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中文論文名稱 基於統計分析之邊界轉折點偵測方法
英文論文名稱 A Statistical Approach to Boundary-based Corner Detection
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生中文姓名 陳俊文
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Wen Chen
電子信箱 g8190387@tkgis.tku.edu.tw
學號 688190387
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2009-06-22
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪文斌
委員-楊鎮華
委員-陳伯榮
委員-楊接期
委員-郭經華
委員-洪文斌
中文關鍵字 轉折點偵測  曲率測量  最佳化方法  門檻值估計 
英文關鍵字 corner detection  curvature measure  optimization method  threshold estimation 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 影像上的轉折點具有幾何轉換(如平移、旋轉、縮放…等)之不變性,在電腦視覺的研究領域,一直都是重要的辨識特徵。近年來,偵測邊界轉折點已被廣泛應用在多邊形逼近、曲線密合、自動光學檢測、影像切割、影像校正與形變、物體辨識、運動速寫等各方面。偵測邊界轉折點時,需先將影像主體自背景分離出來,接著在物體邊界上找出曲率變化明顯的轉折點位置。然而影像在數位化過程,因量化處理與雜訊干擾,往往造成邊界上的鋸齒現象,影響偵測邊界轉折點的成效。
本文提出一種能有效抵抗量化處理與雜訊干擾的邊界轉折點偵測方法。此演算法包含三個要件:運用共變數矩陣特徵值衡量邊界像素之曲率,藉由折線模型估計任意角度之曲率門檻值,以及依據鑑別力指數高低決定支援區間長度。實驗顯示,不論是處理乾淨的或者帶雜訊的影像,我們提出的演算法在偵測邊界轉折點的表現上均優於其他對照方法。此結果植基於我們同時改進了傳統作法在衡量曲率屬性與決定支援區間長度兩方面潛藏之問題。
英文摘要 Corners have been one of the most important features in computer vision since they are invariant to geometric transformations, such as translation, rotation and scaling. Boundary-based corner detectors, segmenting objects from an image first and then locating the discontinuities on the object boundaries, have been widely applied to polygonal approximation, spline curve fitting, automated visual inspection, image segmentation, image registration, shape morphing, handwriting/environment/object recognition, motion sketch, etc. The accuracy of corner detection on boundaries is primarily influenced by quantization and noises.
In this thesis, we propose a robust boundary-based corner detection algorithm for diverse images. The algorithm is composed of three components: a new measure of significance based on the eigenvalues of covariance matrices, threshold estimation of the measure of significance of any angle, and an optimization procedure based on a discriminant criterion for determining the length of region of support. The experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms other methods, even in the noisy samples. These robust results are due to not only the reliable measure of significance but also the discriminating optimization procedure of our algorithm.
論文目次 CONTENTS
List of Figures V
List of Tables VII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1. Boundary-based corner detection 1
1.2. General corner detection procedure 2
Chapter 2 New measure of significance 5
2.1. Measures of significance 6
2.1.1. Tsai et al.’s observations on eigenvalues 7
2.1.2. Exploring properties of eigenvalues 9
2.1.3. Revealing Tsai et al.’s mistake 16
2.2. Revision of using eigenvalues 18
2.3. Experiments 22
2.3.1. Artificial samples 23
2.3.2. Real objects 28
Chapter 3 Optimizing region of support 31
3.1. Adaptive region of support 32
3.2. Global perspective optimization 35
3.2.1. Measure of separability 36
3.2.2. Optimization procedure 37
3.2.3. Threshold estimation 38
3.3. Experiments 41
3.3.1. Illustrative example 41
3.3.2. Validity analysis 44
Chapter 4 Performance analysis 54
4.1. Robustness 54
4.2. Time complexity 61
Chapter 5 Conclusion 64
References 67
Appendix Some proofs 74
A.1. Eigenvalues and projected variances 74
A.2. The eigenvalues are invariant to translations and rotations 75
A.3. “f” is invariant to linear transformation of the curvature estimates 80
A.4. The lower bound of region of support 82

List of Figures
Fig. 1 Three different types of digitized curves 8
Fig. 2 Angle with symmetric axis y = x 10
Fig. 3 λL and λS of straight lines with different θ 11
Fig. 4 λL and λS of circular arcs with different r 11
Fig. 5 λL and λS of angles of different φ with symmetric axis y = x (Fig. 2) 12
Fig. 6 λL and λS of angles of different φ with symmetric axis x = 0 (Fig. 1(c)) 13
Fig. 7 λL and λS of angles of different φ with symmetric axis y = (tan 26.5°) x 16
Fig. 8 Small eigenvalues of a cone shape 17
Fig. 9 Corner detection by naive corner indices λm 20
Fig. 10 λM and λS of angles with different φ which are symmetric at y = x 21
Fig. 11 Corner detection by modified corner indices λM 22
Fig. 12 An oxalis-like object of size 240 × 240 pixels 24
Fig. 13 Detected corners in Tsai et al.’s method using λS 26
Fig. 14 Results of Tsai et al.’s method of Fig. 12(a) using λS 27
Fig. 15 Results of our modified method of Fig. 12(a) using λM 28
Fig. 16 Reproductions of Tsai et al.’s four real objects 29
Fig. 17 Detected corners of Fig. 16 using λM 29
Fig. 18 Typical preprocessing of boundary-based corner detection in our study 34
Fig. 19 The included angle model for estimating threshold 39
Fig. 20 Detected corners of boundaries in Fig. 18 (with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% noise) for k = 12 41
Fig. 21 f(k) values of boundaries in Fig. 18 43
Fig. 22 Detected corners of boundaries in Fig. 18 (with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% noise) for optimum k 43
Fig. 23 Boundaries of four Chinese characters with (a) 0% and (b) 20% noise 45
Fig. 24 f(k) values of boundaries in Fig. 23 46
Fig. 25 Test boundaries and the assigned corners 55
Fig. 26 Boundaries with 20% salt-and-pepper noise 55

List of Tables
Table 1 The eigenvalues λS for circles and angles 9
Table 2 The calculated λS values in our experiment 18
Table 3 Comparison of corner detection results 25
Table 4 Length of region of support of Fig. 18 35
Table 5 Optimum length of region of support of Fig. 18 43
Table 6 Comparison of detected corners of Figs. 20 and 22 44
Table 7 Results of corner detection of Fig. 23 47
Table 8 Detected corners of boundaries in Fig. 23 49
Table 9 Results of corner detection by different measures of significance 56
Table 10 Results of corner detection by online testing [58] 57
Table 11 The results of detected corners of Fig. 25 and Fig. 26 58
Table 12 Numbers of operations for the optimization procedure 62
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