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中文論文名稱 跨越前線挫敗敵人—菲律賓消除民答那峨穆斯林極端主義之 策略分析
英文論文名稱 Defeating the Enemy beyond the Frontline: An Analysis on the Philippines' Strategy against the Muslim Extremism in Mindanao
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 臺灣與亞太研究全英語碩士學位學程
系所名稱(英) Master's Program in Taiwan and Asia-Pacific Studies, College of International Studies (English-Taugh
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 安尹道
研究生英文姓名 Anuar Guimba Inidal
學號 605245124
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-29
論文頁數 95頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡青龍
委員-張福昌
委員-汪毓瑋
中文關鍵字 菲律賓  摩洛人  極端主義  恐怖主義  法律執行  社會經濟改革 
英文關鍵字 The Philippines  Moro  Extremism  Terrorism  Law Enforcement  Socio-economic 
學科別分類
中文摘要 菲律賓一直都在奮力對付穆斯林極端主義,自從1970 年代爆發民答那峨衝突以來,該地
區的公共秩序就不曾安定,摩洛(Moro)反叛軍要求的政治讓步,超出政府依據憲法所能
做出的範圍,在雙方無法達成協議之下,就導致反叛軍陣營的激進化。當時伊斯蘭世界
湧現的政治劇變更加速叛軍的激進化。以阿不賽亞夫(Abu Sayyaf)好戰組織為首的本土
武裝分子及其他團體,就加入全球伊斯蘭教徒運動。2016 年菲律賓被列為最受該運動影
響的國家之一(其他大多數為中東及非洲國家)。從此觀點出發,本論文探尋菲律賓成為一
個穆斯林極端主義重要本營的因素,包括國家的歷史影響、地理特徵、以及人口組成,
特別聚焦在人口中屬於文化少數族群的摩洛人(Moros),以及他們所處的貧困條件。摩洛
人多半居住在「民答那峨穆斯林自治區」(Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao,
簡稱ARMM),而ARMM 就是菲國的穆斯林極端主義溫床。本研究認為造成此一現象的
原因,至少包括下列五項理念因素:識字水準低、貧窮、無法律狀態、發展落後、以及
治理不佳,這些不利的生存條件使得摩洛人易於落入極端主義團體之手。在2016 年中
期,菲國政府開始採取創新的因應策略,並從過往經驗中學得教訓,而將反恐戰役結合
法律執行、政治意志、以及社會經濟改革,造成對好戰分子的致命一擊。
英文摘要 The Philippines has been struggling against Muslim extremism. Since the outbreak of Mindanao
conflict in 1970s, public order remains unstable in the region. Moro rebels demand political
concession beyond what the government can offer in accordance to the Constitution. Failure by
both sides to reach agreement led to the radicalization in the ranks of the rebels. Surging political
upheaval in the Islamic world aggravates the phenomenon. Homegrown militants led by the Abu
Sayyaf and other groups enjoined the global Islamist movement. In 2016, the Philippines was
listed in the bracket of countries (mostly from the Middle East and Africa) that have earned
highest impact. In this view, this study seeks enlightenment what makes the Philippines a
centerpiece of Muslim extremism. It explores the influence of history that shaped up the present
geographic feature and demographic profile of the country. Focus is given on the impoverished
condition of Moros who constitute the cultural minorities in the population. They are
predominantly based in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), the hotbed of
Muslim extremism in the Philippines. In the course of research, at least five ideational factors are
identified incumbent in the region namely: low literacy, poverty, lawlessness, underdevelopment
and poor governance. These harbor sentiment that flares Moros’ vulnerability to fall prey into the
extremists’ hands. In the mid-2016, the government started to enforce innovative response.
Learning lessons in the past, anti-terror campaign combines military build-up with political will
and socio-economic reforms. It dealt a terrible blow to the cause of the militants.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Figures, Maps and Tables vi
Acronyms v
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Topic 1
1.2 Motivation 6
1.3 Methodology 8
1.4 Limitation 9
1.5 General Results 10
2. Literature Review 11
3. Historical Foundation 14
3.1 Geography 14
3.2 Demography 15
3.3 Pre-Colonial Period 17
3.4 Colonial Resistance 19
4. Mindanao Conflict 23
4.1 Sabah Claim 23
4.2 Independence Movement 25
4.3 Peace Process 26
5. Extremism and Recent Activities 30
5.1 Lethality of Religious Terrorist Groups 30
5.2 Series of Breakaways 32
6. Theories of International Relations 37
6.1 Clash of Civilizations 37
6.2 Globalization 40
7. Socio-economic Condition in the ARMM 47
7.1 Low Literacy 47
7.2 Poverty 50
7.3 Violence 52
7.4 Underdevelopment 55
7.5 Poor Governance 59
8. Anti-Terror Campaign 63
8.1 Law Enforcement 65
8.2 Political Will 68
8.3 Socio-economic Reform 73
9. Change is Coming 80
10. Conclusion and Recommendations 85
11. Bibliography 88

Figures, Maps and Tables vi
Table 1.1 Global Terrorism Index 2016 1
Table 3.1 10 countries with the longest coastlines 14
Map 3.1 Regions of the Philippines 15
Table 3.2 Population of the ARMM 16
Map 3.2 Geographical areas of ARMM 17
Figure 3.1 Sultan Pahala’s Tomb in Dezhou 18
Map 4.1 Historical Territory of the Sultanate of Sulu 23
Map 5.1 IS linked terror groups in the Southern Philippines 33
Figure 6.1 The state in a globalizing world 41
Figure 6.2 Foreign Fighters of ISIS 43
Table 6.1 Contextual analysis of extremist propaganda 44
Figure 6.3 Distribution of OFWs by Place of Work: 2015 46
Figure 7.1 Percentage of population for high school graduates in 2013 48
Table 7.1 Elementary level as of 2013 49
Table 7.2 Secondary Schools as of 2013 49
Table 7.3 Functional Literacy Rate of Population 50
Table 7.4 Provinces in the Bottom Poor Cluster: 2012 and 2015 51
Figure 7.2 Poverty incidence among population in ARMM 51
Figure 7.3 GRDP Share of ARMM by Industrial Origin 52
Table 7.5 Reported violent conflict incidents in the ARMM 53
Figure 7.4 Sideways Graph: Causes and Conflict deaths 54
Table 7.6 Violent conflict incidents by top specific causes and provinces 54
Table 7.7 Inventory as of December 2016 56
Table 7.8 Inventory as of December 2016 56
Table 7.9 Status of Household Electrification as of November 2014 57
Table 7.10 Number of Waterless Municipalities as of April 2011 58
Figure 7.5 National Road Density (2012) 59
Figure 7.6 Ratio of Paved National Roads (2012) 59
Table 8.1 Military Strength 66
Figure 8.1 GDP of 5 founding members of the ASEAN (1967-2016) 70
Figure 8.2 GDP per capita of 5 founding members of the ASEAN (1967-2016) 70
Figure 8.3 Household Coverage as of December 2016 76
Figure 9.1 GRDP rates by region 2017 81
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