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中文論文名稱 麥諾雷多與那瓦荷保留區:美國南北戰爭前後印地安政策轉變之研究(1850-1884)
英文論文名稱 Manuelito and the Navajo Reservation:The Study of American Indian Policy Between 1850~1884
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of The Americas
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 吳培德
研究生英文姓名 Pei-Te Wu
學號 891220039
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-07
論文頁數 232頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-趙國材
委員-劉興漢
委員-王高成
委員-柯大衛
中文關鍵字 天命論  自由土地論  同化政策  宅地法  創世神話 
英文關鍵字 Manifested Destiny  Free Land Theory  Assimilation Policy  Homestead Act of 1862  Navajo Creation Tale 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美國國家主義與擴張主義在一八五O年代起進入最高峰時期,期發展過程中遭遇最大阻礙出自於內部矛盾因素:其一是美西印地安人捍衛自己土地而引發的多年動盪不安,此情況直至一八九O年代才逐漸緩和;其二是南北方一是型態分裂而導致的內戰,其結果攸關國家發展與存亡。以上二種因素的交互作用,導致聯邦政府印地安政策混亂,使得白人與印地安人均受其害。美國西南方乾燥地區居住著一群美國最大的印地安族群那瓦荷族(Navajos),其領袖麥諾雷多(Manuelito),為爭生存權而對美國採取長期抗爭,在經過一連串的挫敗打擊後,率領所有族人改採和平理性方式與美國交涉,最後得到聯邦政府認同,歸還那瓦荷人故有土地,劃定保留區並發還財產提供補償,使得那瓦荷仁寶有祖先遺留之土地茁壯成長,麥諾雷多酋長亦成為那瓦荷族中最受尊敬人物之一。
本論文結合美國「天命論」所導引而出的西進運動,以及麥諾雷多承受挑戰所展現之「務實理性」為起點,探討當代美國發展與印地安人文化衝突與妥協後,雙方經過錯誤的嘗試與學習,重新建立的穩固和平關係。那瓦荷人與美國的衝突與妥協中,美國所掌控的關鍵因素包含西進運動的思潮影響聯邦政府的決策,教會的改革與大覺醒運動,改變了同化教育的內容,而政府內部官僚體系間之競合關係,亦操控了政府政策走向;這些因素均由美國政府與機構所掌控,那瓦荷人面對這些加諸於身的待遇僅能被動作出回應。那瓦荷人本身可掌控之內在因素則包含部落酋長集體決策以及其產生之效用,另外便是那瓦荷人渴望自治的心願,及其理想能夠實現可能性,這兩項關鍵因素的主控權操之於那瓦荷人本身。麥諾雷多以堅定意志努力促其實現,驗證其為「務實理想主義者」。
第一章 緒論。本論文研究動機與目的及詮釋方法與限制。
第二章 簡介那瓦荷族由來及對麥諾雷多早年成長背景作亦描述與分析,對其成年後決策方式產生之影響。
第三章 略述連年的美墨戰爭,統治權轉移,那瓦荷人遭受政治上強大衝擊時的反應與無奈;麥諾雷多在此階段遭受到親人被殺,土地喪失等劇變,此階段也是那瓦荷人反抗最激烈時期。
第四章 描述麥諾雷多心境對抗轉變妥協的歷程,麥諾雷多並未因投降而喪失奮鬥意志,但卻轉換為和平方式行之。
第五章 和平降臨,以理性方式交涉,獲得返回家鄉的對待。
第六、七章 麥諾雷多建立保留區新制序以及他晚年對那瓦荷人之貢獻。
第八章 分析美國與那瓦荷人交互影響之關鍵因素與麥諾雷多對族群之貢獻。
英文摘要 Since 1850s, the American nationalism and expansionism were escalate to a peak as the Federal government obtained new territory from Mexico. Prior to approach to the West, two interior problems would need to be solved: western Indians who fought against American in order to crowding out invaders from Indian land, Indian wars subsided after1890s; the other problem was the unharmonious between North and South within the Unio due to the ideological split, and it ended up by Civil War. Both events of the above cause great, including whites and Indians, property and life loss, plus one of the sub effects was the radical and ambiguity Indian policies that applied to Western Indian tribes. The Navajo, an ethnic tribe that lived in southwest part of America, lede by a great war chief Manuelito who fought against invasion from whites. After a series of failures, Manuelito learned to cope Americans with patience. He transformed himself from a war chief into a peace keeper, negociating by a pragmatic manner, and he held his promise to the very end. Federal government appreciated of what he’d done, land grant and compensations were then to occured. Manuelito became one of the most prominent chieves in American history.
There were three exterior factors that manipulating the fate of Navajos. First, the American weatward movement, which was led by the theory of “Manifested Dastiny,” people enthusiastically contributed to it. Second, churches linked Indian assimilation policy to Christianization, and played a critical role in the process of assimilation. And, third, the bureaucratic competition within the government affected the process of decision making. Noun of the above were handled by Navajos, they could only react after theoutside irritation occurred.
Navajos’ fate also affected by two interior factors which were dominated by Navajos themselves. The first was Indian tribal meeting, the powwow, through a collectively decision making approach, Navajo chiefs figured out the best reaction to the stimulation from the exterior. Second was Manueltio’s strong well of building up their own autonomous reservation. The very well supported Manuelito struggled for his people and categorized him to a pragmatic idealist.
論文目次 麥諾雷多與那瓦荷保留區
美國南北戰爭前後印地安政策轉變之研究(1850-1884)

目 錄
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機與目的—…………………………………………… 2
第二節 文獻分析……………………………………………………… 12
第三節 研究方法……………………………………………………… 17
第四節 研究範圍與限制……………………………………………… 21
第二章 那瓦荷傳說與麥諾雷多成長背景研究……………………………… 31
第一節 那瓦荷起源與創世神話…………………………………… 33
第二節 影響麥諾雷多人格養成的因素…………………………… 42
第三節 美國人取代了墨西哥人…………………………………… 49
第三章 混亂的年代…………………………………………………………… 63
第一節 西部領土主權之爭………………………………………… 64
第二節 麥諾雷多的戰爭…………………………………………… 74
第三節 工具卡森與驅趕那瓦荷行動……………………………… 83
第四節 六百英哩徒步遷徙………………………………………… 92
第四章 歷史的進程與心境的改變…………………………………………… 99
第一節 選擇歸降的心路歷程……………………………………… 99
第二節 波士奇雷東多保留區……………………………………… 107
第三節 心境轉變後的抉擇 歸降…………………………………… 119
第五章 和平降臨……………………………………………………………… 127
第一節 戰後重建與那瓦荷返鄉運動……………………………… 128
第二節 簽訂和平條約……………………………………………… 145
第六章 那瓦荷保留區草創時期……………………………………………… 155
第一節 重建家園…………………………………………………… 155
第二節 新秩序與新生活…………………………………………… 166
第三節 會見格蘭特總統之貢獻…………………………………… 176
第七章 那瓦荷守護者麥諾雷多……………………………………………… 187
第一節 維護傳統恢復民族尊嚴…………………………………… 187
第二節 麥諾雷多與同化教育……………………………………… 197
第八章 結論…………………………………………………………………… 213
第一節 操控那瓦荷人命運的外在因素分析……………………… 213
第二節 決定那瓦荷人命運的內在因素探討……………………… 222
第三節 展望與建議………………………………………………… 227


圖表目錄
表二之一:1848-1860年納瓦荷人口估計表……………………………………… 32
表二之二:那瓦荷保留區面積與行政區劃分圖…………………………………… 33
圖二之一:波克總統………………………………………………………………… 59
圖二之二:美國領土擴張示意圖…………………………………………………… 59
圖三之一:麥諾雷多酋長…………………………………………………………… 75
圖三之二:嘉納多穆丘酋長………………………………………………………… 75
圖三之三:巴彭西多酋長…………………………………………………………… 76
圖三之四:卡雷登將軍……………………………………………………………… 76
圖三之五:卡森上校………………………………………………………………… 90
圖三之六:一八六四年那瓦荷人遷入波士奇雷東多區合影留念……………… 91
圖五之一:林肯總統………………………………………………………………… 129
圖五之二:強生總統………………………………………………………………… 129
圖五之三:薛曼將軍………………………………………………………………… 146
圖五之四:一八六八年那瓦荷保留區面積………………………………………… 146
圖六之一:格蘭特總統……………………………………………………………… 179
圖六之二:海斯總統………………………………………………………………… 179
圖六之三:一八七四年那瓦荷代表團華府合影…………………………………… 180
圖七之一:一八八一年麥諾雷多與妻子合影……………………………………… 196
圖七之二:初抵印地安寄宿學校的那瓦荷孩童…………………………………… 202
圖七之三:經過四個月改造後的那瓦荷孩童……………………………………… 202
圖八之一:那瓦荷國旗…………………………………………………………… 231
圖八之二:那瓦荷國徽…………………………………………………………… 231

參考書目………………………………………………………………………… 233

附錄
Appendix I 麥諾雷多酋長大事記…………………………………………… 249
Appendix II Indian Removal Act of 1830 ………………………………… 253
Appendix III Peace Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848………………… 257
Appendix IV Homestead Act of 1862………………………………………… 284
Appendix V Navajo Peace Treaty of 1868………………………………… 290
Appendix VI Pacific Railroad Act of 1862………………………………… 305
參考文獻 參考書目

壹、原始資料
一、 War Department, Fort Wingate: Records Relating to Indian Affairs, compiled 1850 – 1866. ARC Identifier 4706881 / MLR Number A1-1 3179.
二、 War Department, Fort Summer: Letters, Orders, Reports, and Other Records, compiled 1862 – 1869. ARC Identifier 1661989 / MLR Number A1-4 1217, A1-4 1218. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001

貳、學術訪談:
Jenifer Nez. Denetdale, PhD., Professor of History Department, Aug 26, 11:00-12:10; Aug 27, 11:30- 12:30, 2009. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ. 86001. (麥諾雷多酋長五世孫女)。
Robert Johnson, Special Research Agent of Navajo History, Aug 30, 13:00-16:20, 2009. Window Rock, AZ. 86510.(巴朋西多酋長四世孫)。
Ben Shelly, Vice president of Navajo Nation, Aug 31, 18:45-19:00, 2009. Window Rock, AZ. 86510.

叁、中華民國政府出版品
8. 內政部。江奉琪主編。美國印地安民族政策概況及法案輯要。民國七十九年。

肆、美國政府出版品
“The Navajo Nation: An American Colony”:A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, September, 1975.
Underhill, Ruth, “Here Come the Navaho”: United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1953.
“Message to Congress on War with Mexico”: President James K. Polk to Congress, May 11, 1846.
“First Annual Message”: President James K. Polk to Congress, December 2, 1845.

伍、中文書目:
陳靜瑜。美國族群史。台北:國立編譯館,民國九十五年。
何果順。美國邊疆史:西部開發模式研究。北京:北京大學出版社,一九九二年。
王岱、符家欽、曹德謙、李果強合譯,Carroll C. Calkins主編。美國擴張與發展史話。北京:人民出版社,一九八四年。
張友倫。美國西進運動探要。北京:人民出版社,二OO五年。
黃文範譯,Dee Brown著。魂斷傷膝澗。台北:遠流出版社,民國六十六年。
林立樹。美國通史。台北:五南圖書出版有限公司,民國八十八年。
劉文龍。墨西哥通史。上海:上海社會科學院出版社,二OO七年。
李恭蔚。美國南北戰爭研究------戰爭原因與歷史解釋。高雄:春暉出版社,民國八十九年。
杜維運。史學方法論。台北:三民書局,民國七十八年。
谷昌三。行為心理學。台北:吳氏出版,民國八十年。
清泉。基督教簡史。台北:中國企業福音管理教育學會。民國八十七年。
謝若蘭。原住民 / 族與認同政治:美國原住民族群識別與身分認定之歷史沿革。台北:輔仁大學若望保祿二世和平研究中心,二OO二年六月,和平叢書22。

陸、專書論文:
Denetdale, Jennifer N., Reclaiming Diné History: The Legacies of Navajo Chief Manuelito and Juanit,. Phoenix: The University of Arizona Press, 2007.
Denetdale, Jennifer N., The Long Walk: The Forced Navajo Exile, New York: Chelsea House, Infobase Publishing, 2008.
Ireland, Tom, The Navajos, Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 1986.
Kelly, Lawrence C., Navajo Roundup:Selected Correspondence of Kid Carson’s Expedition Against the Navajo, 1863-186,. Boulder: The Pruett Publishing Co., 1970.
Moore, William H., Chiefs, Agents and Soldiers: Conflict on the Navajo Frontier, 1868-1882, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994.
Thompson, Gerald., The Army and the Navajo: The Bosque Redondo Reservation Experiment, 1863-1868, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976.
劉天賦 ”(美國)原住民自治的理想與實現",淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。台北:淡江大學國際研究學院,民國八十七年。

柒、英文書目:
Ambrose, Stephen E., Nothing Lik It in The World: The Men Who Built The Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-186, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Angevine, Robert G.., The Railroad and The State: War, Politics, and Technology in Nineteenth-Century America, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2004.
Barnett, Roger W., Asymmetrical Warfare: Today’s Challenge to U. S. Military Power, New York: Brassey’s Inc., 2003.
Begay, S., Navajo: visions and voices across the Mesa, New York: Scholastic, 1995.
Bloom, H., Native American women writers, Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1998.
Brown, Dee., Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee:An Indian Story of American West, New York: Henry Holt and Com., 2001.
Belin, E., From the Belly of My Beauty: Poem,. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1999.
Cadwalader, Sandra L. and Deloria, Jr., Vine., The aggressions of Civilization: Federal Indian Policy since the 1880, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.
Clark, A. N., & Denetsosie, H., Little Navajo herder, Lawrence: U.S. Indian Service, Haskell Institute, 1951.
Clark, A. N., & Houser, A., Blue Canyon horse, New York: Junior Literary Guild, 1954.
Corman, R. C., The Book of Navajo Dineh Báh, Los Angeles: Mankind Publishing Co., 1989
Dippie, Brian W., The Vanishing American: White Attitudes & U. S. Indian Policy, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1991.
Emerson, G., At the hems of the lowest clouds: meditations on Navajo landscapes, Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 2003.
Erdrich, H. E., & Tohe, L., Sister Nations: Native American women writers on community, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2002.
Feller, Daniel, The Jacksonian Promise: America, 1815-1840, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press1995.
Ford, Lacy K., A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstructio,. New York N.Y.: Blackwell Publishing, 2000.
Francisco, N., Blue horses for Navajo women, New York: Greenfield Review Press, 1988.
Harjo, Joy., How We Became Human: New and Selected Poem,. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2002.
Harrold, Stanly., The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Documentary Reade, Malden: Blackwell Publishers, 2008.
Heidler, David S. and Heidler, Jeanne T., The Mexican War, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2006.
Hibbert, Christopher, The Days of the French Revolution, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1981.
Hickey, Donald R., The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.
Juettner, Bonnie, 100 Native Americans Who Shaped American History, San Mateo: BlueWood Books, Inc. 2002.
Kammer, Jerry., The Second Long Walk: Land Dispute among Indians Reservation, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1980.
Kegley, Charles W.; Wittkopf; Eugene R., World Politics: Trend and Transformation, Memphis: The University of Memphis, 2000.
Lafeber, Walter, The American Age: United States Frontier Policy at Home and Abroad Since 1750, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1989.
Levering, D., Outcroppings from Navajoland: poems, Tsaile: Navajo Community College Press, 1984.
Loh, Jules., Lords of the Earth: A History of the Navajo Indian,. New York: Crowell-Collier Press, 1971.
McMaster, Gerald, and Trafzer, Clifford E., Native Universe: Voices of Indian American, Washington, D.C.: National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, 2004.
McPherson, James M., Into the West: from Reconstruction to the final days of the American frontier, New York: Atheneum Books, 2006.
Mitchell, Marie., Navajo Peace Treaty 1868, New York: Mason & Lipscomb Publishers, Inc. 1973.
Nabokov, Peter, Native American Testimony: A Chronic of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present, 1492-2000, New York: Penguin groups, Inc. 1999.
Neustadt, Richard E., President Power and the Modern Presidents, New York: The Free Press, 1990.
Perman, Michael / Paterson, Thomas G.., Major Problems in the Civil War and Reconstruction: Documents and Essays, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1998.
Quaife, Milo M., Kit Carson’s Autobiography, Chicago: First Bison Book Printing, 1966.
Renehan, Edward J., The Transcontinental Railroad: the Gateway to the West, New York: Chelsea House, 2007.
Stein, Arthur A., Why Nations Cooperate:Circumstances and Choice in International Relations, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Royster, Charles., General William T. Sharma,. New York: Literary Classics of the United States, 1990.
Stommel, Henry., Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, the Year without a Summer, Newport: Seven Seas Press, 1983.
Swann, B. On the Translation of Native American literatures, Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
Tapahonso, Luci., A breeze swept through, Albuquerque: West End Press, 1987.
Tocqueville, Alexis De., Democracy in America and Two Essays on Americ, New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 2003.
Trollope, Fanny., Domestic Manners of the Americans. Edited with an introduction and notes, New York N.Y.: Penguin Books Ltd, 1997.
Turner, Frederick J., The Frontier in American Histor,. New York,: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1962.
Van Reenen, J. A., & Denetdale, J., Luci Tapahonso [lecture], Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, General Library, 2006.
Weinberg, Albert K., Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History, Chicago: Quadrangle Books, Inc., 1964.
Wiltse, Charles M., Expansion and Reform, 1815-1850, Toronto: Collier-Macmillan, 1967.
Wood, Gordon S., The Radicalism of the American Revolution, New York: Vintage Books, 1991.

捌、英文學術期刊:
Andrews, Tracy J., “Ecological and Historical Perspective on Navajo Land Use and Settlement Patterns on Canyons De Chelly and Del Merto.” Journal of Anthropological Research, (Spring, 1991), Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 39-67.
Athearn, Robert G., “General Sherman and the Western Railroads.” The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, (Feb., 1955), pp. 39-48.
Bailly, Edward C. “Echoes From Custer's Last Fight: Accounts by an Officer Survivor Never before Published,” Military Affairs, Vol. 17, No. 4, (Winter, 1953), pp. 170-180.
Brugge, David M., “Revised Dates for Navajo Hogans Near Canyon De Chelly.” American Antiquity, Vol. 32, No. 3, (Jul., 1967), pp. 396-398.
Carter, Harvey L., “Kit Carson's Reputation.” The History Teacher, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Mar, 1970), pp. 35-40.
Chamberlain, A. F., “The Poetry of American Aboriginal Speech.” The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 9, No 32, (Jan/Mar, 1986), pp. 43-47.
Debebe, Gelaye, “Guest Learning and Adaptation in the Field: A Navajo Case Study.” Development in Practice, Vol. 12, No. 3/4, (Aug., 2002), pp. 355-369.
Doyel, David E., “Medicine Men, Ethnic Significance, and Cultural Resource Management.” American Antiquity, Vol. 47, No. 3, (Jul., 1982), pp. 634-642.
Degens, E.T., Buch, B., “Sedimentological events in Saleh Bay, off Mount Tambora.” Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, Vol 24, No. 4, (Spring, 1989), pp. 399-405.
Fewkes, J., Walter, “The Commercial Circuit of the Village Indians on North Arizona.” The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 5, No 16, (Jan/Mar, 1982), pp. 33-42.
Forbes, Jack, “Colonialism and Native American Literature: Analysis.” Wicaso Sa Review. Minnesota, Vol. 3, No. 2, (Autumn, 1987), pp. 17-23.
Gibson, Arrell M., “Native Americans and Civil War,” American Indian Quarterl,. Vol. 9, No. 4, (Autumn, 1985), pp. 385-410.
Goetzmann, William H., “The Mountain Man as Jacksonian Man.” American Quarterly, Vol. 15, No.3, (Autumn, 1963), pp. 402-415.
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玖、網路資料/Internet
百度百科:http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/travel.cri.cn/52/2009/05/06/10s2013.htm
行政院農委會: http://www.tndais.gov.tw/press/96/9646.htm
American Presidents: http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/
Bureau of Indian Affairs: http://www.doi.gov/bureaus/bia.cfm
Grolier online. http://auth.grolier.com/login/go_login_page.html?bffs=NThe Navajo Indian Leagues. http://www.senaa.org/
Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/index.html
Main page: Native Wiki. http://www.nativewiki.org/Main_Page
Nation Homepage. http://www.navajo.org/
Navajoland. http://www.geocities.com/baja/dunes/2319/native.html
Oregon State Archives. http://www.sos.state.or.us/archives/provisionalguide/TerritorialSecretary.html
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