||TAIWAN EFL LEARNERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES IN LANGUAGE DRILL COURSE AND MOTIVATION: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY FRESHMEN
||Department of English
English learning motivation
the intensity of intrinsic motivation
|| 以英語為第二語言或外語的學習者，其學習過程中，會受到諸多原因影響，如學習者本身的年齡、母語、教學者的特質、外在環境等等。本研究旨在探討大一學生之英語學習動機與課堂活動之間的相關性，共包含三個主要方向: (1) 學生的英語學習動機，(2) 學生認為最能影響其學習動機的課堂活動, 及(3) 學生對語練課上課堂活動的看法與他們的學習動機之間的相關性。 課堂活動以大一語練課上所實施過的課堂活動為主。研究主要採用問卷調查及個別訪談的方式進行，對象為北部某私立大學1020名大一學生。問卷包含兩個部分，第一部分在調查學生的英語學習內在動機強度，第二部分在調查最能影響學生學習動機的課堂活動。訪談部分由1020名學生中隨機挑選12名學生，男女生各6名，分別代表三個學習成就(高、中、低)， 以面對面方式進行。訪談的問題皆為開放性問題，針對本研究要調查的兩大方向，請訪談學生詳細說明回答。
研究結果發現如下: (一) 女學生、外語學院學生及高程度班學生較男學生、其他學院學生及中低程度班學生有較強烈的英語學習動機， (二) 根據1020名學生回答問卷中的第二部分，電影欣賞為最能影響學生學習動機的課堂活動，依序為聽英文歌曲或歌詞填空，及圖片、聽力內容配對; 而最不能影響學生學習動機的活動為用中文問同學問題， (三) 由學生的問卷結果分析得知，學生對課堂活動的看法及他們的學習動機之間有顯著相關性。意即學生如果對課堂活動感到有興趣，將可能提昇他們的學習動機。
|| There are many factors that could influence students’ language learning achievement, and among them, motivation has been considered as an influential factor for learners’ language achievement since it provides the driving forces to initiate a second- or foreign- language learning (Warden, et. al 2000; Dörnyei, 1994; Gardner, 1985). This study aimed to investigate the intensity of English learning motivation among Taiwan EFL learners. 1020 freshmen who took Freshmen Language Drill Course in a private university, were recruited as subjects. Data were collected mainly from the quantitative study, a questionnaire survey, and the qualitative interview. Three statistical analyses: ANOVA, T-test, and regression, were implemented to investigate students’ English learning motivation and their perception toward classroom activities in Language Drill Course.
The results are summarized as follows. Firstly, females, students from the Foreign Language College, and high proficiency students were more highly motivated to learn English intrinsically in their groups. Secondly, the activity “film watching” was perceived as the most motivating classroom activity out of 15 activities, followed by “English song/ lyric blank” and “picture matching.” Thirdly, a significant correlation was found between students’ intensity of English learning motivation and their perceptions toward classroom activity.
Based on the present findings, it was suggested that more strategies and attention should be given to less motivated students, such as males, students from Science College, Management College, Engineering College and low proficiency students. Meanwhile, since there is a correlation between students’ intensity of English learning motivation and their perceptions toward classroom activity, it was suggested that language teachers ought to be more cautious while choosing the classroom activity. It is hoped that through the present study, more attention can be drawn on the curriculum design of the Freshman Language Drill Course, and classroom activities of the Language Drill course can be used in a more interesting way to enhance learners’ motivation.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT …….i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT …….iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS …….vi
LIST OF TABLES …….viii
LIST OF FIGURES ….x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background .1
1.2 Statement of the Problem .4
1.3 Purpose of the Study .7
1.4 Research Questions .9
1.5 Significance of the Study .10
1.6 Definition of Terms .12
1.7 Organization of the Study .13
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theories and Perspectives on Motivation .15
2.1.1 Gardner’s socio-educational model .. .16
2.1.2 Self-determination theory ….. .24
2.2 The Role of Motivation in Second- and Foreign- language Learning .28
2.3 The Role of Classroom Activity in Language Learning.32
2.4 Summary .39
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Subjects .41
3.2 Instruments .43
3.3 Procedures .46
3.3.1 Pilot study .46
3.3.2 Formal study .49
3.4 Variables .51
3.4.1 Independent variables .52
3.4.2 Dependent variables .53
3.5 Data Analysis .54
3.6 Summary .55
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results of the Questionnaire .56
4.1.1 Students’ Intensity of English Learning Motivation.56
188.8.131.52 Students’ Motivation Intensity in terms of Gender .57
184.108.40.206 Students’ Motivation Intensity in terms of College .57
220.127.116.11 Students’ Motivation Intensity in terms of Proficiency Level .62
18.104.22.168 Discussion of Students’ Motivation Intensity .64
4.1.2 Students’ Perception toward Classroom Activities .66
22.214.171.124 Motivating Classroom Activities according to Gender .69
126.96.36.199 Motivating Classroom Activities according to College .70
188.8.131.52 Motivating Classroom Activities according to Proficiency Level … .77
184.108.40.206 Students’ Expectation toward the Language Drill Course .80
220.127.116.11 Discussion of Students’ Perception of Classroom Activity .81
4.1.3 Result of Research Question 3 .86
4.2 Results and Discussion of the Interview .89
4.2.1 Results of the Interview .90
4.2.2 Discussion of the Interview .96
4.3 Summary .98
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of the Study .100
5.2 Pedagogical Implications .103
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Research .107
LIST OF TABLES
3.1 T-test of motivation intensity by gender in the pilot study .47
3.2 One-way ANOVA of students’ motivation by proficiency level in the pilot study .47
3.3 T-test of motivation intensity by low and intermediate in the pilot study .48
3.4 T-test of motivation intensity by high and intermediate in the pilot study .48
3.5 Subjects’ ranking of classroom activities in the pilot study .49
3.6 Regression of students’ intensity motivation and their attitudes toward
classroom activities in the pilot study .49
4.1 T-test of motivation intensity by gender .57
4.2 One-way ANOVA of students’ motivation by college ….58
4.3 T-test of motivation intensity by Science and Management College .58
4.4 T-test of motivation intensity by Management and Engineering College .58
4.5 T-test of motivation intensity by Engineering and Liberal Arts College .59
4.6 T-test of motivation intensity by Business and Liberal Arts College .59
4.7 T-test of motivation intensity by Education and Business College .60
4.8 T-test of motivation intensity by Foreign Languages and Education College .60
4.9 One-way ANOVA of students’ motivation by proficiency level .62
4.10 T-test of motivation intensity between Intermediate and High level .62
4.11 T-test of motivation intensity between Intermediate and Low level .63
4.12 Subjects’ ranking of classroom activities .67
4.13 Two genders’ ranking of classroom activities .69
4.14 Foreign Language major students’ ranking of classroom activities .70
4.15 Education- major students’ ranking of classroom activities .71
4.16 Business-major students’ ranking of classroom activities .72
4.17 Liberal Arts- major students’ ranking of classroom activities .73
4.18 Engineering-major students’ ranking of classroom activities .74
4.19 Science-major students’ ranking of classroom activities .75
4.20 Management-major students’ ranking of classroom activities .76
4.21 Subjects’ ranking of classroom activities by proficiency levels .77
4.22 Subjects’ ranking of classroom activities in part III .79
4.23 Regression between students’ intensity of English learning motivation and their perceptions of classroom activities .86
4.24 Subjects’ ranking of classroom activities by motivation intensity level .87
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 The socio-educational model .20
3.1 Distribution of subjects by college .43
4.1 Students’ motivation intensity in terms of colleges .61
4.2 Students’ motivation intensity in terms of proficiency level .63
||Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271.
Anisfeld, M. and Lambert, W. E. (1961). Social and psychological variables in learning Hebrew. Journal of abnormal and social psychology, 63, 524-529.
Au, S. Y. (1988). A critical appraisal of Gardner’s socio-psychological theory of second-language (L2) learning. Language Learning, 38(1), 75-100.
Bagnole, J. (1993). The magic and mystery of motivation in TEFL and language learning. TESOL Matters, Feb./ Mar, 10.
Belmechri, F. & Hummel, K. (1998). Orientations and motivation in the acquisition of English as a second language among high school students in Quebec city. Language Learning, 48 (2), 219-244.
Berne, J. E. (1998). Examining the relationship between L2 listening research, pedagogical theory, and practice. Foreign Language Annals, 31(2), 169-190.
Breen, M. (1989). “The evaluation cycle for language learning tasks.” In R. K. Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum (pp. 187-206). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4nd ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Brown, H. D. (1991). TESOL at twenty-five: What are the issues? TESOL Quarterly, 25(2), 245-259.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). NY: Longman.
Call, M. E. (1985). Auditory short-term memory, listening comprehension, and the input hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 765-781.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical basis of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Learning and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-47.
Chang, S. M. (2001). Learning motivation in the EFL classroom. Pai-sha English Education Review, 1, 119-131.
Chang, M. C. (1996). A comparison of two methods of using videotapes in teaching listening comprehension. Paper presented at the 13th National Conference on English Teaching, Republic of China, Taipei. 293-303.
Chang, S. F. & Huang, S. C. (1999). Taiwanese English learners’ learning motivation and language learning strategies. Proceedings of the 16th conference on English teaching and learning in the R. O. C. (pp. 111-125), Changhua: The Crane Publishing Co.
Chang, S. F. & Huang, S. C. (1999). Taiwanese English learners’ learning motivation and language learning strategies. Proceedings of the sixteenth conference of English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China (pp. 111-128), Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Chia, H. U., Johnson, R., Chia, H. L. & Olive, F. (1999). English for college students in Taiwan: A study of perception of English needs in a medical context. English for Specific Purposes, 18, 107-119.
Chen, J. (1998). Taiwan’s college students’ metamotivation in learning English. The Proceedings of the Seventh International symposium on English teaching, 1, 241-252. Taipei: Crane.
Chien, C. Y. (2004). Teacher ethos and EFL learner motivation. Unpublished master thesis. Tamkang university. Taiwan, Taipei.
Chuo, Z. T. (2005). A study of foreign language learning anxiety, in-class
activities, and instructors' behaviors in STUT. Unpublished master thesis. Southern Taiwan University. Tainan, Taiwan.
Clément, R. (1989). Ethnicity, contact and communicative competence in a second language. In Ed. H. Giles, W. P. Robinson & P.M. Smith (Ed.), Language: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 147-154). Oxford, Pergamon.
Crookes, G.. & Schmidt, R. W. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41, 469-512.
Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press.
Deci, E. L. (1972) The relation of interest to the motivation of behavior: a self-determination theory perspective. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi& A. Krapp (eds.), The role of interest in learning and development, 43-70.
Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
Derwing B. L., Schutz, N. W., & Yang, C. (1978). Teaching English as a foreign language and English for science and technology in the Republic of China. Bulletin of Sun-Sen Culture Foundation, 22, 1-38.
Dörnyei, Z. (1990). Conceptualizing motivation in foreign-language learning. Language Learning, 40, 45-78.
Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3)273-284.
Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31, 117-135.
Feng, B. L. (2000). A Study of the college students’ perception variance on learner-centered activities in the English lab course. Proceedings of the seventeenth conference of English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China (pp. 437-455), Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Francis, B. (2000). The gendered subject: Students’ subject preferences and discussions of gender and subject ability. Oxford Review of Education, 26(1), 35-48.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitudes and motivation. London: E. Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (2000). Correlation, causation, motivation, and second language acquisition. Canadian Psychology, 41, 10-24.
Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Gardner, R. C. & MacIntyre, P. D. (1991). An instrumental motivation in language study: Who says it isn’t effective? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 57-72.
Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. (1994). On motivation, research agendas, and theoretical frameworks. Modern Language Journal, 78, 359-368.
Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 79(4), 505-520.
Gardner, R. C. (2005a). Integrative motivation and second language acquisition. [On-line]. http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/
Gardner, R. (2005b). The Socio-educational Model of Second Language Acquisition: A Research Paradigm [On-line]. http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/
Horwitz, E. K. (1990). Attending to the affective domain in the foreign language classroom. Shifting the instructional focus to the learner. Ed. Sally Sieloff Magnan. Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 15-33.
Huang, S. C. (2004). The effect of a reading & writing approach to EFL instruction on students’ motivation. Unpublished master thesis. National Taiwan Normal University. Taiwan, Taipei.
Kang, D. H. (2000). Motivation is such a complex process in the EFL foreign language classroom. U.S. Department of Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED444354).
Larson-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed.). NY: Oxford.
Leki, I., & Carson, J. G. (1994). Students’ perceptions of EAP writing instruction and writing needs across the disciplines. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 81-101.
Liao, Y. F. (2000). A study of Taiwanese junior high school students’ EFL learning motivation and learning strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Changhua University of Education. Taiwan: Changhua.
Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G.. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90(1), 125-152.
LTTC (2003). A Statistic Report of the GEPT High-Intermediate Level. Taipei: LTTC.
Lukmani, Y. M. (1972). Motivation to learn and language proficiency. Language Learning, 22(2), 261-273.
Masgoret, A. M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitude, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53(1), 123-165.
Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. Second Edition. New York: Harper & Row.
McKeating, D. (1981). Comprehension and listening. In The teaching of English as an international language, Gerry Abbot and Peter Wingard (Eds.), 57-80. London: Collins.
Moskowitz, G.. (1978). “Caring and sharing in the foreign language class.” A sourcebook on humanistic techniques (pp. 11-12). Rowley, Mass. Newberry House.
Noels, K. A., Clément, R., and Pelletier, I. G. (2001). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations of French Canadian learners of English. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3), 424-442.
Oller, J. W., Hudson, A. J., & Liu, P. F. (1977). Attitudes and attained proficiency in ESL: A sociolinguistic study of native speakers of Chinese in the United States. Language Learning, 27(1), 1-27.
Osada, N. (2004). Listening comprehension research: A brief review of the past thirty years. Dialogue, 3, 53-66.
Oxford, R. L., & Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. Modern Language Journal, 78, 12-28.
Peng, I. N. (2000). EFL motivation and strategy use among Taiwanese senior high school learners. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University. Taiwan, Taipei.
Porter, D. and Jon, R. (1981). Authentic listening activities. ELT Journal, 36(1), 37-47.
Richards, J. C. (1983). Listening Comprehension: Approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly, 17(2), 219-239.
Rost, M. (1990). Listening in language learning. NY: Longman Group Limited.
Schumann, J. H. (1975). Affective factors and the problem of age in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25(2), 209-235.
Schumann, J. H. (1978). The relationship of pidginization, creolization and decreolization to second language acquisition. Language Learning, 28, 367-379.
Schumann, J. H. (1986). Research on the acculturation model for second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7, 379-392.
Shaaban, K. A. and Ghaith, G. (2000). Student motivation to learn English as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals, 33(6), 632-644.
Shao, M. H. (2005). The Effectiveness of Various Ability Groupings in an EFL Cooperative Learning Classroom. Unpublished master thesis. National Chengchi University. Taipei, Taiwan.
Spaulding, C. L. (1992). Motivation in the classroom. Lane Akers, Inc.
Stanley, J. A. (1980). Are listening materials just for listening to? RELC Journal, 11(1), 78-88.
Tuan, H. J. (1997). A factorial analysis study of motivational orientations in the Chinese EFL classroom. Proceedings of the fourteenth conference of English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China (pp. 129-141), Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Ur. P. (1984). Teaching listening comprehension. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
Wang C. L. (2006). A survey research of non-English major university students’ perception toward small-group work in English learning. Unpublished master thesis.Da Yeh University. Chia-yi, Taiwan.
Warden, C. A. & Lin, H. J. (2000). Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 535-547.
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573.
Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation: Metaphors, theories, and research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Wen, X. (1997). Motivation and language learning with Chinese. Foreign Language Annals, 30(2), 234-251.
Whitehead, J. (1984). Motives for higher education: A study of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to academic attainment. Cambridge Journal of Education, 14, 26-34.
Whitehead, J. (1996). Sex-stereotypes, gender identity and subject choice at “A” level. Educational Research, 38(2), 147-160.
Yao, C. K. (1993). A study on the teaching of listening comprehension on EFL university student—The NCHU case (NSC83-0301-H005-008). National Science Council, Taiwan.
Yu, C. F. (1995). Restructuring of the EFL lab listening class: The Soochow university experience. Paper presented at the 4th National Conference on English Teaching, Republic of China, Kaohsiung.