淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


  查詢圖書館館藏目錄
系統識別號 U0002-0506201113581400
中文論文名稱 創業家精神之偶然力探討與概念建構
英文論文名稱 Research on Serendipity of Entrepreneurship and Measurement Developing
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Management Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 梁美華
研究生英文姓名 Mei-Hua Liang
學號 698620910
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-05-13
論文頁數 138頁
口試委員 指導教授-牛涵錚
委員-楊千
委員-陳登源
委員-牛涵錚
中文關鍵字 創業家精神  偶然力  創新  量表發展 
英文關鍵字 Entrepreneurship  Serendipity  Innovation  Scale development 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學管理學
中文摘要 隨著知識經濟的發展,使M型社會愈明顯,導致平價化的商品市場擴大,順勢造就頻繁的創業活動,因此,鞏固創業家實力,增加創業機會的發掘,充分運用創業資源,進而提昇創業成效與企業競爭力,故本研究試圖透過國內外文獻探討、專家訪談與青創楷模傳記,建立一份關於創業家偶然力的量表,期許能為欲創業者事先評估自己創業的可能性。
在質化研究方面,本研究回顧相關文獻資料,並以11位專家訪談內容及35篇青創楷模傳記內容進行分析,歸納出創業家偶然力的關鍵特質。在量化研究方面,本研究以中小企業創業家與社會大眾為研究對象,有效回收創業家樣本116份、非創業家樣本543份。本研究發展出包括四個構面、十個子構面,共計57個題項的偶然力量表,而量化研究結果與質化研究結果相符合。
在信度方面,變項、構面與子構面之Cronbach’s α值皆大於0.79以上,顯示本量表具有良好的內部一致性。在校度方面,本量表具有不錯的內容效度、區辨效度、建構效度和區別效度。本研究以Scott and Bruce (1994)所發展之創新行為量表作為效標,發現本量表具有良好的效標關聯效度。另以四個題項衡量創業家創業成效,與本量表施測結果做比對,發現偶然力量表得分愈高,創業成效之得分也愈高,因此,證明本研究量表之實用性。
英文摘要 This study tries to develop an entrepreneurial serendipity scale through literature review. In the part of qualitative research, according to literature review and a content analysis of eleven interviews and thirty-four models of Chinese youth entrepreneurial biography is conducted.

In the part of quantitative research, this study recovered 116 valid entrepreneurail samples and 543 valid non-entrepreneurial samples. This study establish a fifty-seven-items entrepreneurial serendipity scale including four dimensions and ten sub-dimensions. This results of the quantitative research are match with the qualitative research’s findings.

Cronbach’s α value were above 0.79 in each dimensions. In addition to reliability studies of the entrepreneurial serendipity scale, the researcher has carefully examined evidences of content validity, construct validity, and discriminate validity. We found the higher serendipity score of entrepreneurs also have better entrepreneurial outcomes.
論文目次 目 錄 V
表 目 錄 VII
圖 目 錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 3
第三節 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 創造力與創新能力 6
第二節 創業精神 15
第三節 創業家之定義 23
第四節 偶然力 27
第三章 研究方法 41
第一節 抽樣方法 41
第二節 量表編製流程 43
第四章 量表編製 47
第一節 量表發展過程 47
第二節 量表前測分析 63
第五章 施測結果分析 81
第一節 敘述性統計分析 81
第二節 信度分析 85
第三節 探索性因素分析 86
第四節 創業家與非創業家之區辨性 94
第五節 驗證性因素分析 95
第六節 區別效度 98
第七節 效標關聯效度 99
第八節 量表施測結果與創業成效比對 100
第六章 結論與建議 101
第一節 研究結果 101
第二節 管理意涵 104
第三節 研究限制 106
第四節 未來研究建議 107
參 考 文 獻 108
一、中文文獻 108
二、英文文獻 111
附 錄 126
附錄一 訪談問題 126
附錄二 本研究前測量表(創業家) 127
附錄三 本研究前測量表(非創業家) 130
附錄四 本研究正式量表(創業家) 133
附錄五 本研究正式量表(非創業家) 136

表 目 錄
表 1-1 台灣WEF競爭力評比 1
表 1-2 台灣中小企業近年來發展現況 2
表 2-1 創新的定義 9
表 2-2 創業精神的定義 17
表 2-3 創業家的定義 24
表 2-4 偶然力的定義 29
表 2-5 偶然力內涵對照表 35
表 3-1 各產業中小企業家數比率 41
表 3-2 各地區人口比率 42
表 4-1 偶然力構面對照表 48
表 4-2 專家訪談名單 49
表 4-3 《創業勝經》和《創業楷模》名單 50
表 4-4 創業家所具備的條件 51
表 4-5 量表構面、子構面與定義 57
表 4-6 本研究之量表題項 59
表 4-7 量表前測之樣本分析 63
表 4-8 知識管理之信度分析 66
表 4-9 知識取得與儲存之信度分析 68
表 4-10 知識分享之信度分析 68
表 4-11 知識應用之信度分析 69
表 4-12 態度之信度分析 69
表 4-13 承諾負責之信度分析 71
表 4-14 正面積極之信度分析 72
表 4-15 好奇心之信度分析 72
表 4-16 客觀態度之信度分析 73
表 4-17 動機之信度分析 73
表 4-18 風險承擔之信度分析 74
表 4-19 能力之信度分析 75
表 4-20 觀察與洞察力之信度分析 76
表 4-21 行動力之信度分析 76
表 4-22 堅持與柔軟度之信度分析 77
表 4-23 溝通能力之信度分析 77
表 4-24 幸福感之信度分析 78
表 4-25 量表前測結果 80
表 5-1 正式施測之樣本分析 82
表 5-2 正式量表之信度分析 85
表 5-3 KMO統計量判斷原理 86
表 5-4 知識管理之KMO與BARTLETT檢定表 87
表 5-5 知識管理之因素分析 88
表 5-6 態度之KMO與BARTLETT檢定表 89
表 5-7 態度之因素分析 89
表 5-8 能力之KMO與BARTLETT檢定表 91
表 5-9 能力之因素分析 92
表 5-10 幸福感之KMO與BARTLETT檢定表 93
表 5-11 創業家與非創業家在四個創業家偶然力構面的比較 94
表 5-12 二階驗證性因素分析結果 95
表 5-13 適配度指標及本研究評鑑結果 97
表 5-14 區別效度檢核表 98
表 5-15 本研究量表與創新行為量表受測結果相關係數 99

圖 目 錄
圖 1-1 研究流程圖 5
圖 2-1 創新架構 12
圖 2-2 周圍環境影響個人與新價值創造互動的模型 19
圖 2-3 價值創造與個人改變的動態過程對應的創業類型 19
圖 2-4 創業歷程與GEM的操作性定義 21
圖 2-5 創業家矩陣圖 26
圖 2-6 機會發現的面向 32
圖 2-7 偶然力的五個要素 33
圖 3-1 量表編製流程 46
圖 4-1 研究架構圖 58
圖 5-1 量表得分與成效分數之散佈圖 100
圖 6-1 質化與量化研究結果對照圖 102
參考文獻 一、中文文獻
中小企業白皮書 (2006),台北:經濟部中小企業處。
中小企業白皮書 (2007),台北:經濟部中小企業處。
中小企業白皮書 (2009),台北:經濟部中小企業處。
中小企業白皮書 (2010),台北:經濟部中小企業處。
中國青年創業協會總會 (2009、2010),「創業楷模」,2011年2月取自http://www.careernet.org.tw/modules.php?name=content&cid=7
內政部戶政司全球資訊網 (2011),「各縣市人口數按性別及單一年齡分」,2011年3月取自http://www.ris.gov.tw/gateway/population.cgi?s_code=m0&sheet0name=s7。
王作榮 (1978),「我們如何創造了經濟奇蹟」,台北:時報。
古峰源 (2004),「以設計能力為基礎之創業模式探討」,國立成功大學工業設計學系碩士論文。
吳奕慧 (2004),「華人創業家適性量表的建構」,國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
吳思華 (2002),「從製造台灣到知識台灣,創新-哈佛商業評論精選」,台北:天下遠見。
呂良添 (1997),「創業導向、管理實務、人際網絡與組織績效之研究」,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
李國瑋,蔡明田,莊立民和許惠雯 (2009),「ERP導入後影響企業電子化成效因素之探討-系統維護與回饋之中介效果」,電子商務學報,第十一卷,第二期,頁367-394.
彼得‧杜拉克 (2005),「創新與創業精神」,(蕭富峰、李樹田譯),台北:臉譜文化。(原著出版於1985)
邱皓政 (2007),「量化研究與統計分析 ─ SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解析」,3/E,台北:五南。
侯玉波 (2003),「社會心理學」,台北:五南。
施建彬 (1995),「幸福感來源與相關因素之探討」,高雄醫學院行為科學研究所碩士論文。
徐敏莉 (2001),「中華電信員工對民營化變革的態度與組織承諾之關聯性研究─以中區分公司為例」,朝陽科技大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
徐詩淵 (2007),「創業勝經:18達人成功啟示錄」,台北:中國青年創業協會總會。
許士軍 (1990),「管理學」,台北:東華書局。
陳明璋 (1989),「創業的智慧」,宏碁科技管理教育中心出版。
勝間和代 (2009),「我的人生沒有偶然:把生命中的偶然變成理所當然」,(王慧娥譯),台北:三采出版。(原著出版於2007)
勝間和代 (2010),「培養商業腦的7種組織力」,(謝育容譯),台北:商周出版。(原著出版於2008)
單小懿 (2009),「好運,可以練習!」,商業周刊,第1131期。
楊勝欽 (2010),「研發人員科學素養量表之建構-以台灣電子資訊業為例」,淡江大學管理科學研究所論文。
葉玉珠,吳靜吉和鄭英耀 (2000),「影響科技與資訊產業人員創意發展的因素之量表編製」,師大學報:科學教育類,第四十五卷,第二期,頁39-63。
劉振乾 (2009),「把偶然轉化為必然的訣竅」,台電月刊,第558期,頁34-36。
劉常勇和謝如梅 (2006),「創業管理研究之回顧與展望: 理論與模式探討」,創業管理研究期刊,第一卷,第一期,頁1-43。
劉常勇和劉文龍 ( 2001 ) 「創業管理的基本概念」,劉常勇管理學習知識庫,搜尋日期:2011 年03 月15 日,來源名稱:取自http://cm.nsysu.edu.tw/~cyliu/。
蔡敦浩,利尚仁和林韶怡 (2007),「複雜性科學典範下的創業研究」,創業管理研究,第二卷,第一期,頁31-60。
顏映馨 (1998),「大學生的生活風格、人際親密和幸福感關係之研究」,國立高雄師範大學教育學系碩士論文。

二、英文文獻
Acs, A. J. and Szerb, L. (2007). Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth and Public Policy. Small Business Economics, 28, 109-122.
Acs, Z. J., Desai, S. and Klapper, L. (2008). What Does “Entrepreneurship” Data Really Show? Small Business Economics, 31(3), 265-281.
Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Chicago : Dorsey Press.
Amabile, T. M. (1983). The Social Psychology of Creativity. NY : Springer-verlag.
Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organization. In Staw, B. M. & Cummings, L. L. (Eds). Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 123-167.
Amabile, T. M. (1997). Entrepreneurial creativity through motivational synergy. Journal of Creative Behavior, 31, 18-31.
Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativity in organization: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California Management Review, 40(1), 39-58
Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A. and Tighe, E. M. (1994). The Work Preference Inventory: Assessing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), 950-967.
American Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association and National Council on Measurement in Education. (1974). Standards for educational and psychological tests. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Anderson, J. C. and Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
Andrew, H. G., Arvind, M. and Albert, H. S. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information System, 18(1), 185-214.
Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of happiness. London : Methuen.
Barron, F. B. and Harrington, D. M. (1981). Creativity, intelligence, and personality. In Rosenzweig, M. R. & Porter, L. W. (Eds). Annual review of psychology, 32, 439-476.
Beck, A.T., Baruch, E., Balter, J. M., Steer, R. A. and Warman, D. M. (2004). A new instrument for measuring insight: the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 319-329.
Bentler, P. M. and Bonett, D. G. (1980), Signigicance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative Fit Indices in Structural Models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
Betz, F. (1987). Managing Technology: Competing Through New Ventures, Innovation and Corporate Research, NJ : Prentice Hall.
Birkinshaw, J. (2000). Entrepreneurship in the global firm. London : Sage Publications.
Bleeke, J. and Ernst, D. (1993). Collaborating to Compete, NY : John Wiley & Sons.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. NY : John Wiley & Sons.
Brockhaus, R. H. (1980). Risk-Taking Propensity of Entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Journal, 23(3), 509-520
Brockhaus, R. H. (1982). The Psychology of the Entrepreneur. In Kent, C. A. Sexton, D. L. & Vesper, K. H. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall, 39-71.
Bruyat, C. and Julien, P. A. (2001). Defining the field of research in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(2), 165-180.
Cambridge Dictionary Online (2010). Retrieved Sep 29, 2010, from the World Wide Web: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/serendipity
Campa, R. (2007). The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity: A Study in Sociological Semantics and the Sociology of Science. International Sociology, 22(2), 161-174.
Campanario, J. M. (1996). Using Citation Classics to study the incidence of serendipity in scientific discovery. Scientometrics, 37(1), 3-24.
Campbell, A. (1976). Subjective measures of well-being. American Psychologist, 31, 117-124.
Cantillon, R. (1755). Essai sur la nature du commerce en general, (ed. Higgs, H. 1931). London : Macmillan.
Carrier, C. (1996). Intrapreneurship in small businesses: an exploratory study. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 21(1), 5-20.
Carsrud, A., Olm, K. and Eddy, G. (1986). Entrepreneurship: Research in quest of a paradigm. In Sexton, D. L. & Smilor, R. (Eds). The art and science of entrepreneurship, Cambridge, MA : Ballinger, 367-378.
Chaoke, G. K. (1998). Technology Management-Applications to Corporate Markets and Military Mission. NY : Praeger.
Chen, K. M. and Liu, R. J. (2005). Interface strategies in modular product innovation. Technovation, 25(7), 771-782.
Christensen, C. and Raynor, M. (2003). The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Boston, MA : Harvard Business School Press.
Christensen, C. M. (1997). The innovator’s dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Christensen, C. M., Anthony, S. D. and Roth, E. A. (2004). Seeing What’s Next: Using Theories of Innovation to Predict Industry Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Clark, J. and Guy, K. (1998). Innovation and competitiveness: a review. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 10(3), 363-395.
Commission of the European communities (2003). Green paper entrepreneurship in Europe. Brussels, ⅩⅩⅩ. COM yyy final.
Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training (2003). Enterprise and Career education programmme 2000-01 to 2003-04 programme guidelines. http://www.dest.gov.au/schools/guidelines/Enterprise education/index.htm
Concise Oxford American Dictionary (2006). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cooksey, E. B. (2004). Too Important to Be Left to Chance-Serendipity and the Digital Library. Science & Technology Libraries, 25(1/2), 23-32.
Costa, P. T., Jr. and McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory: professional manual. FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Covin, J. G. and Miles, M. P. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(4), 47-63.
Crikszentmihalyi, M. and Figrunski, T. J. (1982). Self-awareness and aversive experience in everyday life. Journal of Personality, 50, 15-28.
Dew, N. (2009). Serendipity in Entrepreneurship. Organization Studies, 30(7), 735-753.
Diaz de Chumaceiro, C. (1995). Serendipity's role in psychotherapy: A bridge to the creative arts therapies. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 22(1), 39-48.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542-575.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J. and Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
Dollinger, M. J. (2003). Entrepreneurship: Strategies and Resources (3th ed.). NJ : Prentice Hall.
Doutriaux, J. (1992). Emerging high-tech firms: How durable are their comparative start-up advantages?. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(4), 303-322.
Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles. NY : Harper & Row.
Drucker, P. F. (1993). Post-Capitalist Society. NY : Harper Business.
Feldhusen, J. F. (1995). Creativity: A knowledge base, metacognitive skill, and personality factors. Journal of Creative Behavior , 29(4), 255-268.
Foster, A. and Ford, N. (2003). Serendipity and information seeking: an empirical study. Journal of Documentation, 59(3), 321-340.
Frankle, E. G. (1990). Management of technological change. NY : Kluwer.
Freeman, C. (1982), The Economics of Industrial Innovation. MA : Cambridge, MIT Press.
Frensch, P. A. and Sternberg, R. J. (1989). Expertise and intelligent thinking: When is it worse to know better? Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, 5, 157-158, Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
Gatignon, H., Tushman, M. L., Smith, W. and Anderson, P. (2002). A structural approach to assessing innovation: Construct development of innovation locus, type and characteristics. Management Science, 48, 1103-1123.
Gattiker, U. E. (1990). Technology Management in Organization. CA : Sage.
GEM (2011). Retrieved March 10, 2011, from the World Wide Web : http://www.gemconsortium.org
Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A. and Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information systems, 18(1), 185-214.
Greenberger, D. B. and Sexton, D. L. (1988). An Interactive Model of New Venture Initiation. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3), 1-7.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. and Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). NJ : Prentice-Hall International.
Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C. K. (1996). Competing for the Future. Boston : Harvard.
Henderson, R. M. and Clark, K. B. (1990). Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 9-30.
Hills, P. and Argyle, M. (2002). The oxford happiness questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082.
Holt, K. (1988). The role of the user in product innovation. Technovation, 12(5), Jun.
Hornaday, J. A. and Aboud, J. (1971). Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs. Personnel Psychology, 24(2), 141-153.
House, R. (1997). Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. NY : Random House.
Joreskog, K., and Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum associates Publishers.
Kanter, R. (1988). When a thousand flowers bloom: Structural, collective, and social conditions for innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 169-211.
Kelly, D. J., Bosma, N. and Amorós, J. E. (2010). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2010 Global Report, Babson College/London Business School.
King, N. and Anderson, N. (1990). Innovation in working group. In West, M. A. & Farr, J. L. (Eds). Innovation and creativity at work: psychological and organizational strategies, NY : John Wiley & Sons, 81-100.
Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
Krueger, N. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(1), 5-21.
Leeuw, S. E. van der and Torrence, R. (1989). Introduction: What’s new about innovation? In Leeuw, S. E. van der & Torrence, R. (Eds.), What’s new? Boston : UNWIN HYMAN, 1-15.
Leibenstein, H. (1983). Competition and Z-efficiency: Reply. Journal of Political Economy, 81.
Living Heritage Trust Voluntary Service Organisation (2010). Serendipity: How the Vogue word became Vague, Retrieved April 20, 2011, from the World Wide Web: http://livingheritage.org/index.html
Lumpkin, G. T. and Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172.
MacKinnon, D. W. (1970). Creativity: A multi-faceted phenomenon. In Rodlansky, D. (Ed.), Creativity: A discussion at the Nobel conference, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 17-32.
Marquish, D. G. (1982). The Anatomy of Successful Innovation. Winthrop Publisher, Cambridge.
McBirnie, A. (2008). Seeking serendipity: The paradox of control. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 60(6), 600-618.
McCrae, R. R. and Costa, P. T. Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
Mehta, H. (2009). On innovations in plastic surgery. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 62(4), 437-441.
Merriam-Webster Online (2010). Retrieved Sep 29, 2010, from the World Wide Web : http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/serendipity
Merton, R. K. and Barber, E. G. (2004). The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity. Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Merton, R. K. (2004). Afterword. Autobiographical Reflections on The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity. In Merton, R. K. & Barber, E. (2004), The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity, NJ : Princeton University Press, 230-298.
Miles, M. B. (1964). Innovation in education. NY : Teachers College, Colmbia University.
Mill, J. S. (1848). Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy. London: Colonial Press.
Miller, D. and Friesen, P. H. (1982). Innovation in Conservative and Entrepreneurial Firms: Two Models of Strategic Momentum. Strategic Management Journal, 3(1), 1-25.
Miller, D. (1983). The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms. Management Science, 29, 770-791.
Mills, R. (1996). Minimalist Definitions. TMI Unit, University of Waikato, New Zealand.
Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J. A. (1982). Tracking strategy in an entrepreneurial firm. Academy of Management Journal, 25(3), 465-499.
Nelson, C. (1986). Starting Your Own Business-Four Success Stories. Communication World, 3(8), 18-29.
Niv, Y. and Messer-Yaron, H. (2010). Technology entrepreneurship in research university: transforming innovations into products at Tel Aviv University. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 11(5), 345-355.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. NY : McGraw-Hill.
Nutefall, J. E. and Ryder, P. M. (2010). The Serendipitous Research Process. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(3), 228-234.
Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Online (accessed via password to the GALILEO Consortium) : http://www.galileo.usg.edu/
Oxford Reference Online (2008). Innovation. Retrieved March 2, 2011, from the World Wide Web: http://oxfordreference.com/pub/views/home.html
Peterson, R. A. and Albaum, G. (1984). Corporate Creativity. NY : Poaeger.
Pinchot, G. (1985). Intrapreneuring: why you don’t have to leave the corporation to become an entrepreneur. NY : Harper & Row.
Pitt, L. F. and Kannemeyer, R. (2000). The role of adaption in microentreprise development: A marketing perspective. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 137-155.
Politis, D. (2005). The Process of Entrepreneurial Learning: A Conceptual Framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30, 399-424.
Reitz, H. J. (1981). Behavior in organization. Homewood, Lllinois: Richard D. Irwin, 196-197.
Reitz, J. M. (2007). Serendipity. Online dictionary for library and information science. Retrieved Aug 9, 2010, from the World Wide Web : http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_s.cfm
Remer, T. G. (1965). Serendipity and the Three Princes, from the Peregrinaggio of 557. Norman, OK : University of Oklahoma Press.
Reynolds, P., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., Lopez-Garcia, P. and Chin, N. (2005). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998-2003. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 205-231.
Reynolds, P., Camp, M., Bygrave, B., Autio, E. and Hay, M. (2001). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2001 Executive Report. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City.
Ricciardi, C. R. (2005). Serendipity in Research and Practice: Nurturing Imagination and Inquiry. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 19(1), A18-A19.
Robbins, S. P. (1991). Management, (3rd ed.), England Cliff: NJ : Prentice-Hall.
Robert, E. B. (1991). The Technological Base of The New Enterprise. Research Policy, 20, 283-298.
Roberts, R. M. (1989). Serendipity: Accidental discoveries in science. NY : Wiley.
Rogers, E. M. (1983). Diffusions of innovations. (3rd ed.). NY : The Free Press.
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 243-263.
Say, J. B. (1815). Catechisme d’économie politique; translated (1821) by John Richter, Catechism of Political Economy, London: Sherwood.
Schuler, R. S. (1986). Fostering and facilitating entrepreneurship in organizations: implications for organization structure and HRM practices. Human Resource Management, 25(4), 607-629.
Schumann, P. A., Prestwood, D. C., Tong, A. H. and Vanston, J. H. (1994). Innovate: Straight path to quality customer delight and competitive advantage. NY : McGraw-Hill.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
Schwartz, E. B. (1976). Entrepreneurship: A New Female Frontier. Journal of Contemporary Business, 5 (Winter), 47-76.
Scott, S. G. and Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior : a path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607.
Shame, W. (1974). Venture Management: The Business of the Inventor, Entrepreneur, Venture Capitalist, and established Company. NY : The Free Pree.
Shane, S. and Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.
Shane, S. (2000). Prior Knowledge and the Discovery of Entrepreneurship Opportunities. Organization Science, 11(4), 448-469.
Sharma, P. and Chrisman, J. J. (1999). Toward a Reconciliation of the Definitional Issues in the Field of Corporate Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 11-27.
Shook C. L., Priem R. L. and McGee J. E. 2003. Venture Creation and The Enterprising Individual: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Management, 29(3), 379-399.
Siropolis, N. C. (1989). Small Business Management: A Guide to Entrepreneurship. Houghton Miffin Company, 38-42.
Smart, D. T.(1994). Entrepreneurial orientation, distinctive marketing companies and organizational performance. Journal of Apploied Business Research, 10(3), 28-38.
Souder, W. E. (1987). Managing New Product Innovations. Lexington, MA : Lexington Books.
Sternberg, R. and Wennekers, S. (2005). Determinants and effects of new business creation; investigations using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 193-203.
Sternberg, R. J.(1988). A three-facet model of creativity. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), The Nature of Creativity, NY : Cambridge University Press, 125-147.
Stevenson, H. H. and Jarillo, J. C. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, 11(4), 17-27.
Stevenson, H. H., Grousbeck, H. I., Roberts, M. J. and Bhidé, A. V. (2000). New Business Venturing and The Entrepreneur (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill, International Editions : Singapore.
Stewart, W. H., Watson, W. E., Carland, J. C. and Carland, J. W. (1999). A proclivity for entrepreneurship: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business owners, and corporate managers. Journal of Business Venturing, 14, 189-214.
Stopford, J. M. and Baden-Fuller, C. W. F. (1994). Creating corporate entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal, 15(7), 521-536.
Svensson G. and Wood G. (2005). The serendipity of leadership effectiveness in management and business practices. Management Decision, 43(7/8), 1001-1009.
Sykes, J. B. (Ed.) (1976). The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1037.
The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1993). Oxford : Clarendon Press.
Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K. (2001). Managing innovation integrating technological, market and organization change. London : John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Timmons, J. and Spinlli, S. (2004). New Venture Creation, 6th ed. NY : McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 65.
Timmons, J. A. (1999). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st century (5th ed.). Boston : McGraw-Hill.
Torrance, E. P. (1966). Torrance tests of creative thinking: Normal-technical manual. Princeton, NJ : Personnel Press, Inc.
Tsai, C. H., Chen, W. C. and Liu, P. L. (2004). An empirical study on the correlation between knowledge management capability and competitiveness in Taiwan’s industries. Technovation, 24(12), 971-977.
Tushman, M. L. and Moore, W. L. (1982). Reading in the management of innovation. Boston : Pitman.
Venkataraman, N. (1989). Strategic orientation of business enterprises: The construct, dimensionslity and measurement. Management Science, 35, 942-962.
Vesper, K. H. (1982). Introduction and summary of entrepreneurship research. In Kent, C. A., Sexton, D. L., & Vesper, K. H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, Englewood Cliff, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 39-71.
Walker, F. A. (1876). The Wage Question: A Treatise on Wages and the Wages Class. NY: Henry Holt & Company.
Walpole to Mann (January 28, 1754) (1960). The Yale Edition, 20, 407-408.
Walpole, H. (1960). Letter from Walpole to Mann, January 28, 1754. In Lewis, W. S. (Ed.), Walpole’s Correspondence , New Haven, CT: The Yale Edition, Vol. 20, 407-408.
Webster's third new internationall dictionary (1961). Chicago : Merriam.
Weisenfeld, U. (2009). Serendipity as a Mechanism of Change and its Potential for Explaining Change Processes. Management Revue, 20(2), 138-148.
Wennekers, S. and Thurik, R.(1999). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Small Business Economics, 13, 27-55.
Wikipedia (2010). Serendipity, Retrieved Sep 29, 2010, from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serendipity
Wilkin, P. H. (1979). The nature of entrepreneurship: A comparative and historical study. NJ : Ablex, 56-75.
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2008). The Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008. Geneva, Switzerland: WEF.
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2009). The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. Geneva, Switzerland: WEF.
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2010). The Global Competitiveness Report 2009-2010. Geneva, Switzerland: WEF.
World Economic Forum (WEF) (2011). The Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011. Geneva, Switzerland: WEF.
Yee, W. C. (1991). The Entrepreneurship and Innovative Change, NTU, 3-5.
Young, G., Ashdown, D., Arnold, A. and Subramonian, K. (2007). SERENDIPITY IN UROLOGY. BJU International, 101(4), 415-416.
Yusuf, S. (2009). From creativity to innovation. Technology in Society, 31, 1-8.
Zahra, S. A. (1993). New product innovation in established companies: associations with industry and strategy variables. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(2), 47-69.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2016-06-16公開。
  • 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信