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中文論文名稱 美國簽訂「中美共同防禦條約」決策過程之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on the U.S. Decision-making Process of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of The Americas
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 李達人
研究生英文姓名 Ta-jen Lee
學號 890220030
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-25
論文頁數 320頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳一新
委員-包宗和
委員-趙春山
委員-裘兆琳
委員-蔡瑋
中文關鍵字 蔣介石  決策理論  艾森豪  政府政治模式  杜勒斯  組織行為模式  台海危機  理性行為者模式 
英文關鍵字 Chiang Kai-Shek  Decision-Making Theory  Dwight D. Eisenhower  Governmental Politics Model  John F. Dulles  Organizational Behavior Model  Taiwan Strait Crisis  Rational Actor Model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美台在1954年12月2日簽署之「中美共同防禦條約」,維護台灣免於中共武力攻擊,奠定台灣往後數十年安全穩定之基礎。此項在冷戰期間簽署的防約,體現美台對付共同威脅,互蒙利害之緊密雙邊關係。然而,對國府而言,該條約的簽訂過程似乎並不順利。冷戰伊始,美國為防堵共產勢力擴張,分別與亞洲各國簽訂雙邊或多邊聯盟條約,形成圍堵共產勢力的太平洋聯防體系。但隨著韓戰停戰及中南半島情勢初步底定,華府卻仍遲遲不願與中華民國簽訂雙邊協防條約。
本論文以艾里遜 (Graham T. Allison) 之決策理論,亦即「理性行為者模式、組織行為模式、政府政治模式」為主要分析架構,並參酌國際體系理論及聯盟理論,提出若干假設,以檢視相關理論對本論文之適用性。主要資料來源為美國國家檔案局、艾森豪總統圖書館及國務院編輯出版之FRUS系列之解密美國政府官方文件。此外,美台相關決策參與官員之回憶錄亦為相關參考資料來源。前開資料對於重建防約起源、政策考量及談判過程等事實真相,均甚有助益。
由理性行為者模式觀之,國際情勢變動為重要因素。美國艾森豪政府因恐拖往一場與中共的戰爭,本無意與國府簽署防約。惟其態度在第一次台海危機爆發後改變。以權力平衡角度觀之,此是國家合力對付已經或即將出現的衝突與威脅之結果,美台即在冷戰期間合作以對抗共黨勢力擴張。
由組織決策模式的角度來看,政府是由許多專責部門所構成,每個部門均盼掌握決策影響力,在本案例中,軍方主張強硬回應台海危機之建議未被採納,最後由國務卿杜勒斯主導的聯合國安理會停火案及與國府締約的雙管齊下策略獲得青睞。而國務院遠東事務局及美國駐台大使館及相關官員諸如遠東事務助卿羅柏森(Walter S. Robertson)、駐台大使藍欽 (Karl L. Rankin)及中國科科長馬康衛(Walter P. McConaughy)爭取與國府簽署防約甚力,凸顯主管地域局及駐地使館之決策影響力。
政府政治模式則可檢視各行政部門主事者之間權力拔河以及決策參與者與總統間互動關係。對艾森豪外交政策影響至鉅的國務卿杜勒斯是本案例主導人物,杜勒斯掌握與艾森豪總統之間的行動管道,其提出由紐西蘭在安理會提出解決外島軍事危機決議案的構想,最後被採納成為政策。
本論文研究指出,艾森豪政府雖因不願捲入與中共的戰爭而遲未與中華民國簽訂共同防禦條約,但因第一次台海危機爆發等國際情勢變遷,促使美國改變立場,進而同意在條約適用範圍僅限台澎,不包括金馬外島,以及國府不得擅以武力攻擊中共之條件下,與國府簽署防禦條約。
英文摘要 In the context of the Cold War, the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, concluded on December 2, 1954, secured the ROC from invasion by the PRC in the aftermath of the Chinese Civil War. Thus, for Taiwan, it laid the foundation of security and stability for decades.
Signed in the Cold War era, this treaty represented an embodiment of the close relationships between the US and the ROC in terms of their shared interest in coping with communism. However, from the perspective of the ROC, the process of signing this treaty seemed to be a rugged one. On the one hand, at the onset of the Cold War, the US endeavored to form a Pacific united front to contain communism by concluding a series of bilateral or multilateral security treaties with a few Asian countries. On the other hand, with the armistice reached in the Korea Peninsula and the situation of Indochina primarily stabilized, the US was still reluctant to enter into a defense treaty with the ROC.
This dissertation aims to analyze the decision-making process of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty on Graham Allison’s three decision-making models, namely, the Rational Actor Model (RAM), the Organizational Behavior Model (OBM), and the Governmental Politics Model (GPM), together with the theories of the international systems and alliance. Hypotheses are generated accordingly to examine the application of the relevant theories. Meanwhile, the primary sources for this dissertation are declassified US government documents available at the National Archives, the Eisenhower Presidential Library, and the FRUS series edited by the Department of States, as well as the biographies and memoirs of both American and Taiwan’s government officials involved in the decision-making process. All these sources have made possible a reconstruction of the initiation, consideration, and negotiation of this treaty.
Concerning the RAM, the Eisenhower administration had no intention to enter into a security treaty with the ROC because it was unwilling to be dragged by this treaty into a major war with mainland China. However, unfriendly elements from the communist bloc created a necessity for the agreement. Among those elements, the offshore islands were an ignition point. The first Taiwan Strait Crisis became a crucial incident that expedited the conclusion of US-ROC security treaty. From the view of balance of power, this treaty politically acted to oppose the communist coalition, which tended to pursue a position of predominance.
In the light of the OBM, government leaders rely on the standard operating procedures (SOP) of governmental organizations to obtain policy alternatives. Therefore, all governmental organizations seek to have influence to pursue their objectives. Their positions on issues are affected by the desire to maintain influence. From this point of view, the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, American Embassy in the Republic of China, and Walter S. Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Karl L. Rankin, Ambassador to the ROC, and Walter P. McConaughy, Director for the Office of Chinese Affairs in the State Department, advocated the treaty with full efforts. Meanwhile, Eisenhower apparently preferred the State Department’s proposal to ask New Zealand to bring up a cease-fire resolution in the UN Security Council to solve the so-call “horrible dilemma”. Thus, the Department of Defense’s previous tough proposal to respond to the Taiwan Strait Crisis was rejected by President Eisenhower because it was thought to be too risky.
From the perspective of the GPM, a nation's actions are best understood as the result of politicking and negotiation by its top leaders. The decision-making process is usually regarded as a tug-of-war among government officials. Just like playing a game, in every decision-making process, players try to win the support of the president by pulling and hauling at each other. In this regard, Secretary of State John F. Dulles’s action-channel to President Eisenhower made him a dominant figure in the entire process. The idea of cease-fire proposal to UN brought up by Dulles, while agreeing to negotiate the defense treaty with the ROC, was adopted as the final policy of the US.
This dissertation indicates that although the Eisenhower Administration, unwilling to be involved in a major war against the PRC, was reluctant to conclude a mutual defense treaty with the ROC. However, after the outbreak of the first Taiwan Strait Crisis, the US changed its position and finally decided to sign the defense treaty on the condition that this treaty was limited in application to the defense of Taiwan and the Pescadores only, with Quemoy and Matsu not protected, and that the ROC was prevented from initiating any military action against mainland China.
論文目次 美國簽訂「中美共同防禦條約」決策過程之研究
目錄
第一章 緒論 ……………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究目的與研究主旨 ……………………………………………………1
第二節 研究方法、範圍與限制及章節安排……………………………………13
第三節 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………………22
第四節 小結………………………………………………………………………36
第二章 理論與假設……………………………………………………39
第一節 國際體系理論……………………………………………………………46
第二節 聯盟理論…………………………………………………………………51
第三節 決策理論…………………………………………………………………57
第四節 小結………………………………………………………………………74
第三章 理性行為模式下美國與國府締約之決策過程………………77
第一節 韓戰前後美國對華政策之國內外因素…………………………………78
第二節 台海危機前美國遲不願與國府締約……………………………………93
第三節 台海危機成為締約催化劑 ……………………………………………108
第四節 小結 ……………………………………………………………………129
第四章 組織行為模式下美國政府各部門之政策建議 ……………133
第一節 軍方有關台海危機之因應建議對締約之影響 ………………………135
第二節 國務院內不同意見之調和 ……………………………………………145
第三節 國務院意見在國安會脫穎而出 ………………………………………168
第四節 小結 ……………………………………………………………………182
第五章 政府政治模式下決策參與者之議價與妥協…………………189
第一節 艾森豪決策風格 ………………………………………………………191
第二節 杜勒斯掌握「行動管道」優勢 ………………………………………208
第三節 美台防約談判過程─官僚執行決策之觀點 …………………………233
第四節 小結 ……………………………………………………………………250
第六章 結論 …………………………………………………………253
參考書目 ………………………………………………………………267
附錄1 「中美共同防禦條約」英文本……………………………………301
附錄2 「中美共同防禦條約」中文本……………………………………306
附錄3 葉公超與杜勒斯有關「中美共同防禦條約」換函 .…………316


圖表目錄
圖目錄
圖2-1 同心圓模型………………………………………………………40
圖2-2 因果漏斗模型……………………………………………………42
圖2-3 國家行為與體系互動影響關係…………………………………47
圖5-1 艾森豪決策模式 ………………………………………………193

表目錄
表1-1 美國在亞太與各國簽訂安全條約一覽表………………………… 2
表1-2 「中美共同防禦條約」簽訂前後相關紀事一覽表 ………………12
表1-3 相關決策官員人名對照表……………………………………… 21
表2-1 理論運用與分析層次關係表…………………………………… 45
表2-2 假設一覽表……………………………………………………… 73
表5-1 艾森豪總統決策風格情形一覽表 …………………………… 208
表5-2 國安會改革方案─出席人員簡表………………………………229
表5-3 「中美共同防禦條約」談判過程簡表 …………………………245
表6-1 假設驗證結果一覽表 ………………………………………… 257
表6-2 決策理論之檢討一覽表 ……………………………………… 261
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張其昀(主編),1984。《先總統蔣公全集,第3冊》。台北:中國文化大學出版部。
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陳明,2001。《布希新政府之兩岸政策走向》。台北:遠景基金會。
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陳一新,2004。《戰略模糊中的美中臺新圖像》。台北:遠景基金會。
陳一新,2007。《危機潛伏:布希政府第一任期從平衡到失衡的兩岸政策》。台北:博揚文化。
陳永發,2001。《中國共產革命七十年(下冊)》。台北:聯經出版社。
陳永發,2001。《中國共產革命七十年(上冊)》。台北:聯經出版社。
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陶文釗(主編),1999。《中美關係史1949-1972》。上海:上海人民出版社。
陶涵 (Jay Taylor) 著,林添貴譯,2000。《臺灣現代化的推手—蔣經國傳》。台北:時報出版社。
陶涵(Jay Taylor),林添貴譯,2010。《蔣介石與現代中國的奮鬥〔下卷〕(The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China)》。台北:時報出版社。
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舒衷正,1954。《艾森豪威爾遠東政策之分析》。台北:東南出版社。
華慶昭,1992。《從雅爾塔到板門店》。北京:中國社會科學院。
楊奎松(主編),2006。《冷戰時期的中國對外關係》。北京:北京大學出版社。
楊奎松,1999。《走向破裂-毛澤東與莫斯科的恩恩怨怨》。香港:三聯出版社。
溫強,2005。《肯尼迪政府與中國-「遏制但不孤立」政策的緣起》。天津:天津古籍出版社。
葉飛,1986。《葉飛回憶錄》。北京:解放軍出版社。
葉飛,1988。《征戰紀事》。上海:上海藝文出版社。
裘兆琳(主編),1993。《美國外交與危機處理》。台北:中央研究院歐美研究所。
資中筠,1987。《美國對華政策的緣起和發展》。重慶:重慶人民出版社。
資中筠,1992。《美國對臺政策機密檔案1949-1989》。台北:海峽評論雜誌社。
資中筠、何迪(編),1991。《美台關係四十年》。北京:人民出版社。
賈慶國,1998。《未實現的和解-中美關係的隔閡與危機》。北京:文化藝術出版社。
劉 曉,1998。《出使蘇聯八年,1955-1962》。北京:中共黨史出版社。
劉正侃(譯),艾森豪原著,1986。《艾森豪報告書》。台北:國防部史政編譯局。
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潘朝英、賴丹尼,1966。《越南與越南危機》。台北:徵信新聞報社。
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錢 復,2005。《錢復回憶錄(卷一)》。台北:天下遠見出版有限公司。
閻學通、孫學峰,2001。《國際關係研究實用方法》。北京:人民出版社。
戴超武,2003。《敵對與危機年代-1954-1958年的中美關係》。北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
戴萬欽,1992。《甘迺迪政府對中蘇共分裂之認知與反應》。台北:中正書局。
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關中,1977。《美國外交與對華政策》。台北:幼獅文化事業公司。
蘇格,1998。《美國對華政策與台灣問題》。北京:世界知識出版社。
顧維鈞,中國社會科學院近代史研究所譯,1989。《顧維鈞回憶錄》。北京:中華書局。
專文
包宗和,1987/1。〈中美關係的長期取向〉,《美國月刊》,第1卷第9期。
林正義,1989。〈美國總統運用國家安全會議之研究〉,孫同勛主編,《美國總統制之運作》。台北:中央研究院美國文化研究所。頁135-169。
林廷輝,2004/6。〈美國國家安全顧問與國務卿於外交政策制訂過程中之競爭關係〉,《通識研究集刊》,第5期,頁101-128。
林岩哲,1987/12。〈析論白宮國家安全顧問的角色〉,《問題與研究》,第27卷第3期,頁36-37。
林郁方,1993。〈甘迺迪政府處理古巴飛彈危機成功的因素〉,裘兆琳主編,《美國外交與危機處理》。台北:中央研究院歐美研究所。頁91-122。
林賢參,2009。〈台日關係與美日安保條約〉,何思慎、蔡增家主編,《「七二年體制」下臺日關係的回顧與展望》。台北:遠景基金會。頁117-152。
張淑雅,1990/6。〈美國對台政策轉變的考察(1950年12月-1951年5月)〉,《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》,第19期。
張淑雅,1991/6。〈Unleashing Chiang Kai-Shek? Eisenhower and the Policy of Indecision toward Taiwan, 1953〉,《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》,第20期。
張淑雅,1993/6。〈安理會停火案:美國應付第一次台海危機策略之一〉,《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》,第22期。
張淑雅,1994/6。〈《中美共同防禦條約》的簽訂:一九五○年代中美結盟過程之探討〉,《歐美研究》,第24卷第2期。
張淑雅,1994/6。〈台海危機前美國對外島的政策(1953-1954)〉,《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》第23期。
張淑雅,1995/6。〈金馬撤軍?美國應付第一次台海危機策略之二〉,《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》第24期。
張淑雅,1996/6。〈文攻武赫下的退縮:美國決定與中共舉行大使談判的過程分析,1954-1955〉,《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》,第25期。
張淑雅,1998/3。〈藍欽大使與一九五○年代的美國對台政策〉,《歐美研究》,第28卷第1期。
陳一新,1987/10。〈美國國家安全政策改革之背景〉,《美國月刊》,第2卷第6期,頁13-17。
陳一新,1991/6。〈從聯盟理論看亞太新安全體系〉,《美國月刊》,第6卷第6期,民國80年6月。
陳一新,1992/2。〈美國在「單極為主多極政經體系」中的新地位與挑戰〉,《美國月刊》,第7卷第2期。
陳一新,2000/1。〈柯林頓政府台海危機決策制訂過程-個案研究〉,《遠景季刊》,第1卷第1期。
陳一新,2000/12。〈美中台三邊關係研究之回顧與展望〉,何思因、吳玉山主編,《邁入二十一世紀的政治學》(中國政治學會政治學報特輯),第31 卷。
陳一新,2003/12。〈美伊戰爭前後國際政經體系變遷與美中臺三邊關係〉,《國際關係學報》,第18期,頁147-179。
陳明,1974/4。〈尼克森政府的國家安全會議-美國外交決策的協調管理組織〉,《問題與研究》,第13卷第7期,頁7-10。
黃秀端,1987/11。〈國務卿與國家安全顧問之權力角逐〉,《美國月刊》,第2卷第7期,頁11-19。
黃秀端,1990/10。〈總統、國務卿與國家安全顧問〉,《美國月刊》,第5卷第6期,頁18-29。
萬仞,1984/6。〈美國國家安全會議之回顧與評估〉,《中華戰略學刊》,73年夏季刊,頁118-152。
賈慶國,1998。〈美台共同防禦條約的締結經過〉,《美國研究》,第3卷第1期,頁10-15。
趙綺娜,1994/12。〈美國參議員史密斯與杜魯門政府的對華政策〉,《國立台灣大學歷史學系學報》,第18期。
蘇格,1990,〈美台共同防禦條約醞釀過程〉,《美國研究》,第4卷第3期,頁22-34。

學位論文
周湘華,2005。《中共在1954年台海危機行為之研究》,台北:中國文化大學中山學術研究所博士論文。
唐珮君,2003。《從決策理論看杜魯門政府第二任期中國政策之轉變(1948-1952)》,台北:淡江大學美國研究所博士論文。
孫紹正,2010。《美國政府在一九五八年台海危機之決策過程》,台北:淡江大學美洲研究所博士論文。
陳仲志,2008。《美國國家安全會議於對華外交決策過程之角色:以艾森豪、甘迺迪及尼克森政府為例》,台北:淡江大學美國研究所博士論文。

貳、英文部分
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Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Jr., Uri Ra’anan, eds., 1984. National Security Policy: The Decision-making Process. Connecticut: Archon Book.
Prados, John, 1991. Keeper of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc..
Rankin, Karl L., 1984. China Assignment. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Richardson, Elmo, 1979. The Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
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Rosenau, James N., 1971. The Scientific Study of Foreign Policy. New York: the Free Press.
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Dissertations
Chang, Jaw-ling Joanne, 1983. The Process of Normalization of Relations Between the United States and the People’s Republic of China, 1969-1978: A Retrospective Evaluation of Decision-making Models in US Foreign Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Maryland.
Chang, Su Ya, 1988. Pragmatism and Opportunism: Truman’s Policy toward Taiwan, 1949-1952. Ph.D. Dissertation. Pennsylvania State University.
Haney, Patrick Jude, 1992. Organizing for Foreign Policy: Presidents, Advisers, and Crisis Decision-making. Ph.D. Dissertation. Indiana University.
Li, Xiao-bing, 1991. Diplomacy through Militancy? The 1954-55 Chinese Offshore Islands Crisis: A Case Study in Sino-American Brinkmanship. Ph.D. Dissertation. Carnegie Mellon University.
Lin, Yu-fan, 1989. An Unequal Alliance: Exploring ROC-US Relations with a Special Emphasis on 1950s. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Virginia.
Nakatsuji, Keiji, 1985. The Strait in Crisis: America and the Long-term Disposition of Taiwan, 1950-1958. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Chicago.
Zhai, Qiang, 1991. The Dragon, the Lion, and the Eagle: Chinese-British-American Relations During the Cold War, 1949-1958. Ph.D. Dissertation. Ohio University.

Articles
Accinelli, Robert, 1990/Spring. “Eisenhower, Congress, and the 1954-55 Offshore Islands Crisis,” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 329-348.
Allison, Graham T., 1969/9. “Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 63, No. 3, 689-718.
Brands, H. W. Jr., 1988/Spring. “Testing Massive Retaliation: Credibility and Crisis Management in the Taiwan Strait,” International Security, Vol. 12, 124-125.
Chang, Gordon, and He Di, 1993/12. “The Absence of War in the U.S.-China Confrontation over Quemoy and Matsu in 1954-1955: Contingency, Luck, Deterrence?” American Historical Review, Vol. 98, No. 4, pp, 1500-1524.
Destler, I. M., 1980-81/Winter. “National Security Management: What President Have Wrought,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 573-588.
Dulles, John Foster, 1954/4. “Policy for Security and Peace,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 32, No. 3.
Falk, Stanley L., 1964/9. “The National Security Council under Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 403-434.
Foyle, Douglas, 1997/3. “Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Elite Beliefs as a Mediating Variable”, International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 141-169.
George, Alexander L., 1972/9. “The Case for Multiple Advocacy in Making Foreign Policy,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 66, No. 3, pp. 751-785.
Gordon, Leonard H. D., 1985/12. “United States Opposition to Use of Force in the Taiwan Strait, 1954-1962,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 72, No. 3, 637-660.
Greenstein, Fred I. and Immerman, Richard H., 2000/Autumn. “Effective National Security Advising: Recovering the Eisenhower Legacy,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 115, No. 3, pp. 335-345.
Hoffmann, Stanley, 1989. “Restraints and Choices in American Foreign Policy,” in G. John Ikenberry ed., American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company. pp. 38-67.
Hudson, Valerie M. and Vore, Christopher, 1995. “Foreign Policy Analysis: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow,” Mershon International Studies Review (MISR), Vol. 39.
Immerman, Richard H. 1979/Autumn. “Eisenhower and Dulles: Who Made the Decisions?” Political Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 21-38.
Kaplan, Morton A., 1957/9. “Balance of Power, Bipolarity and Other Models of International Systems,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 684-695.
Lijphart, Arend, 1971/9. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 3.
Morgenthau, Hans., 1961. “John Foster Dulles, 1953-1959”, in Norman A. Graebner, ed., An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries of State in the Twentieth Century. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Chapter 15.
Nelson, Anna Katsen, 1985/9. “President Truman and the Evolution of the National Security Council,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 360-378.
Oppenheim, Felix E., 1987/8. “National Interest, Rationality, and Morality,” Political Theory, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 369-389.
Peterson, Paul E., 1994/Summer. “The President’s Dominance in Foreign Policy Making,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 109, No. 2, pp. 215-234.
Rockman, Bert A., 1981/12. “America’s Department of State: Irregular and Regular Syndromes of Policy Making,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 75, Issue 4, pp. 911-927.
Rushkoff, Bennett C., 1981/Autumn. “Eisenhower, Dulles and the Quemoy-Matsu Crisis, 1954-1955,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp. 465-480.
Sander, Alfred D., 1972/9. “Truman and the National Security Council: 1945-1947,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 369-388.
Sigal, Leon V., 1970/6. “The Rational Policy Model and the Formosa Straits Crises,” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2, 121-156.
Singer, J. David, 1961/10. “The Level-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations,” World Politics, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 77-92.
Tucker, Nancy B., 1993. “China’s Place in the Cold War: the Acheson Plan,” in Douglas Brinkley, ed., Dean Acheson and the Making of US Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Whiting, Allen S., 2001/Autumn. “China’s Use of Force, 1950-96, and Taiwan,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 103-131.
Whiting, Allen S., 1975/6. “New Light on Mao: Quemoy 1958: Mao’s Miscalculations,” The China Quarterly, No. 62, pp. 263-270.
Willis, Gary, 1974. “The Hero as Political Leader,” in Paul S. Holbo, and Robert W. Sellen, eds. The Eisenhower Era: The Age of Consensus. Hinsdale. Ill.: Dryden Press, 1974, pp. 119-125.
X, 1947/7. “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 4.
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