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系統識別號 U0002-0502201817521600
中文論文名稱 解析台灣中美洲的政策及其對兩岸關係的影響 (2008-2016)
英文論文名稱 Examining Taiwan's Central American Policy and its Impact on Cross-strait Relations (2008-2016)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 唐宜安
研究生英文姓名 Idania Marcela Perigault
學號 803330249
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2017-01-03
論文頁數 406頁
口試委員 指導教授-翁明賢
委員-馬振坤
委員-高佩珊
委員-宮國威
委員-謝奕旭
中文關鍵字 台灣中美洲的政策  兩岸關係  巴拿馬共和國  社會建構主義  協同作用 
英文關鍵字 Taiwan’s Central American Policy  Cross-strait relations  Republic of Panama  Social Constructivism  Synergy 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣作為一個獨立的國家,一直捍衛著自己的主權。台灣持續與中美洲、加勒比地區等9個國家,以及一個南美洲國家和教廷,保持盟友關係。
台灣退出聯合國之後,持續以一個獨立的主權國家自居。這件事及「一個中國」的政策,讓兩岸衝突從上個世紀延續至今。
近幾年,兩岸關係有一些變化。「外交休兵」讓和解成為可能,似乎改善了兩岸關係。這個「休兵」放慢台灣對於增加新盟友的目標。然而,隨著兩岸關係的發展,北京強化在拉美地區的存在感;北京增加其在中美地區的參與度,這有可能威脅到台灣盟友的失去。
本研究旨在研究,台灣的中美洲政策如何影響兩岸關係。此研究比起社會建構主義的方法更為重要,試圖加深台灣在中美洲地區之間的協同作用,促進雙方的發展,而這種相互作用或協同作用反過來又衝擊了兩岸關係。
本研究共有七章,分為三個部分。第一部分,詳述台灣、北京、中美洲關係發展的歷史背景,但不談論美國對於這三方的角色定位。第二部分,重點分析地緣政治的影響;自從巴拿馬共和國成為該地區經濟成長的領導地位,台灣中美洲政策與巴拿馬共和國、巴拿馬運河的關聯性。第三部分,論證台灣在中美洲影響的協同效應,以巴拿馬共和國做為案例研究。
為了建立協同效應,目前的研究將檢視台灣的外國政策,以巴拿馬作為個案研究。了解利害關係人的相互關係,有助於替代方案的建設及排除研究假設的替代方案。因此,本文將使用社會建構主義,來審視國家的身分和利益,再從整合過程中取得結論。
本文的分析,不會排除其他要素和分析工具,這有助於研究發展和對發現的理解。同樣地,這個案例研究會有相關資料加以補充,以及強調在中美洲地區的合作議題。
顯然,台灣的外交大本營在中美洲。台灣努力鞏固在這個地區的關係;毫無疑問地,遏制了任何忠於改變的方針。因此,本文的研究動機,是檢視協同效應的可能性,並仔細審視台灣與該地區的建設性互動。其次,強調北京在中美洲地區,不可否認日益增長的影響,並審視台灣與當地國家的建設性互動。第三,重申台灣在中美洲領土上的關係,並以此為其國家認同;同時,從新行動者的角度來觀察,中美洲地區和其與台灣間的關係發展。
英文摘要 The Republic of China has defended its sovereignty as an independent state, keeping the concentration of its allies in Central America and the Caribbean, and one, in South America besides the remaining nine around the orb which including the Holy See.
After the expulsion of the United Nations, Taiwan continues in its race by the recognition of its identity as an independent sovereign state. This has generated the cross-strait conflict that has lasted since the last century along with policies such as "One China" that limit the diplomatic relations of countries that recognize one or another state.
In recent years, there have been some changes: the "diplomatic truce" allowed a rapprochement that seemed to improve cross-strait relations. This "truce" slowed the Taiwanese target by limiting the achievement and addition of new allies. But as cross-strait relations improved, Beijing intensified its presence in the Latin American region, increasing its participation in the Central American region, which could threaten with the loss of Taiwan's allies.
The present research aims to examine how Taiwan's Central American policy impacts cross-strait relations. The examining, more than anything else from a social constructivism approach, tries to deepen the possibility of a synergy between Taiwan in the Central American region that promotes the development for both actors, and this interaction or synergy, in turn, impinges the Cross-strait relations.
The research consists of 7 chapters structured in three parts: the first part details the historical context of the development of the Taiwan-Beijing-Central America relations without this analysis excluding the role of the United States in relation to each actor. The second part is focused on analyzing the geopolitical implications and the relevance of the Republic of Panama and its Canal in Taiwan's Central American policy since Panama constitute the leader in economic growth in the region. The third part of the research aims to demonstrate a synergy of the Taiwan interaction in Central America, using the case of the Republic of Panama as a case study.
In order to establish the synergy, the present research work will examine the foreign policy of Taiwan in Panama as a case study. Understanding this interrelationship between stakeholders will facilitate the construction of alternative scenarios that rule out the research hypothesis or not. Thus, the approach of social constructivism will be used, which examines identities and interests of the states, focusing on the results obtained from the integration process.
This analysis will not be exclusionary of other elements and analytical tools that will facilitate the development of research and the understanding of the findings. Likewise, the case under study will also be complemented by the review of related information and that address the issue of cooperation in the Central American region.
It is evident that the stronghold of Taiwan is in Central America and Taiwan strive to fortify the ties in the region, undoubtedly, to contain any approach that denotes a change of loyalties. The motivation of this research is, therefore, to examine the possibility of a synergy by which alternatives can be established that firstly, will allow forming a criteria based on observance of the development of Cross-strait relations under the Central American interaction scenario; Second, highlight the effects of Beijing's undeniable increasing presence in Central American region, and therewith scrutinize a constructive interaction between Taiwan and the actors into the region; And thirdly, to allow reaffirms Taiwan's relations in the Central American territory, and with this its state identity, while the developing of the Central American region and its relationship with Taiwan, as from the action of new actor is observed.
論文目次 Table of Content

List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... XIII
List of Graphics ........................................................................................................................ XIV
List of Maps ............................................................................................................................... XV
List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ XVI
List of Acronyms .................................................................................................................... XVII
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
1. RESEARCH BACKGROUND ......................................................................................... 1
2.RESEARCH MOTIVES AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................ 1
2.1. Research Motives .............................................................................................................. 1
2.2. Objectives .......................................................................................................................... 6
3. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................. 8
4. RESEARCH THEORY AND METHODOLOGY ....................................................... 15
4.1. Research Approach ........................................................................................................ 15
4.2. Methodology .................................................................................................................... 17
4.3 Theoretical Approach ..................................................................................................... 22
5. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................ 53
5.1. Research Question:......................................................................................................... 53
5.2. Justification ...................................................................................................................... 54
5.3. Limitation ......................................................................................................................... 57
5.4. Hypothesis ........................................................................................................................ 59
5.5. Variables of the Research ............................................................................................. 61
5.6.Organization of Chapters ............................................................................................. 64
CHAPTER II. A HISTORICAL REVIEWING TO THE TAIWAN'S CENTRAL
AMERICAN POLICY................................................................................................................ 65
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND BETWEEN TAIWAN AND CENTRAL
AMERICA BEFORE 2008 ................................................................................................. 65
1.1. History of Taiwan ........................................................................................................... 65
1.2. Proclamation of the Chinese Republic ....................................................................... 65
1.3. Taiwan as an independent nation. .............................................................................. 68
1.4. Historical background between Taiwan and Central America ........................... 84
2.TAIWAN’S FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD CENTRAL AMERICA BEFORE
2008.. .................................................................................................................................... 87
2.1. Cooperation and Financial Aid .................................................................................. 87
2.2. Cultural Participation ................................................................................................... 88
2.3. International Participation ........................................................................................... 89
3. IMPORTANCE OF PANAMA FOR TAIWAN ........................................................... 90
3.1. The Republic of Panama’s Development: A view. .................................................. 90
3.2. Panama as an old ally .................................................................................................... 95
3.3. A platform for new projects ......................................................................................... 99
4. INPUT DIPLOMATIC TIES ....................................................................................... 101
4.1. Diplomatic ties through Taiwan's internal dilemma ............................................ 101
4.2. Diplomatic ties through Taiwan's external dilemma ........................................... 103
5. CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 106
CHAPTER III. FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
TAIWAN AND CENTRAL AMERICA. ................................................................................ 110
1. GLOBAL DIMENSION: CHINA AND US, IMPACT ON CROSS-STRAIT
RELATIONS. ..................................................................................................................... 110
1.1. Cross-strait relations .................................................................................................... 110
1.2.US Grand Strategy ........................................................................................................ 113
1.3.China´s reaction toward US strategy ........................................................................ 115
1.4.China and the US, impact on Cross-strait relations .............................................. 119
2.REGIONAL DIMENSION: CHINA, THE US AND TAIWAN IN CENTRAL
AMERICA DURING 2008-2016 ...................................................................................... 123
2.1. Approximation of China to the Hispanic-American region. Brief
Background. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….123
2.2. The US in Central America ........................................................................................ 135
2.3. Taiwan in Central America ........................................................................................ 145
3. INDIVIDUAL DIMENSION: TAIWAN AND PANAMA’S INTERACTION IN
THE 2008-2016 PERIOD. .......................................................................................................... 148
4. TAIWAN'S IDENTITY FROM THE CULTURE OF ANARCHY, A GENERAL
VIEW. ................................................................................................................................ 151
5. CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 153
CHAPTER IV. TAIWAN IN CENTRAL AMERICA: FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONMAKING
AND COLLECTIVITY IDENTITY. .................................................................... 157
1. BUILDING THE COLLECTIVE IDENTITY FROM SOCIAL
CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY: DECISION-MAKING AND THE
CONSTRUCTION OF STATE’S IDENTITY................................................................ 157
1.1. General conceptions to consider ................................................................................ 157
1.2.Identity of Taiwan ......................................................................................................... 162
2. CENTRAL AMERICA'S COLLECTIVE IDENTITY ............................................. 169
2.1.Collective identity of Central America ..................................................................... 169
2.2.Building a collective identity ....................................................................................... 177
2.3.Integration of Central America .................................................................................. 180
2.4. Identity of the Republic of Panama .......................................................................... 185
3.TAIWAN’S DECISION-MAKING TOWARD CENTRAL AMERICA DURING
2008-2016 ............................................................................................................................ 187
3.1.General factors involved in Taiwan’s Decision-Making ....................................... 187
3.2. Foreign Policy Decision-Making in Cross-strait relations .................................. 189
3.3. Foreign Policy Decision-Making to Central America .......................................... 193
4.TAIWAN AND CENTRAL AMERICA, A CONSTRUCTION OF COLLECTIVE
IDENTITY AND DECISION-MAKING TOWARD A COOPERATIVE OUTCOME.
194
4.1.Central America and Taiwan facing a collective identity and Decision
Making… ............................................................................................................................... . 194
5. CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 198
CHAPTER V. TAIWAN’S INTEREST TOWARD CENTRAL AMERICA. .................... 202
1. TAIWAN’S FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS ITS CENTRAL AMERICAN
ALLIES. ............................................................................................................................. 202
1.1.Policy of Ma Ying-jeou 2008-2016 ............................................................................. 203
1.2.Cross-strait Relations policy instead Taiwan´s foreign policy ............................ 206
1.3.Diplomatic allies in Central America ........................................................................ 210
2. TAIWAN’S SOCIAL POLICY STRENGTHENING ITS TIES IN CENTRAL
AMERICA .......................................................................................................................... 219
2.1. Aid provided by Taiwan .............................................................................................. 220
3. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BILATERAL RELATION OF TAIWAN AND
ITS CENTRAL AMERICAN ALLIES. .......................................................................... 227
3.1.Politics of Taiwan in Central America: .................................................................... 228
3.2.Commercial policy ......................................................................................................... 234
3.3.Trade policy with Central American allies .............................................................. 242
3.4.Other organizations Taiwan has joined ................................................................... 254
4. TAIWAN’S ROLE FACING BEIJING’S INCREASING COOPERATION IN
CENTRAL AMERICA. .................................................................................................... 255
4.1.Mainland China in Central America ........................................................................ 255
4.2.Taiwan´s role .................................................................................................................. 260
5. CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 263
CHAPTER VI. TAIWAN’S POLICY IN CENTRAL AMERICA THROUGH A CASE OF
STUDY: A VALUATION OF SYNERGY FROM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
THEORY. ................................................................................................................................. 268
1.TAIWAN'S STRATEGY REGARDING PANAMA'S REGIONAL
POSITIONING…. ............................................................................................................. 268
1.1.The Republic of Panama and its advantages ........................................................... 268
1.2.Strategic importance for Taiwan ............................................................................... 271
2.CASE OF STUDY THROUGH SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY. ........... 273
2.1. Social Constructivism Approach .............................................................................. 274
2.2.Social constructivism in international relations between Panama and
Taiwan………………………………………………………………………………. 282
3.EXAMINING THE CASE OF STUDY THROUGH SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
THEORY AND NEO-FUNCTIONALISM VIEW. ........................................................ 285
3.1. Neo-functionalism View .............................................................................................. 285
3.2. Neofunctionalism in Taiwan and Central America relationship ....................... 291
4.SYNERGY OF THE OUTCOMES APPLIED TO THE CASE OF STUDY. .......... 296
4.1. The US-China variables, and the affectation of Cross-strait relations ............ 296
4.2. Taiwan's Central American policy and its relation to Taiwan's identity ....... 298
4.3. Outcome: Commercial, social and cultural association ....................................... 300
4.4. Synergy of theories ....................................................................................................... 303
5.CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 314
CHAPTER VII. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................. 316
1.RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................... 316
1.1.Impact of Taiwan's Central American policy on cross-Straits relations in the
period between 2008 and 2016. ......................................................................................... 316
1.2.Conclusions according to the complementary hypothesis .................................... 319
1.3.Final Considerations. Interaction of Variables ....................................................... 321
2.VERIFICATION OF THEORY AND PRACTICE .................................................... 324
2.1.Social constructivism and Central America ............................................................ 324
2.2.Social Constructivism approach. China-Taiwan. .................................................. 326
2.3.Examining the synergy of applied theories .............................................................. 327
3.RESEARCH FINDINGS ............................................................................................... 329
3.1. A national identity not clarified. ............................................................................... 329
3.2.Excessive confidence of Taiwan in China ................................................................ 332
3.3.Defining the application of social constructivism to Taiwan ............................... 333
3.4.Approach of thought of Taiwan and Central America reflected in the theory
335

4.FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS AND POLICY SUGGESTION ................................. 336
4.1.A future view ................................................................................................................... 338
4.2.Future Research Theory .............................................................................................. 339
4.3.Contributions .................................................................................................................. 342
5.SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON PANAMA AFTER SWITCHING FROM
TAIWAN TO CHINA ....................................................................................................... 344
5.1. Advances in relationship between Panama and China ........................................ 346
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................... 352

List of Figures
Figure 1 Synergy from actors. Social Constructivism Approach. ......................................... 19
Figure 2 Interrelationship of complementary theories ........................................................... 21
Figure 3 Identity of States and Foreign Policy ........................................................................ 34
Figure 4 Three Cultures of Anarchy ........................................................................................ 43
Figure 5 Collective Identity ....................................................................................................... 47
Figure 6 Interdependence and Cooperation amid actors. ...................................................... 53
Figure 7 Impact of Taiwan´s Central American Policy in Cross-Strait relations ................ 61
Figure 8 Variables of the Research ........................................................................................... 63
Figure 9 The situation of Taiwan ............................................................................................. 68
Figure 10 A Brief History of the Relationship between China and Taiwan. ....................... 71
Figure 11 Regimes occupying geographic regions of China and Taiwan beginning 1895. . 81
Figure 12 Original title: The FTAs of the United States with Latin American countries: an
integration model ............................................................................................................ 138
Figure 13 Coat of arms of the Federal Republic of Central America ................................. 172
Figure 14 Regional Observers of SICA .................................................................................. 244
Figure 15 Extra regional Observers of SICA ........................................................................ 245
Figure 16 Members of SICA ................................................................................................... 246
Figure 17 Organizational chart of the Central American Integration System .................. 252
Figure 18 Nicaragua's interoceanic canal ............................................................................. 262
Figure 19 Building foreign policy from the perspective of Social Constructivism.. ........... 284
Figure 20 Structure of Neofunctionalism. .............................................................................. 287
Figure 21 Interaction of Actors in Social Constructivism Approach. ................................ 313

List of Graphics
Graphic 1 Taiwan´s aid in Central America ............................................................................ 88
Graphic 2 Panama Foreign Direct Investment-Inflows ........................................................ 100
Graphic 3 China´s race for gaining allies ............................................................................. 106
Graphic 4 China doubles down its bet on Latin America ..................................................... 128
Graphic 5 US-CAFTA Import and Export ............................................................................ 141
Graphic 6 Decrease in Investment in the region. .................................................................. 145
Graphic 7 GDP of Taiwan ....................................................................................................... 237
Graphic 8 Central American Countries’ Trade with China and Taiwan 2013 ................. 260
Graphic 9 International Maritime Trade, millions of tons loaded.. .................................... 271
Graphic 10 Partners in decline. ............................................................................................ 290
Graphic 11 Taiwan´s trade with China. ................................................................................. 301
Graphic 12 Annual Growth of Taiwan's Merchandise Trade: 2010-July 2017* (percent).
............................................................................................................................... ............ 306
Graphic 13 The lure of the mainland. ................................................................................... 309
Graphic 14Taiwan-China Trade and Important Events. .................................................... 311

List of Maps
Map 1 Panama Canal Maritime Routes (Shanghai) .............................................................. 57
Map 2 Cross-Strait Conflict ..................................................................................................... 70
Map 3 The People's Republic of China and Taiwan claim a sovereignty ............................ 76
Map 4 Ruled by "Consensus 1992" A new direction for China-Taiwan relations ............. 84
Map 5 Distribution of Central American countries .............................................................. 86
Map 6 Republic of Panama ..................................................................................................... 99
Map 7 Cross-strait relations ................................................................................................... 113
Map 8 Dispute in the South China Sea ................................................................................. 118
Map 9 The impact of China and the US on cross-strait relations ...................................... 121
Map 10 The US military Forces ............................................................................................. 122
Map 11 Geomorphology and physiographic provinces of Central America and southern
México .............................................................................................................................. 170
Map 12 Political Division of Central America .................................................................... 174
Map 13 Countries of Central America allies of Taiwan by May 2016. .............................. 203
Map 14 Cross-Strait Relations ............................................................................................... 209

List of Tables
Table 1 Events that influenced the Identity of Taiwan ....................................................... 168
Table 2 Population Density Data. World Bank .................................................................... 175
Table 3 Latin America and the Caribbean according to ID 2015 ............................................. 176
Table 4 Integration Initiatives in Central America .............................................................. 180
Table 5 GDP per Capita 2015 ................................................................................................. 181
Table 6 Offices and Missions in countries that are not Taiwan's diplomatic allies. ......... 230
Table 7 Taiwan´s unofficial representative offices East Asia and Pacific ........................... 231
Table 8 Taiwan´s unofficial representative offices West Asia ............................................ 232
Table 9 Taiwan´s unofficial representative offices Africa .................................................... 232
Table 10 Taiwan´s unofficial representative offices in Europe ........................................... 233
Table 11 Foreign Trade Indicators ........................................................................................ 235
Table 12 Trade between Taiwan and Mainland China ....................................................... 238
Table 13 Trade in Goods with Taiwan ................................................................................. 240
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Buendia, Leonor. April 18-20, 1996. " The training of teachers for an intercultural school." I Conference on Greenhouses and Immigrants: Marginalization and Intercultural Education. Almería: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Greenhouses and Immigrants: Marginalization and Intercultural Education.
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Hu, Jintao. 2004. "What we believe together a new perspective of friendship between China and Latin America and the Caribbean." Speech before the Brazilian Congress. Brazil, November 12. Accessed November 1, 2016. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/esp/wjdt/zyjh/t170379.shtml.

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