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系統識別號 U0002-0507201023562000
中文論文名稱 比較英國與法國核武戰略:過去、現在與未來
英文論文名稱 A Comparative Study of British and French Nuclear Strategies: The Past, Present, and Future
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 郭奕圻
研究生英文姓名 Ji-Chi Kuo
學號 696330041
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-18
論文頁數 199頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭大誠
委員-林中斌
委員-沈明室
中文關鍵字 中等核武國家  獨立  特殊關係  地緣政治 
英文關鍵字 Medium Nuclear States  Independency  Special Relationship  Geopolitics 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 作為歐洲中兩個重要的強權,英國與法國與其他傳統軍事強國最大不同之處在於擁有核子武器。在冷戰時期間美國建立了核保護傘後,英法也各自完成具有其特質的核武戰略。在北約的軍事架構下,兩國的核武也為西歐安全事務發揮其重要之價值。
  儘管兩國的同質性很高,除了都是中等核武國家之外,歷史背景也有許多相同經驗,冷戰時期是以蘇聯為主要的假想敵,更是近代非常重要的民主國家,但英法的核武戰略發展卻有截然不同的樣貌。英國重視與美國和北約的同盟關係,雖然強調核武的獨立性,但英國核武戰略始終維持與美國之間的「特殊關係」,其表現更突顯了英美之間特有的戰略文化;法國在發展核武之初和英國同樣遭遇過許多挫敗,然而法國是以更保守與堅決的姿態,建立出獨立性相當高的核武戰略,與美國的關係不像英美般的密切,因此「核武三元」的建立過程中,法國人比英國人更強調國防自主。 
  本文以歷史演變的方式研究過去雙方發展的過程;並進針對目前的相關議題作分析,以了解兩國現階段的戰略情勢,最後再探討可預見之未來態勢。本文發現,導致雙方出現如此差別的核武態勢的主因,除了歷史經驗的不同之外,地緣政治所形塑的戰略環境,更能解釋何為兩國條件原本一致的國家,最後發展出差異性明顯的核武戰略,此乃研究本議題重要之要素。
英文摘要 In retrospect, the United Kingdom and France have demonstrated
distinct features in their development of nuclear strategies. Although
London and Paris both see the former Soviet Union as a potential adversary
during the Cold War period, their approaches of nuclear solution differed
significantly. Britain attached great importance to its Special
Relationship with the United States while emphasizing its nuclear
independency. France, by contrast, had gone through all the vicissitudes
to establish an independent nuclear triad on its own since its leadership
made the decision to go nuclear.
This thesis is aimed to be a comparative research of British and French
nuclear strategies with personal assessment. It also focuses on current
nuclear issues and policies in order to acquire a better understanding
of these two medium-sized nuclear weapons state at present and in the
near future. One of the major findings is to make clear why British and
French nuclear strategies differ from an evolutionary perspective. As
argued in this thesis, unique geopolitical environments could be a
possible explanation. Hopefully this comparative study can make some
contribution in the field of nuclear strategy studies.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
一.研究動機 1
二.研究目的 3
第二節 研究方法與途徑 5
一.文獻分析法 5
二.比較分析法 5
三.演化研究法 6
第三節 研究範圍與限制 6
一.研究範圍 6
二.研究限制 8
第四節 重要文獻之回顧 9
一.重要西文文獻 9
二.相關中文文獻 11
三.資料的來源處 11
第五節 章節安排與架構 13
第二章 核子武器與嚇阻戰略 15
第一節 核子武器原理與效應 15
一.核分裂和原子彈 16
二.核融合和氫彈 17
三.核爆效應和影響 18
第二節 淺論核武戰略與理論 20
一.中等核武國家之特質 20
二.核武戰略之形式與特性 21
三.嚇阻與大規模毀滅性武器 27
第三節 結語 30
第三章 英國核武發展與沿革 31
第一節 冷戰時期 31
一.草創時期(1945-1956年) 31
二.互助時期(1956-1962年) 36
三.分工時期(1962年-) 43
第二節 後冷戰時期 49
一.後冷戰時期的兵力態勢 49
二.布朗政府的核武政策(2007-2010年) 52
第三節 現階段的核武戰力 54
一.先鋒級彈道飛彈潛艦 55
二.UGM-133三叉戟D-5潛射彈道飛彈 57
第四章 法國核武發展與沿革 60
第一節 冷戰時期 60
一.第四共和政府(1945-1958年)-起步與萌芽 60
二.戴高樂(1959-1969年) 63
三.龐畢度(1969-1974年) 67
四.季斯卡(1974-1981年) 70
五.密特朗(1981-1988年) 74
第二節 後冷戰時期 78
一.密特朗(1988-1995年) 78
二.席哈克(1995-2007年) 81
三.薩克奇(2007年-) 85
第三節 現階段的核武戰力 89
一.核打擊武力之核武庫 89
二.凱旋級彈道飛彈潛艦 90
三.達梭超級軍旗攻擊機 96
四.達梭幻象2000N戰鬥攻擊機 98
五.達梭飆風戰鬥機 100
第五章 英法核武戰略之比較與特質 106
第一節 獨立原則與思想 106
一.英國的主體觀點 106
二.法國的代表思想 108
第二節 英法核武政策的變遷 111
一.戰略文化的研究與探討 111
  二.英國核武政策之演變 113
三.法國核武思想之變革 125
第三節 發展核武的動機 129
一.英國的動機 129
二.法國的動機 130
三.共同的遭遇-1956年蘇彝士運河危機 134
第四節 發展最低嚇阻能力 135
一.英國的最低嚇阻力量 136
二.法國的中小規模核力量 137
第五節 與北約的相互關係 139
一.英國與北約的相互關係 139
二.法國與北約的相互關係 145
第六節 使用核武的方式 148
一.英國的使用準則 148
二.法國的「首先使用」核武 151
第七節 英法核武技術的合作 152
一.原子武器研究所 152
二.原子能委員會 153
三.英法核技術合作之動機 153
四.雙邊合作之歷史與過程 154
五.檢討 157
第八節 裁軍、廢核與防擴散 157
一.英國之觀點 157
二.法國之觀點 161
第九節 對無核武理想的看法 164
一.美國之倡議 164
二.部分核武國家的看法 165
第十節 結語 168
第六章 結論 168
參考資料 180
一.中文部分 180
二.西文部分 181
附件 197
附件一:各核武國家原子彈與氫彈首次試爆紀錄表 197
附件二:各核武國家簽署「禁止核武擴散條約」(NPT)和「全面禁止核武試爆」(CTBT)條約時間表 198

附件三:2008-2009年北約會員國的預算支出貢獻表(百分比計算) 199

圖表目錄
表3-1 1950 至1998 年重要出口國之出口百分比…………………………………36
表3-2 英國戰略核彈頭數量表(1962-1970)……………………………………..43
表3-3 英國歷年核武器的種類……………………………………………………..48
表3-4 後冷戰時期三叉戟潛艦維護經費之比較…………………………………..53
表3-5 先鋒級潛艦建造與服役歷程表……………………………………………..56
表3-6 三叉戟飛彈性能諸元………………………………………………………..59
表4-1 戴高樂時期核武占軍事預算之比例表……………………………….…….65
表4-2 冷戰時期第五共和政府之主要財政支出比較……………………………..77
表4-3 現階段法國核武庫…………………………………………………………..90
表4-4 凱旋級潛艦建造與服役歷程表……………………………………………..92
表4-5 M-4 與M-45 型性能諸元比較………………………………………………94
表4-6 M-51 型性能諸元…………………………………………………………….95
表4-7 超級軍旗基本諸元…...…………………………………………..………….98
表4-8 幻象2000N 性能諸元………………………………………………………100
表4-9 飆風B 型性能諸元…………………………………………………………102
表4-10 ASMP 性能諸元………………………..…………………………………..104
表4 -11 法國歷年核武器的種類………………………………………………….105
表5-1 美軍戰術核武在歐洲的部署狀況…………………………………...…….141
表5-2 英國海基戰略核武之比較…………………………………………………145
表5-3 現階段世界各國戰略與戰術核武數量……………………………………167
圖1-1 文章架構圖…………………………………………………………………..14
圖2-1 核分裂連鎖反應圖…………………………………………………………..16
圖2-2 氫彈內部構造圖………………………………………………………..……17
圖2-3 美國新舊三元示意圖………………………………………………………..27
圖3-1 皇家空軍V 式轟炸機………………………………………………….……37
圖3-2 雷神中程彈道飛彈………………………………………………………..…39
圖3-3 天雷空射飛彈與閃光彈道飛彈………………………………....…………..42
圖3-4 英國第二代核力量…………………………………………………………..45
圖3-5 先鋒級彈道飛彈潛艦………………………………………………………..57
圖3-6 三叉戟潛射彈道飛彈………………………………………………………..59
圖4-1 幻象IV 式戰轟機…………………………………………………………….65
圖4-2 法國第二與第三代核力量……………………………………………..……70
圖4-3 法國M-20 型潛射飛彈與火成岩飛彈………………………………………73
圖4-4 S-3 型彈道飛彈與超級軍旗戰機…………………………………………….77
圖4-5 凱旋級彈道飛彈潛艦……………………………………………..…………92
圖4-6 M-4、M-45 與M-51 型潛射飛彈之外觀比較………………………………94
圖4-7 M-51 型飛彈………………………………………………….……………….95
圖4-8 掛載ASMP 飛彈的超級軍旗…………………………………….…………97
圖4-9 掛載ASMP 飛彈的幻象2000N……………………..………………..….…99
圖4-10 掛載ASMP 飛彈的飆風戰機……………………………………………..102
圖4-11 ASMP 中程空對地飛彈……………………………………………………104
圖5-1 北約文職與軍職架構圖……………………………………………………143
圖5-2 歐洲核武部署與位置圖……………………………………………………148
圖5-3 英國海軍潛艇基地…………………………………………………………160
圖6-1 歐洲核心利益因素之相互關係……………………………………………174


參考文獻 一.中文部分
1.書籍
André Baufre著,鈕先鍾譯,《戰略緒論》,(台北:麥田,1996)
Corrnelius Ryan著,黃文範譯,《奪橋遺恨:市場花園作戰》,(台北:麥田,1994)。
Frank Barnaby著,高嘉玲譯,《怎樣製造一顆核子彈》,(台北:商周,2004)
Henry Kissinger著,林添貴、顧淑馨譯,《大外交(下)》,(台北:智庫文化,1998)
Otto Berzins著,林國雄譯,《核子武器》,(台北:台灣中華書局,1972)
王仲春,《核武器、核國家、核戰略》,(北京:時事,2007)
朱浤源,《撰寫博碩士論文時實戰手冊》,(台北:正中,2005)
胡康大,《英國政府與政治》,(台北:揚智,1997)
祝康彥,《核能、生物及化學武器》,(台北:黎明,1986)
翁知銘,《話中有劃-美中戰略經濟對話》,(台北:秀威,2009年)
陳偉華,《軍事研究方法論》,(台北:國防大學,2003)
彭懷恩主編,泰俊鷹、潘邦順譯,《法國政治體系》,(台北:風雲論壇,2000)
閻學通、孫學峰,《國際關係研究實用方法》,(北京:人民,2007)
鍾堅,《爆心零時-兩岸邁向核武歷程》,(台北:麥田,2004年)

2.雜誌或期刊
王志鵬,《台灣水下艦隊之路》,全球防衛雜誌,(2008年6月)
何松奇,〈冷戰後的法國軍事轉型〉,《軍事歷史研究Military Historical Research》,第3期,(2007年)
范仁志,《歐洲國家的核武戰略》,全球防衛雜誌260期,(2006年4月),頁90-99。
孫曄飛,〈法國核武,唯海"獨尊"〉,《環球軍事》,第177期,(2008年7月)
常想、張紳,〈法國的新核武政策與重返北約問題〉《軍事連線》,第9期,(2009年3月),頁98-106
陳拓安,〈曲高和寡,孤芳自賞-法蘭西高空寶石飆風全能戰機〉,《尖端科技》,第253期,(2005年9月)
鄭大誠,〈東風起.巨浪升-中國核武發展現況〉,《科學人雜誌》,NO.70(2007年12月),頁42-46。
鄭大誠,〈英美核武關係〉,《國防雜誌雙月刊》,第595期,(空軍司令部:民國95年12月1日,台北),頁3-32。
鄭大誠,〈英國核武政策〉,《空軍學術雙月刊》,第21卷第1期,(國防大學:民國95年1月1日,龍潭),頁6-21。
鄭大誠,〈英國核武戰略-儎具發展演變與美國政策影響〉,《國防雜誌》,第18卷第16期,(國防大學:民國92年10月1日,龍潭),頁92-106。

3.論文
陳世民,《中共核武戰略的形成與轉變 1964~1989年》,(碩士論文,台灣大學,1992年)

4.網路
季平,「自民黨議員願與保守黨共享權力 英聯合政府成形」,中央廣播電台,http://
news.rti.org.tw/index_newsContent.aspx?nid=242351&id=1&id2=2
吳寧康,「胡錦濤:中國堅持反對核武擴散」,中央廣播電台,http://news.rti.org.tw
/index _newsContent.aspx?id=1&id2=2&nid=239008
章念生,「聚焦核政策和反導係統問題 北約商討新戰略構想」,新華網,http://
big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/news.xinhuanet.com/world/2010-04/23/c
1250624.htm
鄭大誠,「英國核武更新已箭在弦上」,今日新聞Now News,http://www.nownews
.com/2007/03/14/142-2066260.htm

二.西文部分
1. Books
Ball, Desmond and Richelson, Jeffery (ed.), “Strategic Nuclear Targeting”, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1986)
Baylis, John, Ambiguity and deterrence: British nuclear strategy, 1945-1964, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)
Baylis, John, British Defence Policy in a Changing World, (London: Croom Helm, 1977)
Beach, Hugh and Gurr, Nadine, Flattering the Passions or, the Bomb and Britain’s Bid for a World Role , (London: I.B. Tauris, 1999)
Bhushan, K., Katyal, G., Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare, (New Delhi: S.B. Nagia, 2002)
Boyer, Yves, Lellouche, Pierre and Poper, John (ed.), French and British Nuclear Forces in a Era of Uncertainty, Nuclear Weapons in the Changing World: Perspective from Europe, Asia, and North America, (New York: Plenum Press, 1992)
Bozo, Frédéric, Translated by Emanuel, Susan, Two Strategies for Europe: De Gaulle, the United States, and the Atlantic Alliance, (New York: Rowan & Littlefiled Publishers, Inc, 2001)
Byrd, Peter, British Defence Policy: Thatcher and Beyond, (Great Britain: Philip Allan, 1991)
Canovale, Marco, The Control of NATO Nuclear Forces in Europe, (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1993)
Carroll, Eugene F., Nuclear Weapons and Deterrence, (The Nuclear Crisis Reader, New York: A Division of Random Jouse, 1984)
Carter, Ashton B. & Schwartz David N, Ballistic Missile Defense, (Washington D.C: The Bookings Institution press 1984)
Cassel, Christine K., McCally, Michael. and Abraham, Henry (ed.), Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War: A Source Book for Health Professionals (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1984)
Chui, Daniel Y., Between the Lines: Nuclear Weapons and the 2006 QDR, (Washington D.C: IISS, 2006)
Cirincione, Joseph with Wolfsthal, John B. and Rajkumar, Miriam, Deadly Arsenals: Tracking Weapons of Mass Destruction, (Washington D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2002)
Cirincione, Joseph, Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons, (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007)
Clarke, Magnus, The Nuclear Destruction of Britain, (London: Croom Helm, 1982)
Dockrill, Michael and Young, John W. (ed.), British Foregn Policy, 1945-56, (London: ThE Macmillan Press, 1989)
Dockrill, Michael, British Defence since 1945, (USA: Basil Blackwell, 1989)
Donalson, Gary, Modern America: A Documentary History of the Nation Since 1945, New York: M.E Sharp Inc., 2007.
Duignan, Peter, NATO: Its Past, Present ,and Future, (USA: Hoover Institution Press, 2000)
Edwards A.J. C., Nuclear Weapons, The Balance of Terror, The Quest for Peace, (New York: State University, 1986)
Enhorn, Robert J., Controlling Fissile Materials and Ending Nucleat Testing, (International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament, February 26-27 2008)
Feiveson, Harold (ed.), The Nuclear Turning Point: A Blueprint for Deep Cuts and De-alertingof Nuclear Weapons, (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1999)
Finnis, John, Boyle, Joseph, and Grisez, Germain, Nuclear Deterrence , Morality, and Realism, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)
Flynn, Gregory and Rattinger, Hans, The Public and Atlantic Defense, (New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld, 1985)
Frears, J.F., France in Giscard Prsidency, (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.,1981)
Freedman, Lawrence, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, (London: Macmillan, 2003)
Freedman, Lawrence, The Rational Medium-Sized Deterrecne Forces, (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs,1980)
Friend, Julius W., The Long Presidency: France in the Mitterrand Years, 1981-1995, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1998)
Goldstein, Avery, Deterrence and Security in the 21st Century: China, Britain, France and Enduring Legacy of Nuclear Revolution, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000)
Gordon, Philip H., A Certain idea of France, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993)
Groom, A. J. R., British Thinking about Nuclear Weapons, (London: Frances Pinter,1974)
Grove, Eric, Vanguard to Trident: British Naval Policy Since World War II, (London: Naval Inst Pr, 1987)
Heuser, Beatrice, NATO, Britain, France and the FRG: Nuclear Strategies and Forces for Europe 1949-2000, (London: The Ipswich Book Company Ltd, 1997)
Holdstock, Douglas and Brnaby, Frank with a Foreword by Rotblat, Joseph, The British Nuclear Weapons Programme 1952-2002, London: (Frank Cass Publishers, 2003)
Hopkins, John C. and Wu, Wexing(ed.), Strategic Views from the Second Tiers: The Nuclear Weapons Policies of France, Britain and China, (New Brunswick, NJ: Tansaction, 1995)
Howorth, Jolyon and Chilton, Patricia, Defence and Dissent in Contemporary France, (New York: St. Martins Press , 2001)
Ifestos, Panayiotis, Nuclear Strategy and European Security Dilemmas: towards an autonomous European defence system?, (USA: Avebury, 1988)
International Institute of Strategic Studies, Nuclear Warfare and Deterrence, (New York: Routledge, 2006)
International Institute of Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 1883-84, (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1983)
International Institute of Strategic Studies, The Military Blance 2009, (London: Routledge, 2008)
Jackson, Paul, Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft 2004-2005 - 95th Sub edition (June 2004), (Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Information Group,2004)
Kaplan, Lawrence S. NATO and the United States: The Enduring Alliance, (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1988)
Kohl, Wilfrid L., French Nuclear Diplomacy, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1971)
Kolodziej Edward A., The Grandeur that was Charles, The Review of Politics, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977)
Krause, Joachim and Wenger, Andreas (ed.), Nuclear Weapons into 21st Century, (Berlin: Peter Lang AG, 2001)
Lackey, Douglas P., Moral principles and nuclear weapons, (New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld Publishers, 1984)
Laird, Robbin F., France, the Soviet Union, and the Nuclear Weapons Issue, (London: Westview Press, 1985)
Larkin, Bruce D., Nuclear Design: Great Britain , France, & China in the Global Governance of Nuclear Age New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1997.
Le prestre, Philippe G. (ed.), French Security Policy in a Disarming World: Domestic Challenges and International Constraints, (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1989)
Lennox, Duncan, Jane’s Strategic Weapon System - Jane’s 48th edition, (Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, January 2008)
Mackby, Jenifer and Cornish, Paul (ed.), U.S.-UK Nuclear cooperationafter 50 years, (Washingtion D.C.: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2008)
Maclean, Mairi (ed.), The Mitterrand Years: Legacy and Evaluation, (London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1998)
McNaught, L. W., Nuclear Weapons and their effects, (London: Brassey’s Publishers, 1984)
Menon, Anaud, France, NATO and The Limits of Independence 1981-97: The
Menual, Stewart, Countdown: Britain’s Strategic Nuclear Force, (London: Robert Hale, 1980)
Moore, John E., Jane’s Fighting Ships, 1983-1984, (London: Jane’s Publishing Co., 1984)
Moore, Richard, The Royal Navy and Nuclear Weapons, (London: Frank Cass, 2001)
Moreton, Edwina, Untying the Nuclear Knot, (Nuclear War and Nuclear Peace, London: Macmillan, 1983)
Nailor, Peter and Alford, Jonathan, The Future of Britain’s Deterrent Force, (England: McCorquodale(Newton) Ltd., 1980)
NATO Handbook, Nuclear Policy, (Brussel: NATO Office of Information and Press, 2001)
O’Connell, James, Decision over the future of British Nuclear Weapons, (London: Seacourt Ltd., December 2006)
Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan and Mango, Anthony, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: A to F, New York: Routledge, 2003.
Paterson, Robert H., Britain’s Strategic Nuclear Deterrence: from before V-Bombers to Beyond Trident, (London: Frank Cass, 1997)
Pedlow, George, The Evolution of NATO Strategy, 1949-1969, (Brussels: SHAPE, 1997)
Politics of Ambivalence, New York: Macmillan Press Ltd., 2000)
Quester, George H., Nuclear First Strike: Consequences of Broken Taboo, (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)
Reed, Thomas C. and Stillman, Danny B., The Nuclear Express: A political history of the bomb and its proliferation, (USA: Zenith Press, 2009)
Robbitt, Philip, Freedman, Lawrence and Traverton, Gregory F. (ed.), US Nuclear Strategy: a reader, (New York: New York University Press, 1989)
Ross, George, Hoffman, Stanley and Malzacher, Sylvia, The Mitterrand and Experiment: Continuity and Change in Modern France, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)
Ruston, Roger, A Say in the End of World: Morals and British nuclear weapons policy 1941-1987, (Torondo: Oxford University Press, 1990)
Sauders, Stephen, Jane’s Fighting Ships 2008-2009 - 111th edition, Coulsdon, (Surrey: Jane’s Information Group, 2008)
Schuwartz, David N., NATO’s Nuclear Dilemma, (Washington D.C: The Booking Institution,1983)
Scott C. Truver, “The Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean”, (Netherland: Sihthoff & Noordhoff Internatuional Publishers BV, 1980)
Sigal, Leon V., Nuclear Forces in Europe: enduring dilemmas, present prospects, (Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1984)
Sonia, Mazey and Newmanc Michael(ed.), Mitterrand’s France, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987)
Speed, Roger, Strategic Deterrence in the 1980s, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1979)
Stocker, Jeremy, The United Kingdom and Nuclear Deterrence, (London: Routledge, 2007)
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI Yearbook 2009: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)
Taylor, John W.R., Jane’s all the world aircraft 1987-88 - 78th year of issue, (Coulsdon, Surrey : Jane's Information Group, 1987)
Taylor, Michael, Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft, (New York: Gallery Books, 1987)
Thody, Philip, The Fifth French Republic: Presidents, Politics and Personalities, (London: Routledge, 1998)
Till, Geoffery(ed.), The Future of British Sea Power, (London: Macmillan, 1984)
Treacher, Andrian, French Interventionism, (England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003)
Wieseltier, Leon, Nuclear War and Nuclear Peace, (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1985)
Wynn, Humphrey, RAF Nuclear Deterrence Forces: their Origins, roles, and development 1946-1969, (London: HMSO, 1994)
Williamson, Samuel R. and Rearden, Steven L., The origins of U.S. nuclear strategy, 1945-1953, (New York: Saint Martin’s Press Inc., 1993)

2.Dissertation
Delbosque, Marilyn. From Neutrality To War: Russian Revolution Had To Do With
(Woodrow) Wilson’s Decision Enter To The Great War (Dr. Dennis J. Dunn,
Dr. Theodore T. Hindson.Texas State University, 2009)
Julius A. Riogle, The Strategic Bombing Campaign Against Germany During World War II, B.S. East Tenessee State University ,1989, May 2002.
Young, Marcus R. France, De Gaulle and NATO: The Pardox of French Security Policy (Dr. Mary Hampton. Air Command and Staff Collage Air University, 2006)

3.Reports and Periodical
Algridge, Bob, “Trident Submarines: American and British”, Pacific Life Research Center, PLRC, Rvised 7 February 1999.
Alford, Johnathan, “The Place of British and French nuclear weapons in arms control”, International Affairs, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Autumn, 1983)
Arkin, William M. and Kristensen, Hans, “The Post Cold War SIOP and Nuclear Warfare Planning: A Glossary, Abbreviations, and Acronyms”, Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005.
Barnaby, Franck C., ”How Sates Can Go “Nuclear?”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 430, Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects, Problems, and Proposals (Mar., 1977)
Barnaby, Frank, “Nuclear Terrorism: The Risks and Realities in Britain”, Oxford Research Group, 2003.
Berry, Ken, “Draft Treaty on Non-First Use of Nuclear Weapons”, ICNND Research Coordinator, June 2009
Black, Jeremy, “Debating Britain and Europe, 1688-1815”, British Scholar ,Vol. I, Issue 1, September 2008
Blechman, Barry (ed.), Unlocking the Road to Zero: Perspectives of Advanced Nuclear Nations, The Henry L. Stimson Center, February 2009.
Boniface, Pascal, “French Nuclear Weapon Policy After the Cold War”, The Atlantic Council of The United States, August 1998.
Born, Hans, “National Governance of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities and Constraints”, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), Policy Paper – №15.
Bozo, Fédéris, ”France and NATO under Sarkozy: End of French Eception?” Foudation pour l’Innovation Politique, March 2008.
Bradford Disarmament Research Centre, “Facts about Trident”, Univisity of Bradford, 2008.
Brakman, Steven, Garretsen, Harry and Schramm, Mark, “The Strategic Bombing of German Cities During World War II and Its Impacts od Citiy Growth”, CESIFO Working Paper No. 808, Novermber 2002.
Burwell, Frances G., Gompert, David C., Lebl, Leslie S., Lodal, Jan M. and Slocombe, Walter B., ”Transatlantic Transformation: Building An NATO-EU Security Architecture”, The Atlantic Council of the United States Policy Paper, 2006
Butcher, Martin, ”Redoutable on Nuclear Policies and NATO Strategic Concept Review”, House of Commons, London, January 12 2010.
Butcher, Martin, Nassauer, Otfried, Padberg, Tanya and Plesch, Dan, “Questions of Command and Control: NATO, nuclear sharing and the NPT, Project of European Nuclear Non-proliferation, 2000.
Butler, Declan, “France seeks to clean up nuclear image”, Nature 380, no. 6569, 7 March 1996.
Butler, Nicola and Bromley, Mark, “The UK’s Trident System in the 21st Century”, British American Security Information Council, November 2001.
Cameron, Alastair, Edited by Crow, Alexis, “France’s NATO Reintegration: Fresh Views with the Sarkozy Presidency?”, RUSI Occasional Paper, Frbruary 2009.
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, “The Cost of British Nuclear Weapons” , CND Briefing: The cost of British nuclear weapons, March 2007.
Carnesale, Albert and Glaser, Charles, “ICBM Vulnerability: The Cures are Worse Than the Disease”, International Security, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Summer, 1982)
Chatel, Luc, “La France dans l’OTAN”, Le secrétaire d’Etat chargé de l’Industrie et de la Consommation, Porte-Parole du Gouvernement, N°94 - 12 mars 2009.
Chu, David S.C. and Davison, Richard H., “The US Sea-Based Strategic Force”, before the Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Research and Development United States Senate, April 2, 1980.
Cirincione, Joseph with Wolfsthal, Jon B.and Rajkumar, Miriam, “Deadly Arsenal: Tracking Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2002
Collin, Jean-Marie, “Sarkozy and French nuclear deterrence”, British American Security Information Council Getting to Zero Paper, NO.2 (Jul 15 2008)
Conference, 11-14 February 2009.
Cook’s comment, Memoranda submitted by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 28 June 2000, Q.207.
Cooley Thomas F. and Ohanian, Lee E., “Postwar British Economic Growth and Legacy of Keynes”, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol.105, No.3, (Jun. 1997)
Cooley Thomas F. and Ohanian, Lee E.,“Postwar British Economic Growth and Legacy of Keynes”, The Journal of Political Economy, Vol.105, No.3, (Jun. 1997)
Cornish, Paul and Dorman, Andrew, “Blair’s wars and Brown’s budgets: from Strategic Defence Review to strategic decay in less than a decade”, International Affairs 85: 2 (2009)
Coşkun, Bazen Balamir, “Does Strategic Culture Matters? Old Europe, New Europe, and Transatlantic Security”, Perceptions, Summer-Autumn 2007.
Daalder, Ivo and Goldgeier, James, “Global NATO”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, No. 5, September/ October 2006.
Dawson, Raymond H., “What Kind of NATO Nuclear Force? ”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 351, The Changing Cold War, Jan. 1964,
de Hass, Marcel, “An Analysis of Soviet, CIS, and Russian Military Doctrines 1990-2000”, The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, Vol. 14, No. 4, December 2001.
Debouzy, Olivier, A European Vocation for The French Nuclear Deterrence?, Western European Nuclear Force: a British, a French, a American View, (Santa Monica: RAND, 1995)
Delbosque, Marilyn, “From Neutrality To War: Russian Revolution Had To Do With (Woodrow) Wilson’s Decision Enter To The Great War”, Texas State University.
Durr Jr., Charles W., “Nuclear Deterrence in the Third Millennium”, Strategy Research Project, 9 April 2002.
eJournal USA, “A World Free of Nuclear Weapons”, U.S. Department of State / February 2010 / Volume 15 / Number 2.
Etzioni, Amitai, “Pe-emptive Nuclear Terrorism in a New Global World”, UK: The Foreign Policy Centre, 2004
Feiveson, Harold F. and Hogendoorn, Ernst Jan, “No First Use of Nuclear Weapons”, The Non Proliferation Review, Summer 2008.
Gallis, Paul, “NATO’s Decision-Making Procedure”, Congressional Research Service, May 5 2003.
Giles, George, “The Evolution of British Nuclear Strategy, Doctrine, and Force Posture”, Minimum Nuclear Deterrence Research, USA: SAIC Strategic Groups, May 15 2003.
Giles, Greg, Cohen, Candice, Rezzano, Christy and Whitaker, Sara, “Future Global Nuclear Threats ”, SAIC Strategic Group, 4 June 2001.
Grimmett, Richard F., “Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008”, Congressional Research Service, September 4, 2009.
Golino, Louis, “Britain and France Face the New European Architecture”, European Community’s Internal and External Agendas, May 24 1991.
Grove, Steven, “The “New START” Treaty: Did the Russians Have Their Fingers Crossed?”, The Heritage Foundation, No. 2861, April 14, 2010.
Guthe, Kurt, “The Nuclear Posture Review: How is the “New Triad” New?”, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment, 2002.
Henri-Soutou, George, ”Three Rifts, Two Reconciliaiotns: Franco-American Relations During The Fifth Republic”, European University Institute Working Paper ,Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies NO.2004/24.
Herpen, Marcel H. Van, “Why France rejoin NATO: Wooing Britain?”, Cicero Foundation Great Debate Paper No. 09/1, 2009.
Hoffman, Stanley, “De Gaulle, Europe, and Atlantic Alliance”, International Organization, Vol. 18, No. 1 (Winter, 1964)
Holdstock, Douglas (ed.), “Britain’s New Nuclear Weapons: Illegal, Indiscriminate, and Catastrophic for Health”, Medact: Challenge barrier to healths.
Imai, Ryukichi, ”Weapons of Massive Destruction: Major Wars, Regional Conficts, and Terrorism”, Asia-Pacific Review, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2002.
Ingram, Paul, “Decision over the future of British Nuclear Deterrence”, BASIC, December 2006.
Irondelle, Bastien, “Rethinking the Nuclear taboo: The French perspective”, CCW Research Fellow.
Johnson, Rebecca, Butler, Nicola, Pullinger, Stephen, “Worse than Irrelevant: British Nuclear Weapons in the 21st Century”, Acronym Institute for Disarmament Policy, 2006.
Joint Working Group of AAAS, the American Physical Society, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies, “Nulcear Weapons in 21st century U.S National Security”, CSIS, December 2008.
Jones, P. G. E. F., Overview of History of UK Strategic Weapons, unpublished paper, written date unknown.
Jones, Sian, “NATO and Nuclear Weapons: A Challenge across Europe”, The Broken Rifle, February 2009, No. 81.
Katsioulis, Christos & Pilger, Christoph, “Nuclear Weapons in NATO’s New Strategic Concept: A Chance to Take Non-Proliferation Seriously”, International Policy Analysis, May 2008.
Kohl, Wilfrid L., “The French Nuclear Deterrence, “The Atlantic Community” Reappraise”, The Academy of Political Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1968.
Kristensen, Hans M., ”U.S Nuclear Weapons in Europe”, Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005.
Kristensen, Hans M., Norris, Robert S. and Oelrich, Ivan, “From Counterforce to Minimum Deterrence: A New Nuclear Policy to Path Toward Eliminating Nuclear Weapons”, Federation of American Scientists & National Resources Defense Council Occasional Paper No.7, April 2009.
Ladwig,Walter C., “The Future of British Nuclear Deterrence: A assessment of Decision Factors”, Center for Contemporary Conflict, January 2007.
Lafont Rapnouil, Manuel and Smith, Julianne, “NATO and France”, CSIS, 2006.
Lantis, Jeffery S., “Strategic Culture and Tailroed Deterrence: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice”, Contempory Security Policy Vol. 30 No. 3, December 2009.
Larsen, Jaffery A., ”The Future of U.S Non-Strategic Weapons and Implications for NATO: Drifting Toward the Foresseable Future”, A report prepared in accordance with requirements of 2005-06 NATO manfred Wörner Fellowships for NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 31 October 2006.
Le Gloannec, Anne-Marie, “The EU and Nato’s New Strategic Comcept”, CERI, mai 2010.
Major, Claudia, “The French White Paper on Defence and National Security”, Center for Security Studies,Vol.3 No.48, December 2008.
Martinsen, Per M., “The European and Defence Policy (ESDP) – A Strategic Culture in the Making?”, Paper prepared for ECPR Conference Section 17 Europe and Global Security Marburg, 18-21 September 2003.
Maulny, Jean-Pierre, Edited by Crow, Alexis, “France’s NATO Reintegration: Fresh Views with the Sarkozy Presidency?”, Royal United Services Institute, Occasional Paper, February, 2009.
Medalia, Jonathan, “France”, Nuclear Weapons R&D Organization in Nine Nations , Congressional Research Service, March 16 2009.
Mendl, Wolf, “The Background of French Nuclear Policy”, International Affairs, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1965)
Mian, Zia, Meerburg, Arend ,and Von Hippel, Frank, “Scope and Verification of a Fissile Materail (Cut) Treaty”, Interational Panel on Fissile Materails Conference on Disarmament, Geneva, 21August 2009.
Michael Nivens, Ryan, “The Evolution of Franco-American Relations in The Twentieth Century”, Maryville College, Fall 2009.
Milne T., Beach H., Finney J. L., Pease R. S., Rotblat J., “An End to UK Nuclear Weapons”, British Pugwash Group, 2002.
Mix, Derek, “United Kingdom”, Nuclear Weapons R&D Organization in Nine Nations , Congressional Research Service, March 16 2009.
Moore, Richard, “The Real Meaning of the Words: a Pedantic Glossary of British Nuclear Weapons”, UK Nuclear History Working Paper number: 1 , Mounbettan Centre of international studies.
Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet, Gisela, “France's New NATO Policy: Leveraging a Realignment of the Alliance?”, Strategic Studies Quarterly, Winter 2009
Nassauer, Otfried, “The NPT and Alliance Nuclear Policy”, Non-Proliferation and NATO Nuclear Policy, Seminar Report, the Netherlands Parliamentarians for Global Action, Hague, 3 November 2000.
Nelson, Robert, “Nuclear Weapon: How they works”, Union Concerned Scientists, July 2007.
New START Treaty U.S Senate Breifing Book, A Joint Product of United States Departments of States and Defense, April 2010.
Nicolas K. J. Witney, The British Nuclear Deterrence After the Cold War, (Washington D.C: RAND, 1995)
Norris, Robert S. and Kristensen, Hans M., ” French nuclear forces, 2001”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: Nuclear Notebook, Vol. 64, No.4, July/August 2001.
Norris, Robert S. and Kristensen, Hans M., ” French nuclear forces, 2008”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: Nuclear Notebook, Vol. 64, No.4, September/October 2008.
Norris, Robert S. and Kristensen, Hans M., ”British nuclear force, 2005”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: Nuclear Notebook, Vol.6, No.6, November/December 2005.
Parmedo, Philip F., “The debate on the Force de Frappe takes shapes”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1964.
Patrick M. Cronin and Audrey Kurth Cronin,“Challenging Deterrence: Strategic Stability in the 21st Century”, A Special Joint Report of International Institute for Strategic Studies and Oxford Unversity Changing Character of War Prgramme, February 2007.
Patterson, William R., “The Hungarian Revolution”, ODU Model United Nations
Perkovich, George, “The Obama Nuclear Agenda One Year After Prague”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, March 31 2010.
Quinlan, Michael, “The British Experience”, The Future of UK Nuclear Weapons: Shaping the Debate, International Affairs 82, no. 4 (July 2006).
Riecke, Henning, ”Nuclear Disarmament and the 2010 NPT Review Conference: The Position of Major European Players”, European Foreign and Security Policy Programme, Ap:2008nr4/11.
Rogers, Paul, “The Nuclear Connection”, Bulletin of American Scientists: A New European Defense, September 1988.
Rotblat, Joseph, “The Future of British Bomb”, WMD Awareness Programme, 2006.
Stantchev, Branislav L., “National Security Strategu: Flexible Response, 1961-1968”, San Diego: University of California , Department of Political Science, December 25 2009.
Sokolski, Henry D., “Getting MAD: Nuclear Assured Destruction, Its Origins and Practice”, Army War College (U.S.). Strategic Studies Institute, Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, November 2004.
Stewart, William A., “Counterforce, Damage-Limiting, and Deterrence”, RAND , July 1967.
Stocker, Jeremy, “Missile Dfence – Then and Now”, The Officer Magazine 35, November/December 2004.
Swedish Physicians against nuclear Weapons, “Learn About Nuclear Weapons 2008”, Swedish Peace and ArbitrationSociety.
Sweet, William, “Nuclear Notebook”, The Bulletin of American Scientists, September 1993.
Taylor, Clair, “Future of British Nuclear Deterrence: A Congress Report”, International Affairs and Defence Section.
Tertrais, Bruno, “A Comparison Between US, UK and French Nuclear Policies and Doctrines”, Centre National de la Reserche Scinetique, February 2007.
Tertrais, Bruno, “Nuclear Policy: France stands alone”, Bulletin of American Scientists, July/August 2004.
Tertrais, Bruno, “The Last to Disarm? The Future of France’s Nuclear Weapons”, London: Routledge, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, July 2007.
Tertrais, Bruno, The French Nuclear Deterrence After The Cold War, Washington D.C: RAND, 1998.
The International Institute of Strategic Studies, “New START provides for significant arms cuts”, IISS Strategic Comments, Volume 16, Comment 13 – April 2010.
Thielmann, Greg and Fellow, Senior, “New START Verification: Fitting the Means to the End”, Analysis on Effective Policy Responses to Weapons-Related: Security Threats, February, 22 2010.
Thomsen, Vibeka Brask, “France: Disarming or Upgrading?”, European Security Review, No.41, November 2008.
Thomsen, Vibeke B., “President Obama: A Leader for European Nuclear Disarmament?”, European Security Review, Number 46, October 2009
Van Herpen, Harcel H.,” Chirac’s Gaullism: Why France has become the driving force behind an autonomous European Defence policy ”, The Romanian Journal of European Affairs, vol.4, No. 1, May 2004.
Vanpen, Marchel H., “Sarkozy, France, and NATO: Will Sarkozy’s Rapprochement to NATO be Sustainable? ”, The National Interest, No. 95, May/June 2008.
Walker, William, “President-elect Obama and Nuclear Disarmament: Between Elimination and Restrain”, Security Studies Center, Winter 2009.
Wall, Irwin M., “The French-American War Over Iraq”, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, New York University: Center for European Studies, Winter/Spring 2004, Volume X, Issue 2.
Wendt, James C., “British and French Strategic Forces: Response Options to Soviet Ballistic Missile Defense”, RAND, March 1986rs, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jul., 1966)
Wetterqvist, Fredrik, “French security and defence policy: current developments and future prospects”, National Defence Research Institute Department of Dfence Analysis.
Withington, Thomas, “French’s Naval Nuclear Deterrence – Modernisation nears completion”, Naval Force, V/2008.
Woolf, Amy F., “Non Strategic Nuclear Weapons”, CRS Report for Congress, January 14 2010.
Yost, David S., “France’s Evolving Nuclear Strategy”, Survival vol. 47 no.3, Autumn 2005.
Yost, David S., France’s Deterrent Posture and Security in Europe Part I: Capabilities and Doctrine, London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1984.
Yost, David S., France’s Deterrent Posture and Security in Europe Part II: Capabilities and Doctrine, London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1984.
Youngs, Tim and Taylor, Claire, “Trident and the future of British Nuclear Deterrence”, International Affairs and Defence Section, 5 July 2005.

4.Documents
Answer by Minister of State, FCO, Peter Hain, Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, Vol. 349, London: HMSO, 3 May 2000, 84WH.
AWE Annual Report 2008-09, UK: Atomic Weapon Establishment, 2008.
Communication pour la Table Ronde, “ L’énonciation des normes internationales “, Congrès de l’Association française de science politique, Lyon 14-16 septembre 2005.
Daniel Y. Chui, “Between the Lines: Nuclear Weapons and the 2006 QDR”, Washington D.C: IISS, 2006.
Defence White Paper, London: HMSO, 2004.
House of Commons Defence Committee, “The Future of UK’s Strategic Nuclear Deterrence: The Strategic Context: Government Response to the Committee’s Eight
Report of Session 2005-06, HC 1558, London: The Stationery Office Limited, 24 July 2006.
DEFE 7/1111 Note enclosed with Melville to Chilver, 24 May 1957.
House of Commons Defence Committee, “The Future of UK’s Strategic Nuclear
Deterrence: The Strategic Context: Government Response to the Committee’s
Eight Report of Session 2005-06, HC 1558, London: The Stationery Office
Limited, 24 July 2006.
Livre Blanc sur la Défense 1994, collection des rapports officiels, La Doucumentation Française , Paris: 1994.
Livre Blanc sur la Défense et la Sécurité Nationale 2008, Paris: Odile Jacob/La Documentation Française, june 2008
Loi de programmation militaire 2003-2008, DICoD: Opale/Istra , Octobre 2008.
National Security Strategy of United Kingdom: Security in an independent world,
Cm7291, March 2008.
NATO document – NATO Nuclear Forces, “NATO’s Nuclear Forces in the New Security Enviroment”, 03 Jun 2004.
Secretary of State for Defence by Command of Her Majesty, Deterrence and
Disarment, Defence” , Strategic Defence Review, Cmnd 3999, London: HMSO, 1998.
Statement On Defence 1955, Cmnd 9391, London: HMSO, February 1955
Statement on the Defence Estimate 1969, Cmnd 3927, London: HMSO,
Fabruary 1969.
Strategic Ddefence Review Supporting Essay, London: HMSO, 1998.
The Future of United Kingdom’s Nuclear Deterrence, Cm 6994, London: HMSO, 2006.
The French White Paper on Defence and National Security, Paris: Odile Jacob/La Documentation Française, june 2008.

5.Internet
About.com. http://www.about.com/
Air Force technology. http://www.airforce-technology.com/ airforce-technology.com
Air Vectors: Dassault Combat Jets. http://www.vectorsite.net/idx_cdso.html
BASIC Research Report. http://www.basicint.org/pubs/Research/2004PMC.htm
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Centre de document et de recherché sur la paix et les conflicts. http://obsarm.org/index.htm
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Encyclopedia-Online Dictionary. http://www.encyclopedia.com/
Federal American Scientist. http://www.fas.org/
France 24 International News. http://www.france24.com/en/
French Weapon Database – French Nuclear Delivery Systems. http://www.cdi.org/issues/nukef&f/database/frnukes.html
Global Security. http://www.globalsecurity.org
guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/
Host Site Homepage Directory. http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Home.html
Los Alamos: Britain and the Bomb. http://stewy6.tripod.com/atomic/britain.htm
Mail Online. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/index.html
Martin J. Sherwin, ” The Atomic Bomb and the Origins of the Cold War”, http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~hst203/readings/sherwin.html
Naval-technology.com. http://www.naval-technology.com
New American Foundation. http://www.newamerica.net/
Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/
Nuclear Threat Initiative. http://www.nti.org/index.php
Ohmy News International Global Watch. http://english.ohmynews.com/
People’s Daily Online, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/
Royal United Services Institute. http://www.rusi.org
Spiegle Online International. http://www.spiegel.de/
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). http://first.sipri.org/
Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/
The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/
The Nuclear Weapons Archive – A Guide to Nuclear Weapons. http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/
The Quotations Page. http://www.quotationspage.com/
The Vancouversun. http://www..com/news/France+will+rejoin+NATO+command+Sarkozy/1378274/story.html
ThinkProgress. http://wonkroom.thinkprogress.org/
UK Joint Delegation to NATO. http://uknato.fco.gov.uk/
United States Navy. http://www.navy.mil/swf/index.asp
WMD Awareness Programme. http://www.wmdawareness.org.uk/
World Military Forum- Lastest Military News. http://www.armybase.us/
Xinhua News. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/
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