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系統識別號 U0002-0507201021533600
中文論文名稱 過度教育、肥胖與薪資
英文論文名稱 Overeducation, Obesity and Wage
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 鄧淇尹
研究生英文姓名 Chi-Yin Teng
學號 697540606
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-15
論文頁數 117頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡登淵
委員-陳鎮洲
委員-鄒孟文
中文關鍵字 過度教育  肥胖  薪資  帕比特與兩階段最小平估計模型 
英文關鍵字 Overeducation  Obesity  Wage  Probit and Two Stage Least Squares Model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 在本文章裡,我們主要使用高等教育研究中心92學年度大學三年級和93學年度大學畢業後一年的問卷調查來探討高等教育女性畢業生初次進入勞動市場時的過度教育現象。在過度教育的衡量方法上,本文不僅採取以往文獻所使用的教育年數測度方式,並加入初次就業工作者在第一份職務中期望能夠學習到的職業技能作為區分過度教育型態的一項指標。從單一型態延續探討兩種相異型態─表面過度教育與真實過度教育─下的過度教育。此外,我們將主要影響過度教育的變數設定成三種類別,分別是「體重觀測指標」、「學門」和「職業部門」,並建立樣本選擇模型 (Sample Selection Model) 與多項邏輯模型 (Multinomial Logit Model) 各別分析單一同質型態與兩種異質型態下的過度教育決定因素。最後,我們假設當工作者存在一些無法觀察到的特質同時影響過度教育與薪資而產生內生性,則本文藉由帕比特 (Probit) 與兩階段最小平方估計 (Two Stage Least Squares,2SLS) 模型分析過度教育對薪資的影響效果。
  從實證結果得到,當假設工作者為完全替代下,則隨著體重越重越容易產生單一型態的過度教育。在學門方面,商學門、數理學門、營建建築學門、工程工藝、觀光運輸、農林漁牧、以及醫學學門都相較於人文藝術學門和教育學門更容易發生過度教育現象。在職業部門方面,與教育研究部門相較,研究開發部門的工作者較能夠獲得同等學歷的職務。若假設工作者非完全替代下,則醫學學門以及營建建築學門的畢業生較容易為了學習專業技能技術而產生表面過度教育。而肥胖族群(BMI≧27)則有可能因為社會對於肥胖的負面觀感或是歧視而產生真實過度教育的現象。在不考慮工作者存在的異質特性可能同時影響過度教育與薪資,則產生的內生性偏誤將可能低估過度教育的估計係數。
英文摘要 This study uses the Higher Education Research Centre Database─the same female students’ questionnaire in university of 92 third-grade school year and after Academic Year 93 university to focus on overeducation phenomenon of higher education graduates entering the labor market for the first job. For the measurement of overeducation, we consider not only the quantity of schooling, but also the skill types of occupation as an indicator of the match between workers and jobs. Then we expand a single definition into two different ways, one is apparent overeducation, the other one is genuine overeducation. We also control other observed socioeconomic factors and set them into three categories: "body weight indicators", "type of schooling" and "occupational sector”. In addition, we examine the characteristics of overeducated workers by the method of Heckman (1979) of Sample selection model to deal with sample selection bias, and Multinomial logit model. When we estimate the effect of wage on overeducation, however, there is measurement error in overeducation or some unobserved factors affect wages and overeducation respectively. In order to correct the endogeneity of overeducation, we use Probit and Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) model at the same time.
Empirical results show that, graduates who have heavy weight are more likely to be in high risk of overeducation when all individuals with a given education are perfect substitutes .In the faculty of degree, graduates of the business , mathematics and physics, architectural and construction, engineering technology, tourism and transportation, agriculture, forestry, fishery and animal husbandry, and medicine are more likely to be overeducated than graduates of the humanities and arts faculty , but graduates of the education faculty are less likely to be overeducated. In the occupational sector, graduates who work in the research and development sector are less likely to be overeducated than graduates who work in the education and research. Given that workers are non-perfect substitute; those majoring in medicine and agriculture probably accept the positions which are apparently overeducated due to on-the-job training, working experience or skills. On the contrary, obesity(BMI≧27) will have genuine overeducation because they suffer from discrimination in society that prevents them from finding a suitable job. Finally, the unobserved factors induce the endogeneity bias problem which underestimates the coefficient of overeducation.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒言 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 本文研究架構 5
第二章 文獻回顧 9
第一節 過度教育文獻 9
第二節 分析體重影響勞動市場之文獻 15
第三章 實證方法與模型 17
第四章 資料來源與樣本結構特性 27
第一節 資料來源 27
第二節 樣本篩選 28
第三節 變數定義 28
第四節 樣本結構分析 33
第五章 實證結果 45
第一節 過度教育工作者的特質 45
第二節 過度教育下的薪資效果 51
第三節 過度教育異質特性 58
第四節 表面/真實過度教育對薪資的效果 67
第六章 結論 75
參考文獻 77
附錄 82

表目錄
表格1- 1:各級畢業生升學率 6
表格1- 2:15歲以上人口教育程度 8
表格4- 1:變數定義與敘述統計表 31
表格4- 2:身體質量指數與就業關係分配表 35
表格4- 3:學校類型與就業關係分配表 35
表格4- 4:學門分類與就業關係分配表 35
表格4- 5:身體質量指數與過度教育關係分配表 37
表格4- 6:學門分類與過度教育關係分配表 40
表格4- 7:職業部門與過度教育關係分配表 43
表格5- 1:過度教育的決定因素—樣本選擇模型 47
表格5- 2:過度教育對薪資的效果—一般最小平方估計模型 53
表格5- 3:過度教育對薪資的效果—樣本選擇模型 54
表格5- 4:過度教育對薪資的效果—帕比特&兩階段最小平方估計模型 56
表格5- 5:表面過度教育與真實過度教育決定因素—多項邏輯模型 60
表格5- 6:表面過度教育與真實過度教育決定因素—邊際效果 64
表格5- 7:表面/真實過度教育對薪資的效果—一般最小平方估計模型 70
表格5- 8:表面/真實過度教育對薪資的效果—樣本選擇模型 71
表格5- 9:表面/真實過度教育對薪資的效果─帕比特與兩階段最小平方估計模型 73
附錄表1- 1:Hausman and Wu內生性檢定(模型一)─無體重觀測指標 82
附錄表1- 2:Hausman and Wu內生性檢定(模型二)─肥胖(BMI≧27) 85
附錄表1- 3:Hausman and Wu內生性檢定(模型三)─過重或肥胖(BMI≧24) 88
附錄表1- 4:Hausman and Wu內生性檢定(模型四)─身體質量指數與身體質量指數平方 91
附錄表2- 1:Rivers and Vuong內生性檢定(模型一)─無體重觀測指標 94
附錄表2- 2:Rivers and Vuong內生性檢定(模型二)─肥胖(BMI≧27) 98
附錄表2- 3:Rivers and Vuong內生性檢定(模型三)─過重或肥胖(BMI≧24) 102
附錄表2- 4:Rivers and Vuong內生性檢定(模型四)─身體質量指數與身體質量指數平方 106
附錄表3- 1:不相關方案獨立性(IIA)檢定 110
附錄表4- 1:過度教育(Dummy variable)對薪資的效果—一般最小平方估計模型 111
附錄表4- 2:過度教育(Dummy variable)對薪資的效果—樣本選擇模型 112
附錄表4- 3:過度教育(Dummy variable)對薪資的效果—帕比特&兩階段最小平方估計模型 114
附錄表5- 1:Sargan test(排除性檢定)與LR test(相關性檢定) 116
附錄表6- 1:F test(排除性檢定)與LR test(相關性檢定) 116

圖目錄
(圖4- 1)不同身體質量指數(BMI)分類下過度教育的相對比例 37
(圖4- 2)不同身體質量指數(BMI)分類下的平均過度教育年數 38
(圖4- 3)不同身體質量指數(BMI)分類下的平均月薪資 38
(圖4- 4)不同學門分類下過度教育的相對比例 40
(圖4- 5)不同學門分類下平均的過度教育年數 41
(圖4- 6)不同學門分類下平均的月薪資 41
(圖4- 7)不同職業部門下過度教育的相對比例 43
(圖4- 8)不同職業部門下平均的過度教育年數 44
(圖4- 9)不同職業部門下平均的月薪資 44
(圖5- 1)未考慮其他控制變數下,身體質量指標與就業表現間的關係 49
(圖5- 2)考慮其他控制變數下,身體質量指標與就業表現間的關係 49
(圖5- 3)未考慮其他控制變數下,身體質量指標與過度教育間的關係 50
(圖5- 4)考慮其他控制變數下,身體質量指標與過度教育間的關係 50

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