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中文論文名稱 逆流透析器中加以超過濾或回流操作以提高質量傳送
英文論文名稱 Mass Transfer in Countercurrent-Flow Dialyzers with Ultrafiltration or Recycle for Improved Performance
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程與材料工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 陳建宇
研究生英文姓名 Chien-Yu Chen
學號 699400510
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-05-20
論文頁數 77頁
口試委員 指導教授-葉和明
委員-何啟東
委員-蔡少偉
中文關鍵字 質量傳送  逆流  超過濾  內回流  透析  平板薄膜模組 
英文關鍵字 Mass transfer  Countercurrent-flow  Ultrafiltration  Internal recycle  Dialysis  Rectangular membrane module 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本篇論文主要在探討逆流型透析器中伴隨超過濾或回流以提高質量傳送之操作。在理論的推導過程中為了數學上的簡便我們假設超過濾通量並未隨著質量傳送而遞減。由本次研究結果可知在透析伴隨超過濾情況下對於質量傳送速率會有明顯地的提升,值得一提的是當溶質質傳係數較小時,增加超過濾操作會大量提高質量傳送速率。由進料體積流率來看,提高透餘相的體積流率會比提高透析相的體積流率還要更好。最後我們發現提高超過濾通量以及進料體積流率可使溶質與溶劑分離效率更佳的良好。由於數學推導過程的假設,其研究結果可能僅適用於輕微的濃度極化現象及輕微的透膜壓差遞減之情形。
在逆流型交流式透析器伴隨內回流操作中,我們假設流體於通道橫切面的速度和溶質濃度為均一。由本次研究結果可知在透析伴隨內回流情況下對於質量傳送速率也會有明顯地的提升。也因為多了回流裝置使得溶質進料體積流率會比無回流裝置的進料體積流率還大,如此一來便可降低裝置內的質傳阻力。由整理出的圖表可看出提高回流比與提高進料體積流率和進料濃度可大幅增加質傳效率。
英文摘要 The effect of application of either ultrafiltration or recycle operation to dialysis in countercurrently rectangular membrane modules was investigated. For the dialysis coupled with the application of ultrafiltration operation in a countercurrrently parallel-flow device, the assumption of uniform ultrafiltration flux was made for operation with slight concentration polarization and declination of transmembrane pressure. Considerable improvement in mass transfer is achievable if the operation of ultrafiltration is applied, especially for the system with low mass transfer coefficient. The enhancement in separation efficiency is significantly increased with increasing ultrafiltration flux, as well as with increasing the volumetric flow rates. Furthermore, increasing the volumetric flow rate in retentate phases is more beneficial to mass transfer than increasing in dialysate phase.
For dialysis with internal recycling operation in countercurrently cross-flow device, the uniform velocities and concentrations in the cross sections of flow channels were assumed. In contrast to a device without reflux, considerable mass transfer is achievable if the dialyzers are operated with internal recycling, which provides an increase in fluid velocity, resulting in a reduction of mass-transfer resistance. The improvement increases with reflux ratio, especially for large flow rate and feed concentration.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 薄膜分離之驅動力 2
1-3 薄膜透析應用 4
1-4 研究目的 6
第二章 文獻回顧 7
第三章 理論分析 10
3-1 質量傳送係數 12
3-2 單行程逆流型並流式平板薄膜透析伴隨超過濾系統 15
3-2-1 濃度分佈 16
3-2-2 總質量傳送速率 22
3-2-3 超過濾分離效率 23
3-3 雙行程逆流型交流式平板薄膜透析伴隨內回流系統 24
3-3-1 質量傳送速率 25
3-3-2 透餘相及透析相之平均濃度 29
3-3-3 透餘相及透析相之平均濃度差 32
3-3-4 透餘相出口濃度 34
3-3-5 質量傳送係數 36
3-3-6 無回流系統之質量傳送速率 37
3-3-7 透析伴隨內回流系統所提升的分離效率 39
第四章 範例計算 40
4-1 單行程逆流型並流式平板薄膜透析伴隨超過濾之計算 40
4-2 雙行程逆流型交流式平板薄膜透析伴隨內回流之計算 41
第五章 結果與討論 42
5-1 透析伴隨超過濾之透餘相溶質出口濃度 42
5-2 透析伴隨超過濾之總質量傳送速率 43
5-3 透析伴隨超過濾之藉由超過濾所提升的分離效率 44
5-4 透析伴隨內回流之效應 45
第六章 結論 69
6-1 單行程逆流型並流式平板薄膜透析伴隨超過濾之總結 69
6-2 雙行程逆流型交流式平板薄膜透析伴隨內回流之總結 70
符號說明 71
參考文獻 74

圖目錄
圖1 影響薄膜分離程序之因素及其應用範圍 3
圖2 薄膜透析質量傳送方向 11
圖3 薄膜透析濃度分佈示意圖 11
圖4 單行程逆流型並流式平板薄膜透析伴隨超過濾之系統 15
圖5 雙行程逆流型交流式平板薄膜透析伴隨內回流之系統 24
圖6 雙行程逆流型交流式平板薄膜透析伴隨內回流系統俯視圖 26
圖7 單行程逆流型交流式平板薄膜透析系統俯視圖 38
圖8 總質量傳送速率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=2×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 46
圖9 總質量傳送速率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=4×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 47
圖10 總質量傳送速率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=6×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 48
圖11 總質量傳送速率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=8×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 49
圖12 透析提高率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=2×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 50
圖13 透析提高率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=4×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 51
圖14 透析提高率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=6×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 52
圖15 透析提高率對透餘相體積流率作圖 (Qb,i=8×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0) 53
圖16 總質量傳送速率對回流比作圖 (Qb,i=1×10-7 m3/s, Ca,i=1 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 60
圖17 總質量傳送速率對回流比作圖 (Qb,i=5×10-7 m3/s, Ca,i=1 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 61
圖18 總質量傳送速率對回流比作圖 (Qb,i=1×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=1 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 62
圖19 總質量傳送速率對回流比作圖 (Qb,i=1×10-7 m3/s, Ca,i=5 kgmol /m3, Cb,i=0) 63
圖20 總質量傳送速率對回流比作圖 (Qb,i=5×10-7 m3/s, Ca,i=5 kgmol /m3, Cb,i=0) 64
圖21 總質量傳送速率對回流比作圖 (Qb,i=1×10-6 m3/s, Ca,i=5 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 65
圖22 透析提升率對回流比作圖 (Ca,i=1 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 66

表目錄
表1 用於人工腎臟的透析薄膜 5
表2 透析伴隨超過濾之提升率 (Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0, Qb,i=2×10-6 m3/s) 54
表3 透析伴隨超過濾之提升率 (Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0, Qb,i=4×10-6 m3/s) 55
表4 透析伴隨超過濾之提升率 (Ca,i=0.5 kg/m3, Cb,i=0, Qb,i=8×10-6 m3/s) 56
表5 透析伴隨超過濾之提升率 (Ca,i=1 kg/m3, Cb,i=0, Qb,i=2×10-6 m3/s) 57
表6 透析伴隨超過濾之提升率 (Ca,i=1 kg/m3, Cb,i=0, Qb,i=4×10-6 m3/s) 58
表7 透析伴隨超過濾之提升率 (Ca,i=1 kg/m3, Cb,i=0, Qb,i=8×10-6 m3/s) 59
表8 透析伴隨內回流之提升率 (Ca,i=1 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 67
表9 透析伴隨內回流之提升率 (Ca,i=5 kgmol/m3, Cb,i=0) 68
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