||Nietzschean Transvaluation of African American Woman’s Morality and Self-affirmation in Toni Morrison’s Works
||Department of English
|| 托尼莫里森的非裔女性小說在學術界已有諸多且廣泛的討論，包括性別，種族及階級等，然而其間所涉及的道德觀議題在討論上卻付之闕如。本論文第一章透過尼采《道德系譜學》的標準重新檢視《蘇拉》小說裡美國非裔女性的道德觀。根據尼采的主人—奴隸道德說，最基本的道德形態有兩種——「主人道德」和「奴隸道德」。主人道德把行為放進「好」與「壞」的標準之中；奴隸道德即是把行為放進「善」與「惡」的標準中。主人道德的主要特徵是：自我肯定、驕傲、主動。尼采重新定義「善」與「惡」為「好」與「壞」，「善」與「惡」應被「好」與「壞」所取代，「主人道德」為好的道德，「奴隸道德」為壞的道德。主人道德是包括「強勁，健康，自由」的特性。相反，「軟弱、體虛，奴性」的為「壞」。相反，奴隸道德的人看到這些富裕和幸福的主人道德者感到妒恨(ressentiment)，而稱呼主人精神的人為「惡」，而稱自己為「善」，善惡的概念因此誕生。本研究採用兩本美國非裔女性小說來重新分析美國非裔女性的道德。在兩本非裔美國小說中，諾貝爾文學獎得主湯尼莫莉森的作品當中，皆有充滿主人道德的角色(例如: Sula)與奴隸道德的角色(例如: Nel)，本篇文章主要希望能夠重新定義裡面的「善與惡」，用斯賓諾莎的「好與壞」(主動情感以及被動情感)來取代故事中所塑造的「善與惡」，重新定義主人道德角色的價值。此外，德勒茲對於斯賓諾莎的重新詮釋也會用來推翻只有主動情感才是好（good) 的論點。雖然以尼采的道德觀來看，Sula的主人道德相較被讚揚，但是沒有Nel扮演弱者的角色，似乎也難以突顯Sula的強者的個性。本章用新尼采主義的德勒茲作為總結，即便是處於被動的狀態，愉悅的被動情感(joyful passive affection)依然還是有它的重要性。第二章將會討論尼采式的自我肯定。自我肯定是尼采的哲學觀念。他慶祝希臘人面對自然和歷史的恐懼，不會像叔本華那樣尋求迴避，而是創造悲劇，確定生活中的每件事情都是美麗的。在那些小說中，有些人肯定了他們的人生；有些人否認他們的人生，如《湛藍的眼睛》中的Pecola。 Pecola否認自己是一個黑皮膚的女孩，追求湛藍的眼睛和金髮。另一方面，《上帝救救孩子》中的Bride有勇氣肯定自己，只穿白衣來對比她的黑色美麗肌膚。本論文旨在探討尼采哲學方式對托尼莫里森作品中善惡性的重新定義以及自我肯定。
|| Even though Toni Morrison’s novels have aroused a lot of discussion (especially about gender, race, and class), moral and ethical problems are significantly less discussed. First chapter of this dissertation aims to use the moral standard of On the Genealogy of Morality written by Nietzsche to reexamine the morality of Afro-American women in Toni Morrison’s novels, Sula, Bluest Eye, God Help the Child and Beloved. In On the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche shows that the valuations “good/evil” and “good/bad” have distinct origins and that the two senses of “good” reflect, in their origins, fundamentally opposite meanings. The noble mode of valuation calls what it itself stands for “good”, namely, everything which is powerful and life-affirmative. In the “good/evil” dichotomy, which is the result of what Nietzsche calls “slave morality”, so-called “evil” is equal to what aristocratic morality calls “good”. Master morality is developed by the “strong, healthy, and free”, who see their own happiness as good and name it hence. On the contrary, they see those who were “weak, unhealthy, and enslaved” as “bad,” since their weakness is undesirable. On the contrary, the slaves, feeling oppressed by these wealthy and happy masters, call the masters “evil,” and called themselves “good” by contrast. In those African American fictions, Toni Morrison’s novels, there are roles of master morality (Sula) as well as the role of slave morality (Nel) in both stories. In addition, Spinoza’s definition of “good and bad”, denoting active and passive affections, will replace the conventional “good and evil” in both stories. This chapter endeavors to use mostly Nietzsche’s definition, and in passing Spinoza and Deleuze’s theories to reevaluate the morality in the novel’s Sula. In Nietzsche’s point of view, Sula and Claudia are more praised by his definition. Even though Nel and Pecola are in a passive state, their “joyful passive affection” also plays an important part in both stories to contrast the other persona’s master-morality counterparts. In the chapter II, “self-affirmation” will be discussed too. Self-affirmation is a Nietzschean philosophical concept. It "celebrates the Greeks who, facing up to the terrors of nature and history, did not seek refuge in 'a negation of the will,' as Schopenhauer did, but instead created tragedies in which life is affirmed as beautiful in spite of everything." In those novels, there are characters who affirm their life and characters who deny their life, such as Pecola. Pecola denies herself as a black-skinned girl and pursues the bluest eyes and blonde hair. On the other hand, Bride has the courage to affirm herself and wears only white vestments to contrast with her black beautifulness. This dissertation aims to investigate the redefinition of good and evil/bad and self-affirmation in Toni Morrisons works in a Nietzschean philosophical way.
||Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ·································································· i
Chinese Abstract ···································································· ii
English Abstract ··································································· iii
Table of Contents ·································································· v
Introduction ········································································· 1
Chapter One: Transvaluation of African American Women’s “Good”
and “Evil” in Toni Morrison’s Works ························· 34
Chapter Two: Self-affirmation beyond Good and Evil in God Help
the Child, The Bluest Eye and Beloved··············· 49
Conclusion: “Immanent Ethics” and Will-to-Love ························· 114
Works Cited ······································································ 142
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