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系統識別號 U0002-0507201714165100
中文論文名稱 以PFC模擬金門花崗岩處置坑道之破裂行為
英文論文名稱 Study on the fracture behavior of deposition tunnels and holes in Kimmen granite using PFC modelling
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 吳勁頤
研究生英文姓名 JIN-YIH WU
電子信箱 danny_wu352111@yahoo.com.tw
學號 604380336
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2017-06-12
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊長義
委員-李宏輝
委員-翁孟嘉
中文關鍵字 深層地質處置場  花崗岩  單壓強度  AE  PFC 
英文關鍵字 deep geological repository  granite  UCS  spalling  PFC  AE 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 在花崗質岩地質進行深層處置,是目前國際主流處置高放射性廢棄物之方式,就是將廢棄物埋在深約300~1000m的穩定地質環境中,使輻射強度在到達生物圈之前已衰減至可忽略的程度。而深層地質處置設施的力學穩定安全性是由應力在主控(stress- dominated),其穩定性或破壞與否之關鍵因子是在:(1)現地應力(in-situ stress)之大小與方位;(2)岩石之破壞強度(failure strength)。本研究收集金門現地深層應力及岩體資料,其中使用單軸壓縮試驗來驗證PFC模擬成效,對較其單壓強度(UCS) 、楊氏模數(E)、柏松比(ν)與破壞型態進行比較,由此獲得金門花崗岩之PFC模擬各項參數,在將參數用於模擬深層處置隧道與孔開挖造成之破壞。
本文主要獲致結論如下:(1)使用PFC2D模擬單軸壓縮試驗其關鍵因子分別為:單壓強度(UCS):正向鍵結強度 n、切向/正向鍵結強度比 s/ n、切向/正向平行鍵結勁度比ksp/knp。2.楊氏模數(E):正向勁度kn、切向/正向勁度比ks/kn、正向平行鍵結勁度knp、切向/正向平行鍵結勁度比ksp/knp。柏松比(ν):切向/正向平行鍵結勁度比ksp/knp。排除切向/正向平行鍵結勁度比ksp/knp後,強度與勁度向參數互不影響。(2)使用單一強度鍵結方式無法優良模擬花崗岩材料之音射行為,因花崗岩材料是由多種材料組合而成,故膠節強度有所差異,且PFC程式鍵模時會使顆粒排列緊密,即無微裂隙產生,故使用隨機分佈鍵結強度才可優良模擬花崗岩音射行為。(3)模擬處置隧道使用60m*60m邊界模擬岩體範圍,開挖時施加現地應力(垂直13.5MPa水平10.5MPa),隧道開挖分為兩階段開挖,即上部處置隧道和下部處置孔,當參數折減至0.20倍以下時頂拱才發生剝落破壞現象,而開挖上部處置隧道時,應力集中於隧道頂拱以及隧道壁上,隧道底部弧形區域屬於無應力區,而開挖下部處置孔時,應力集中於頂拱以及處置孔底部,處置孔底到處至隧道底部三角形區域為無應力區,而應力集中去即為隧道破壞開始之位置,破壞型態以張裂破壞為主,但有也部分剪力破壞產生。(4)模擬處置孔開挖採10m*10m邊界模擬岩體範圍,開挖時施加現地應力(垂直17.5MPa水平10.5MPa),當參數折減至0.25倍以下時隧道壁才發生剝落破壞現象。
英文摘要 In the granite rock geological deep disposal, is the current international mainstream disposal of high radioactive waste way, is buried in the depth of about 300 ~ 1000m in a stable geological environment, so that the radiation intensity before reaching the biosphere has been attenuated to The degree of neglect.The rock mechanics stability of geological deposition openings in the deep ground for high level radioactive wastes is a stress-dominated problem. The stability of underground openings is mainly controlled by the applied in-situ stress. The rock strength and in-situ stress are the key parameters to evaluate the safety function of rock openings.used single-axis compression testto verify the PFC simulation results. The PFC simulation parameters of the Kimmen granite were obtained by uniaxial compressive strength(UCS)、Young's modulus(E)、Pineson ratio and the failure type. Simulate the damage caused by deep excavation of tunnels and holes.
The main conclusions of this paper are as follows:(1)use PFC2D to simulationKimmen graniteuniaxial compression testbehavior,It key factors as respectively:1.UCS:Normal strength of parallel bond( n)、Shear / Normal strength of parallel bond( s/ n) and shear/normal stiffness of parallel bond(ksp/knp). 2.E:Normal stiffness of particle (kn)、particle shear/normal stiffness(ks/kn)、normal stiffness of parallel bond(knp)、shear/normal stiffness of parallel bond(ksp/knp). 3. ν: shear/normal stiffness of parallel bond(ksp/knp).Except shear/normal stiffness of parallel bond(ksp/knp) the otherparameterstrength and stiffness do not affect each other.(2)using single bond strength mode can not be goodsimulation of Kimmen granite AE behavior,Becausegranite is cemented by multiplemineral,so cementedstrength is not the same,and PFC will make the particles arranged closely,so do not have micro creak behavior,so using random bond strength mode can simulationgood AE behavior of Kimmen granite.(3) Using 60*60m range to simulation rock mass in excavation tunnel,Before excavation tunnel use wall to exert present stress(σv=13.5MPa, σh=10.5MPa),Tunnel excavation is divided into two-stage excavation, that is, the upper tunnel and the lower hole,when strengthparameter reduced to 0.2 times, Tunnelbegin to spalling at top of the tunnel.(4)Using 10*10m range to simulation rock mass in excavation hole,Exert present stress(σH=17.5MPa, σh=10.5MPa), when strengthparameter reduced to 0.25 times,Hole begin to spalling at wall of the hole.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
第一章緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 3
1.3研究進行邏輯 4
1.4研究進行步驟 5
1.5研究之內容 8
第二章文獻回顧 10
2.1坑道產生之剝落現象 10
2.2發生剝落之應力條件 12
2.3岩石中音射事件發生機制 15
2.4岩石應力應變曲線特性 18
第三章金門花崗岩力學行為統計與分析 20
3.1 離島花崗岩之破壞強度 22
3.2岩心破裂模式與單壓強度UCS之關聯性 28
3.3金門花崗岩應力應變曲線之特性 31
3.4金門花崗岩之長期強度 33
3.5 離島潛在場址的現地主應力特徵 37
3.6 臺灣離島潛在場址母岩的強度特性 40
第四章 PFC顆粒流程式分析介紹 45
4.1. PFC程式概述 45
4.2. PFC建模步驟 58
4.3 PFC程式穩定性分析 60
4.3.1-1 顆粒數 61
4.3.1-2顆粒粒徑比 63
4.3.1-3 等向應力 64
4.3.1-4孔隙比 66
4.3.1-5顆粒排列方式 67
4.3.2-1加壓速率 70
4.3.2-2運算時階 71
第五章單壓試驗模擬及參數探討 74
5.1 PFC參數影響分析 75
5.1.1-1顆粒之楊氏模數(Ec) 75
5.1.1-2顆粒勁度比(Ks/Kn) 76
5.1.1-3摩擦係數(μ) 77
5.1.2-1正向鍵結強度(σn) 79
5.1.2-2正向鍵結強度與切向鍵結強度比(σs/σn) 80
5.1.2-3鍵結之楊氏模數(Ep) 82
5.1.2-4鍵結徑度比(kns/Knp) 83
5.1.2-5鍵結寬度放大係數(λ) 84
5.2模擬離島花崗岩單軸壓縮試驗 87
5.3花崗岩破裂特性模擬分析 92
5.4 張剪參數比對AE影響 101
5.5綜合討論 105
第六章模擬處置坑道之破裂行為 106
6.1 隧道穩定性分析 108
6.2離島隧道開挖模擬 115
6.2-1模擬處置隧道開挖 115
6.2-2 模擬處置孔開挖 125
6.3 離島隧道開挖破壞案例 128
6.3.1處置隧道破壞 128
6.3.2處置孔破壞 132
6.4綜合討論 134
第七章結論與建議 136
7.1結論 136
7.2建議 137
參考文獻 139
附錄A-隨機分佈鍵結模式範圍影響 144
附錄B-碩士學位考試口試委員提問與回覆對照表 146


表目錄
表3.1-1金門花崗岩強度試驗資料(慶齡工業研究中心,1990) 24
表3.1-2大地材料強度性質變異係數CoV範圍( Phoon, 1995) 28
表3.5-1臺灣離島潛在場址地區之水力破裂試驗成果(台電 2010) 38
表4.3-1不同顆粒參數對楊氏模數與單壓強度影響 72
表5.1-1影響砂岩單壓強度與變形模數之PFC輸入參數及其關鍵性 74
表5.2-1一組優良模擬輸入參數 90
表5.2-2模擬離島花崗岩單壓均勻鍵結強度PFC建議輸入參數範圍 91
表5.3-1一組優良模擬輸入參數 98
表5.3-2模擬離島花崗岩單壓隨機分佈鍵結強度PFC建議輸入參數範圍 101
表5.3-3均勻鍵結強度下在尖峰強度下之張剪破壞比例 103
表5.3-4隨機鍵結強度下在尖峰強度下之張剪破壞比例 105

圖目錄
圖1.1-1瑞典規劃KBS-3深層地質處置坑道之配置觀念 1
圖1.1-2高放深層地質處置(應力主控)與低放儲存(弱面主控)之不同岩盤力學問題(楊長義, 2015) 2
圖1.3-1研究進行邏輯圖 5
圖1.4-1 台大岩力室MTS剛性壓力機試驗單壓應力
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