||Investigation of the Relationship between Listening Strategy Use and Listening Test Anxiety Experienced by First-year College Students
||Department of English
Learning Strategy Use
||The study examines whether listening strategy uses help L2 learners comprehend oral speeches and explores students’ performances influenced by listening anxiety. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between listening strategy use and listening anxiety in L2. The subjects were 154 first-year college students aged 18-19 from the Department of Business at Tamkang University. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. The instruments used in this study included six weeks of listening strategy use instructions, pre and post listening tests, questionnaire including questions of strategy uses and listening anxiety, and student-teacher interview. Results of this study revealed the benefits of learners’ listening strategy uses. Learners’ listening performances would be affected by listening anxiety. To conclude, this study may be of importance in explaining levels of listening anxiety would be correlated with students’ choice of listening strategy uses.
||TABLE OF CONTENT
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENT iv
LIST OF TABLES vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Purpose of the Study 2
1.2 Background of the Study 2
1.3 Statement of the Problem 4
1.4 Research Question 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Listening Comprehension Processes 7
2.2 L1 Impact on L2 Listening 8
2.3 Anxiety to Language Learning and Listening 11
2.4 Learning Strategy Instruction 13
2.5 Strategy Uses in Listening Comprehension 16
2.5.1 Bottom-up and Top-down 17
2.5.2 Predicting and Matching 18
2.5.3 Inferencing 19
CHAPTER THREE METHOD 21
3.1 Participants 21
3.2 Research Design 22
3.3 Instruments 23
3.3.1 Instruction 23
3.3.2 Listening Tests 24
3.3.3 Questionnaire 25
3.3.4 Interview 26
3.4 Procedure 27
3.5 Data Analysis 28
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 30
4.1 Research Findings 30
4.2 Analysis of relationship between Bottom-up strategies and Anxiety 32
4.3 Analysis of Relationship between Top-down strategies and Anxiety 38
4.4 Analysis of Relationship between Predicting Topics strategies and Anxiety. 43
4.5 Analysis of Relationship between Matching Words Strategies and Anxiety 48
4.6 Analysis of Relationship between Inferencing Strategies and Anxiety 52
4.7 Analysis of Relationship between L1’s Impact and Anxiety 55
4.8 Frequency of Strategy Use 60
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS 67
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS 73
6.1 Pedagogical Implications 75
6.2 Limitations of the Study 78
6.3 Suggestions for Future Research 79
APPENDIX A 85
APPEXDIX B 88
APPENDIX C 100
APPENDIX D 101
APPENDIX E 110
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Instruction on Listening Strategy Use 24
Table 3.2: Summary of the Research Procedure 28
Table 4.1.1: Reliability Statistics on the research questionnaire 31
Table 4.2.1: One-Sample Statistics (Bottom-up) 33
Table 4.2.2: Pair-Sample T-test (Bottom-up) 35
Table 4.3.1: One-Sample Statistics (Top-down) 38
Table 4.3.2: Pair-Sample T-test (Top-down) 41
Table 4.4.1: One-Sample Statistics (Predicting Topics) 44
Table 4.4.2: Pair-Sample T-test (Predicting Topics) 46
Table 4.5.1: One-Sample Statistics (Matching Words) 49
Table 4.5.2: Pair-Sample T-test (Matching Words) 50
Table 4.6.1: One-Sample Statistics (Inferencing) 53
Table 4.6.2: Pair-Sample T-test (Inferencing) 54
Table 4.7.1: One-Sample Statistics (L1’s Impact) 56
Table 4.7.2: Pair-Sample T-test (L1’s Impact) 58
Table 4.8.1: Frequency of Bottom-up 60
Table 4.8.2: Frequency of Top-down 61
Table 4.8.3: Frequency of Predicting Topics 62
Table 4.8.4: Frequency of Matching Words 63
Table 4.8.5: Frequency of Inferencing 64
Table 4.8.6: Frequency of L1’s Impact 65
||Allison, H., & Harklau, L. (2010). Teaching academic literacy in secondary school. In G. Li & P. A. Edwards (Eds.), Best practices in ELL instruction. (pp.129-188). New York: Guilford Press.
Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Bentley, S., & Bacon, S. E. (1996). The all new, state-of-the-art ILA definition of listening: Now that we have it, what do we do with it? Listening Post, 56: 1-5.
Brooks-Lewis, K. A. (2009). Adult learners’ perceptions of the incorporation of their L1 in foreign language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics, 30(2): 216-235.
Campbell, C. M., & Ortiz, J. (1991). Helping students overcome foreign language anxiety: A foreign language anxiety workshop. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 153–168). Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Carrier, K. A. (2003). Improving High School English language learners' second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 27: 383-408.
Chamot, A. U. (1995). Learning strategies and listening comprehension. In D. Mendelesohn and J. Rubin (eds.), a guide for the teaching of second language listening (pp. 13-30). San Diago, CA: Domonie.
Chamot, A.U. 2005. Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, pp. 112–130.
Chang, C-S. (2006)Thresholds of background knowledge effect on L2 listening comprehension. Selected papers from the fifteenth international symposium on English teaching (pp. 164-173). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
Chang, C-S. (2008). Listening strategies of L2 learners with varied test tasks. TESL Canada Journal, 25(2), 1-26.
Chang, C-S. (2008). Sources of listening anxiety in learning English as a foreign language. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106(1), 21-34.
Chang, C-S. (2009). EFL listeners’ task-based strategies and their relationship with listening performance. TESL-EJ, 13(2).
Chinatimes. (2013). Taiwanese average score in TOEIC. Retrieved October 20, 2013, from http:// www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20131020000288-260114
Cohen, A. D. (2008). Strategy instruction for learners of Japanese: How do you do it and what's in it for them? In Y.A. Hatasa (Ed.), Japanese as a foreign language education: Multiple perspective (pp. 45-60). Tokyo: Kurosio Shuppan.
Cross, J. (2009). Effects of listening strategy instruction on news videotext comprehension. Language Teaching Research, 13: 151-176.
Field., J. (2008b). Bricks or mortar: Which parts of the input does a second language listener rely on?. TESOL Quarterly, 42: 411-432.
Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension: The learners' perspective. System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 34: 165-182.
Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction in listening for lower- intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58(4), 747-783.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70, 125–132.
Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (Eds.) (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hossein, B. and H. Pillay (2013) Enhancing Foreign Language Learning through Listening Strategies Delivered in L1: An Experimental Study. International Journal of Instruction, 6(1), 105-122
Hsieh, L.T. (1999). The effects of pre-reading vocabulary instruction and culturalbackground knowledge activation on Chinese junior college fourth-year students’ EFL reading. Proceedings of the sixteenth conference on English teaching and learning in the Republic of China (pp.227-239). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon.
LeBauer, R. S. (2000). Learn to listen: Listen to learn: Academic listening and note-taking (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.
Littlewood, W., & Yu, B. (2009). First language and target language in the foreign language classroom. Lang. Teach, 1-14.
Macaro, E. (2001). Learning strategy in foreign and second language classrooms. London: Continuum.
Macaro, E. (2002). Learning strategies in foreign and second language classrooms: The role of learner strategies. London: Continuum International Publishing.
Macaro, E. (2009). Teacher use of codeswitching in the second language classroom: Exploring ‘optimal’ use. In M. Turnbull and J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp. 35-49). Salisbury: UK.
Mendelsohn, D. (1995). Applying learning strategies in the second/foreign language listening comprehension lesson. In D. Mendelsohn, and J. Rubin (eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening. (pp. 132-50). San Diego: Dominie Press.
Mendelsohn, D. (2006). Learning how to listen using learning strategies. In Uso-Juan, E., & Martinez-Flor, A. (Eds.). Current trends in the development and teaching of the four language skills. Mouton de Gruyter. 1 – 15.
Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 272-292.
Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H.H. & Todesco, A. (1978). The Good Language Learner. Toronto: Modern Language Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
O’Bryan, A. & Hegelheimer, V. (2009). Using a mixed methods approach to explore strategies, metacognitive awareness and the effects of task design on listening development. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 12(1), 9-38.
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A.U. (1991). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies. Newbury House Publishers.
Peterson, P. 2001. Skills and strategies for proficiency listening. In M. Celce-Murcia (ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. 3rd ed. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, pp. 87–100.
Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and researching listening. Harlow: Longman.
Vandergrift, L. (1992). The comprehension strategies of core French high school students. University of Alabama, Canada.
Vandergrift, L. (1997). The comprehension strategies of second language (French) listeners: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 30: 387–409.
Vandergrift, L. (1999). Developing metacognition in L2 listening comprehension in Grades 4–6. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Stamford, CT.
Vandergrift, L. 2002. Listening: Theory and practice in modern foreign language competence. Canadian Modern Language Review, 58, 555-575
Vandergrift, L. (2003). From prediction to reflection: Guiding students through the process of L2 listening. Canadian Modern Language Review, 59, 425–440.
Vandergrift, L. 2007. Listening comprehension in L2/FL learning. Language Teaching, 40, pp. 191–210.
VanPatten, B. 2007. Input processing in adult second language acquisition . In B. VanPatten and J. Williams (eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp. 115-135). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Vogely, A. (1995). Perceived strategy use during performance on three authentic listening comprehension tasks. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 41-56.
Weinstein, C. E., Tombelin, T. L., Julie, A. L., & Kim, J. (2004). Helping students to become strategic learners: The role of assessment, teachers, instruction, and students. In J, Ee, A. Chang, O. Tan (Eds.), Thinking about thinking: What educators need to know (pp.282-310). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
Zhang, D., & Goh, C. (2006). Strategy knowledge and perceived strategy use: Singaporean students’ awareness of listening and speaking strategies. Language Awareness, 15(3), 199-219.