淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-0502201218581000
中文論文名稱 美國境內非法移民對國內勞工所得分配之衝擊
英文論文名稱 The Impact of Illegal Immigration on U.S. Income Distribution
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 范博禎
研究生英文姓名 Po-Chen Fan
電子信箱 zx07321@gmail.com
學號 698250080
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-01-03
論文頁數 102頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯大衛
委員-陳思寬
委員-萬哲鈺
中文關鍵字 非法移民  所得分配  固定效果  州級資料  邊界  農業  共和黨  民主黨  地理區域 
英文關鍵字 Illegal Immigration  Income Distribution  Fixed Model  State Level  Border  Agricultural  Republican  Democratic  Geography Regions 
學科別分類
中文摘要 2007年在美國境內的非法移民數量超過1210萬人以上,龐大的數量規模,所帶來的各種間接或直接影響不可小覷之。本研究探討非法移民對美國整體勞動力市場的影響後,著重於非法移民數量改變對勞工所得分配所產生的影響。
使用特殊的州級資料,來分析非法移民對於所得分配的影響。理論模型指出非法移民數量的增加,將會擴大所得分配的差距。實證結果證明原先的理論假設無誤,非法移民數量的增長會擴大所得分配差距程度,這是重要的新研究結果。另外,這些影響並非由於景氣循環所導致,因為迴歸過程中已使用州失業率來進行控制。
非法移民的數量變動,確實對於各州大都會區域之所得差距扮演重要的角色。非法移民的數量增加,因財富分配不均的狀況,使得所得分配差距程度出現增加。本研究雖未特別針對勞工進行對象區分,但勞工所得分配差距程度的增加,乃因非法移民人口比例的增加,對於不同對象的勞工產生了不同程度的衝擊而造成。本研究呈現出一個簡明的事實,非法移民確實對於勞工所得分配具有影響,尤其表現在特定對象或區域之勞工。
基礎實證研究中發現,非法移民人口比例如增加10%,將會擴大所得分配約1.3%的差距程度。針對非法移民人口比例增加,所產生的所得分配差距程度擴大進行探討,還發現鄰近南方邊界區域存在不同的機制,一種對於非法移民的包容機制,不同於其他區域。於不同區域或特徵劃分下,所得到的不同研究結果,更能提供相關研究進一步的探討,也顯現出不同的事實。
英文摘要 The United States is well known to be a country of immigrants. It has experienced numerous waves of immigration over the past 150 years. However, in recent times, the number of illegal immigrants in the US has risen substantially. Large numbers of illegal immigrants can now be found in nearly every one of the US fifty states. The existence and scale of the illegal immigration has generated considerable public pressure for analysis and change. This thesis considers one important aspect which is often discussed in the literature on illegal immigration; namely, the issue of whether or not illegal immigration has had a substantial impact on the distribution of income in the United States. The thesis first discusses, in a simple and direct fashion, the original theoretical foundation provided by W. Ethier on the subject of illegal immigration and wages. It then turns to a panel data set on high versus low incomes ranging over the individual fifty US states for selected years. Additional data on unemployment and regional dummy variables are included, as well. It is found that after controlling for business cycle influences, illegal immigration is directly and significantly correlated with the spread between high and low incomes among the fifty US states. However, while the effect is statistically significant, the magnitude of this effect is still not particularly large. A 10% rise in illegal immigration spread evenly over the states can be expected to increase the spread between high and low incomes by only 1-2%. A number of regional discrepancies for this effect, as well as their possible political differences are explored in the thesis.
論文目次 目次
目次 i
表次 iii
圖次 v
附錄目次 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 6
第三節 研究範圍與限制 11
第二章 文獻回顧 13
第一節 中文相關移民研究文獻 13
第二節 西文相關移民研究文獻 19
第三章 理論模型 29
第一節 美國移民的典型化事實 29
第二節 主要移民相關議題 33
第三節 處理非法移民之方針 37
第四節 移民政策影響探討 41
壹、邊界控制 41
貳、雇主制裁 43
叁、大赦 45
第四章 實證分析 47
第一節 資料來源與處理 48
第二節 基礎分析說明 54
壹、步驟一 (非法移民人口比例) 54
貳、步驟二 (非法移民人口比例與失業率) 55
叁、步驟三 (非法移民人口比例與實質GDP比例) 56
肆、步驟四 (非法移民人口比例、失業率與實質GDP) 56
第三節 特徵劃分討論 58
壹、步驟一 (鄰近南方邊界與否) 59
貳、步驟二 (農業區劃分) 60
叁、步驟三 (政黨偏好) 61
肆、步驟四 (地理區域比較) 62
第四節 雙重特徵劃分探討 64
壹、步驟一 (邊界農業區) 65
貳、步驟二 (鄰近南方邊界政黨偏好) 67
叁、步驟三 (各地理區域農業區) 68
第五章 結論 71
壹、因果關係 71
貳、相關文獻發現 72
叁、主要研究發現 74
肆、研究限制 77
伍、研究貢獻 78
附錄 81
參考文獻 97

表次
表2-1:中文相關研究文獻整理表 ............................................................................... 17
表2-2:西文相關研究文獻整理表 ............................................................................... 26
表3-1:移民增加數量與實質國民生產總額相關係數表 ........................................... 31
表3-2:移民增加數量與加班增加時間相關係數表 ................................................... 34
表3-3:移民增加數量與加班增加時間相關係數表 ................................................... 35
表4-1:使用資料說明表 ............................................................................................... 49
表4-2:鄰近南方邊界分類說明表 ............................................................................... 50
表4-3:地理區域劃分表 ............................................................................................... 51
表4-4:農業區劃分表 ................................................................................................... 52
表4-5:政黨偏好分類表 ............................................................................................... 53
表4-6:迴歸分析步驟表 ............................................................................................... 54
表4-7:特徵迴歸分析表 ............................................................................................... 58
表4-8:雙重特徵迴歸分析表 ....................................................................................... 64

圖次
圖1-1:非法移民估計數量變動圖 (1990-2010) ........................................................... 6
圖3-1:合法移民數量變動圖 ....................................................................................... 30
圖3-2:移民增加數量與實質國民生產變動圖 ........................................................... 32
圖3-3:非技術性勞工供應量變動圖 ........................................................................... 40
圖3-4:控制後非技術性勞工供應量變動圖 ............................................................... 42
圖3-5:雇主付出費用變動圖 ....................................................................................... 44

附錄目次
附錄一:鄰近南方邊界劃分示意圖 ............................................................................. 81
附錄二:農業區示意圖 ................................................................................................. 82
附錄三:政黨偏好示意圖 ............................................................................................. 83
附錄四:地理區域劃分示意圖 ..................................................................................... 84
附錄五:邊界農業區示意圖 ......................................................................................... 85
附錄六:鄰近南方邊界政黨偏好示意圖 ..................................................................... 86
附錄七:各地理區域農業區示意圖 ............................................................................. 87
附錄八:非法移民人口數量 ......................................................................................... 88
附錄九:各州失業率 ..................................................................................................... 90
附錄十:各州所得分配差距程度 ................................................................................. 92
附錄十一:各州實質GDP 比例 ................................................................................... 94
附錄十二:敘述統計表 ................................................................................................. 96
參考文獻 參考文獻

中文文獻:

期刊資源

孫晨旭 (2009) 。美國的墨西哥移民問題──以20世紀中期美墨季節工計畫為中心的考察。拉丁美洲研究,31 (3) ,56-62。

梁茂信 (1997) 。1940-1990年美國移民政策的變化與影響。美國研究,1997 (1) ,82-99。

梁茂信 (1996) 。外來移民對美國經濟和就業市場的歷史影響──兼論中美學者的觀點。 世界歷史,1996 (3) ,25-33。

陳奕平 (2004) 。當代美國外來移民的特徵及影響分析。世界民族,2004 (5) ,53-61。

馮峰、諶園庭 (2008) 。拉美裔移民對美國大選的影響及美國移民政策的調整。拉丁美洲研究,30 (6) ,10-21。

西文文獻:

書籍
Borjas, G.J., Freeman, R.B. & Katz, L.F., 1992. Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Schlosser, E., 2003. Reefer madness : sex, drugs, and cheap labor in the American black market, New York: Houghton Mifflin.

U.S. Census Bureau, 2011. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011 130th ed., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau.

期刊資源
Borjas, G.J., 1994. The Economics of Immigration. Journal of Economic Literature, 32(4), pp.1667-1717.

Card, D., 1990. The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 43(2), pp.245-257.

Clarke, G.R.G., 1995. More evidence on income distribution and growth. Journal of Development Economics, 47(1995), pp.403-427.

Ethier, W.J., 1986. Illegal Immigration: The Host-Country Problem. The American Economic Review, 76(1), pp.56-71.

Frey, W.H., 1995. Immigration and Internal Migration “Flight” from US Metropolitan Areas Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation. Urban Studies, 32(4-5), pp.733-757.

Gautier, P.A., 2002. Unemployment and Search Externalities in a Model with Heterogeneous Jobs and Workers. Economica, 69(273), pp.21-40.

Hodrick, R.J. & Prescott, E.C., 1997. Postwar U.S. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 29(1), pp.1-16.

研究報告
Altonji, J. & Card, D., 1989. The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Natives, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Borjas, G.J., 2004. Increasing the Supply of Labor Through Immigration, Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies.

Borjas, G.J., Grogger, J. & Hanson, G.H., 2006. Immigration and African-American Employment Opportunities: The Response of Wages, Employment, and Incarceration to Labor Supply Shocks, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Camarota, S.A., 2005. Immigration in an Aging Society Workers, Birth Rates, and Social Security, Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies.

Camarota, S.A. & Jensenius, K., 2009. A Shifting Tide: Recent Trends in the Illegal Immigrant Population, Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies.

Chiswick, B.R. & Mille, P.W., 2007. Earnings and Occupational Attainment: Immigrants and the Native Born, Bonn: The Institute for the Study of Labor.

Frey, W.H., 2005. Immigration and Domestic Migration in US Metro Areas: 2000 and 1990 Census Findings by Education and Race, Michigan: Population Studies Center.

Grada,, C.O., 2004. Ireland’s Great Famine: An Overview, Dublin: CENTRE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH.

Hanson, G.H., 2006. Illegal Migration from Mexico to the United States, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hanson, G.H., 2009. The Economics and Policy of Illegal Immigration in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.

Levine, L., 2010. Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.

Orreniu, P.M. & Zavodny, M., 2003. Does Immigration Affect Wages? A Look at Occupation-Level Evidence, Atlanta: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.

Passel, J.S. & Cohn, D., 2011. Unauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010, Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center.

Sum, A., Harrington, P. & Khatiwada, I., 2006. The Impact of New Immigrants on Young Native-Born Workers, 2000-2005, Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies.

文件
Camarota, S.A., 2004. The High Cost of Cheap Labor. Available at: http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf [Accessed October 2, 2011].

Camarota, S.A. & Jensenius, K., 2009. Jobs Americans Won’t Do? A Detailed Look at Immigrant Employment by Occupation.

聽證會
Camarota, S.A., 2009. Immigration’s Impact on U.S. Workers, Available at: http://www.cis.org/node/1582 [Accessed February 2, 2011].

網頁資料 
99th Congress, 1986. Pub. L 99-603 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Available at: http://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/PUBLAW/HTML/PUBLAW/0-0-0-15.html [Accessed May 19, 2011].

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2011. Average wage per job (dollars). Regional Definitions. Available at: http://www.bea.gov/regional/definitions/nextpage.cfm?key=Average%20wage%20per%20job%20(dollars) [Accessed October 6, 2011].

CBS/AP, 2011. U.S. to let illegal immigrants seek work permit. CBSNEWS. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/08/18/politics/main20094317.shtml?tag=mncol;lst;8 [Accessed August 23, 2011].

Clabough, R., 2011. Labor Dept Promises Fair Wages to Illegal Aliens. New American. Available at: http://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/immigration/8826-labor-dept-promises-fair-wages-to-illegal-aliens [Accessed September 3, 2011].

Dwyer, D., 2011. Obama Administration Curtails Deportations of Non-Criminal Immigrants. Political Punch. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2011/08/obama-administration-halts-deportations-of-non-criminal-immigrants/ [Accessed November 14, 2011].

LAWS.com, 2010. The Emergency Quota Act. LAWS.com. Available at: http://immigration.laws.com/emergency-quota-act [Accessed October 15, 2011].

Map of World, 2010. US Map, USA States and Capital Map. US Map. Available at: http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/usa-state-and-capital-map.html [Accessed October 20, 2011].

Pew Hispanic Center, 2011. About the Center. About the Center. Available at: http://www.pewhispanic.org/about-the-center/ [Accessed February 14, 2011].


The Monitor’s View, 2006. Hiring illegals is just as illegal. The Christian Science Monitor. Available at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0419/p08s01-comv.html [Accessed October 16, 2011].

The White House, n. d. Abraham Lincoln. Our Presidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln [Accessed October 16, 2011a].

The White House, n. d. Barack Obama. Our Presidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/barackobama [Accessed May 23, 2011b].

The White House, n. d. Ronald Reagan. Our Presidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan [Accessed May 19, 2011c].

U.S. BORDER PATROL, n. d. US Border Patrol Today. Available at: http://www.usborderpatrol.com/Border_Patrol87.htm [Accessed October 12, 2011].

U.S. Census Bureau, n. d. 2007 Economic Census: Regions and Divisions. Regions and Divisions. Available at: http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/www/geography/regions_and_divisions.html [Accessed October 20, 2011a].

U.S. Census Bureau, n. d. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas. Metropolitan and Micropolitan. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population/metro/ [Accessed May 23, 2011b].

U.S. Immigration Suppot, 2011a. Immigration Amnesty. Immigration Amnesty. Available at: http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/amnesty.html [Accessed May 19, 2011].

U.S. Immigration Suppot, 2011b. Immigration Reform and Control Act. Immigration Reform and Control Act. Available at: http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/irca.html [Accessed May 19, 2011].

Wikipedia, 2010. Red states and blue states. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_states_and_blue_states [Accessed October 20, 2011].

Wilson, D.L., 2009. The Truth about Amnesty for Immigrants. Available at: http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2009/wilson120809.html [Accessed May 19, 2011].
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2012-02-15公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-02-15起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信