政署:歐盟反恐政策的基石?,論文發表於:第四屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術研討會,2008年12月15日,頁 81-104。
四、碩士論文
吳沂宇:歐洲聯盟在以巴衝突中的政策立場與作為:1990-2005,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班:碩士論文,台北:淡江大學,2006年6月。
李蘇薇:歐洲聯盟與反大規模毀滅性武器擴散:戰略、政策與貢獻,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班:碩士論文,台北:淡江大學,2009年2月。
貳、外文部份
一、歐盟與官方資料
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二、專書
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四、網路資料
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