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系統識別號 U0002-0502200705363600
中文論文名稱 歐盟官方發展援助對馬拉威發展的政策與行動(2000-2005)
英文論文名稱 EU's ODA Policy and Action in Development of Malawi (2000-2005)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 蘇家億
研究生英文姓名 Chia-yi Su
電子信箱 andressu@gmail.com
學號 692030413
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-01-19
論文頁數 187頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政文
委員-林文程
委員-鄒忠科
中文關鍵字 歐洲聯盟  馬拉威  對外援助  官方發展援助  後冷戰  發展政策  發展合作  千禧年目標  非加太  科都努協定  援外合作辦公室 
英文關鍵字 European Union  Malawi  foreign aid  official development assistance  post-cold war  development policy  development cooperation  MDGs  ACP  Cotonou agreement  AIDCO 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 歷經五十餘載的發展,歐盟不僅逐漸成為一全球行為者,其在國際官方發展援助的支出也越來越展露其重要性。對外援助一般被視為是西方國家慈善的作為,然而我們亦不可忽略其背後的政治意涵,例如冷戰時期西方國家利用援助來制約共產主義的擴張,對外援助也被當做國家的國際政治工具來使用。在過去的援助政策中,歐盟特別獨厚於非加太地區,但在現今冷戰結束與全球化的影響下,我們欲了解這樣的情況是否持續,以及援助背後的動機與目的。本文將藉學者John White的援助國導向理論,做為了解歐盟對外援助本質的研究方法,對於歐盟行使援助的政治和經濟目的進行探討;並佐以現實主義來解釋其行為。

本文的研究內容包含對歐盟援助政策和實際援助內容的說明。就歐盟對外援助政策的內容、制定方式、影響的內、外因素及發展來探究歐盟援助的本質。並從現有的援助機制、策略及現況,以及歐盟對於馬拉威的援助行動為個案,來了解其行使狀況和過程中的問題。最後再就影響歐盟援助的因素和執行成效進行說明,並對歐盟的援助行為進行評估。

研究發現,歐盟對於馬拉威的援助行動不算成功,因為援助的過程中有太多因素須列入考量。除援助政策和計畫的設計外,受援者與執行單位的能力亦是影響的重要因素。
英文摘要 Since the establishment of European Community in 1957, European Union is becoming a global actor in the international society, and its contribution to the share of official development assistance (ODA) is respectable. People might thing that foreign aid was offered because of the motive of charity and humanity, however, we should not disregard its meaning of politics. For example, western states used foreign aid as a tool to restrict the expansion of communism in the cold war era; foreign aid could be treated as a means of international politics. In the past, European Union showed great favor to the ACP countries in its ODA distribution. But nowadays, the cold war has become history and the effect of globalization is considerable, in this circumstance, this study focused on the continuity of its policy and motive for offering aid. The donor-oriented aid theory by John White and the concept of realism in international relation theories would be used as method to analysis in this article.

In this thesis, the content of aid policy, the factor and the decision-making processes would be discussed, in order to understand the meaning of EU’s aid policy. And it would also look into the aid mechanism, strategy, state of play and the action in Malawi to know its activities in the field. Finally, the effectiveness, the factors influencing and the evaluation of EU’s aid.

EU’s action in Malawi was not very success, because there were too many factors involve in the process. The aid policy and strategy were important, and the capabilities of recipient country and implement were also influential.
論文目次 導論
第一節 研究動機與目的 ……………………………………………1
第二節 研究方法 ……………………………………………………7
第三節 研究範圍與架構 ……………………………………………10
第四節 資料來源與研究限制 ………………………………………13
第五節 名詞解釋 ……………………………………………………14

第一章 歐盟官方開發援助政策發展
第一節 政策內容 ……………………………………………………17
第二節 政策制定過程 ………………………………………………29
第三節 影響政策決定因素 …………………………………………34
第四節 政策發展 ……………………………………………………56

第二章 歐盟官方開發援助政策之策略及現況
第一節 援助機制 ……………………………………………………64
第二節 援助策略 ……………………………………………………74
第三節 援助現況 ……………………………………………………81

第三章 馬拉威的經濟、社會現狀及需求
第一節 經社現況 ……………………………………………………90
第二節 經社需求 ……………………………………………………100
第三節 馬拉威減貧策略計畫書 ……………………………………102

第四章 歐盟對馬拉威(Malawi)之援助行動(2000-2005)
第一節 目標 …………………………………………………………105
第二節 援助計畫 ……………………………………………………106
第三節 對馬拉威的援助行動 ………………………………………110
第四節 行動成效 ……………………………………………………114

第五章 歐盟對馬拉威官方開發援助政策之影響因素及執行成效
第一節 影響因素 ……………………………………………………119
第二節 歐盟對外援助成效 …………………………………………135

第六章 評估與展望
第一節 評估 …………………………………………………………140
第二節 展望 …………………………………………………………152

結論 ………………………………………………………………………157

參考資料 …………………………………………………………………162
論文附件 …………………………………………………………………172
圖表目錄
圖(導-1)2005 歐盟與其他DAC成員援助金支出與佔國民所得百分比.....…..3
圖(導-2)John White對外援助的國際關係意涵圖示 …………………….... 9
圖(導-3)論文研究架構圖 ……………………………………………………….12
圖(1-1)1992-97執委會歐洲發展基金與歐體預算實際支出 ………………….26
表(1-2)各期歐洲發展基金與各期協定列表 ….………………………………27
圖(1-3)歐盟發展合作政策決策過程略圖 ……….…………………………32
表(1-4)近代國際援外重點發展總觀 …….…………………………………49
圖(1-5)1975-2004歐盟官方發展援助金項目分配 …………………………….49
表(1-6)1981-91年全球對開發中國家援助型式 …………………………….50
圖(2-1)歐盟援外機構關係簡圖 ……………………………….………71
圖(2-2)2005執委會承諾援助金區域分配百分比 ……………..……………...82
表(2-3)2004各地區歐盟整體援助主要受援國家與金額 ………………….83
圖(2-4)2005執委會承諾援助金項目分配百分比 ………...…………………..84
表(4-1)歐盟對馬拉威援助金項目分配略表 …………………………………109
圖(4-2)1996-2005馬拉威玉米單位產量 ………………...…………………….115
圖(5-1)歐盟由開發中國家進口額 ……………………………...…………….122
圖(5-2)1975-2004非歐盟OECD/DAC會員國全球地區援助趨勢百分比….....125
圖(5-3)2000-2005執委會歐洲發展基金與歐體預算承諾支出 ……………125
圖(5-4)歐盟對低度開發國家佔雙邊援助百分比 ……………………………126
圖(5-5)2000-2005歐盟援助金支出百分比(依收入層級) …………………126
圖(5-6)2000-2005歐盟援助馬拉威承諾給付金額 ……………………………133
圖(5-7)2000-2005歐盟援助馬拉威實際給付金額 ……………………………133
圖(5-8)1975-2004歐盟全球地區援助趨勢百分比 ……………………………136
圖(5-9)1975-2004非歐盟OECD/DAC會員國全球地區援助趨勢百分比….…136
圖(5-10)1970-2015年全球各區絕對貧窮人口比例與預估值 ……………136
表(5-11)2000-2005馬拉威經濟情況 ………………………………...…….137
表(5-12)1998-2005馬拉威社會指標 ………………………………...…….137
表(6-1)歐盟援助政策對各區域的定位 ………………………………...…….146
表(6-2)歐盟對馬拉威援助評估表 ……………………….………………..….148
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網頁
世界銀行網站(http://www.worldbank.org/)
馬拉威外交暨國際合作部(http://www.malawi.gov.mw/Foreign%20Affairs/Home%20ForeignAffairs.htm)
馬拉威金融暨經濟計畫部(http://www.finance.malawi.gov.mw/)
馬拉威國家統計局,(http://www.nso.malawi.net)
經濟合作暨開發組織(http://www.oecd.org/)
歐盟執委會馬拉威代表團(http://www.delmwi.ec.europa.eu/en/index.htm)
歐盟網站(http://europa.eu/index_en.htm)
聯合國開發計畫署(http://www.undp.org/)
聯合國網站(http://www.un.org/)
世界貿易組織(http://www.wto.org)
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Pew Global Attitudes(http://pewglobal.org)
Program on International Policy Attitudes(http://www.pipa.org)
World Public Opinion(http://www.worldpublicopinion.org)

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