淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-0501201616325900
中文論文名稱 工作單位特性與員工創造力的跨層次研究
英文論文名稱 The cross-level study of work unit characteristics and employee creativity
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 楊朝堂
研究生英文姓名 Tasu-Tang Yang
學號 896620019
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2015-12-23
論文頁數 102頁
口試委員 指導教授-李旭華
委員-林進財
委員-劉代洋
委員-楊振隆
委員-張世佳
委員-陳海鳴
委員-李培齊
中文關鍵字 情境-個人互動觀點  工作場所  目標導向  知覺不相似性  創造力 
英文關鍵字 Person-situation interactions perspective  Workplace  Goal orientation  Perceived dissimilarity  creativity 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文結合情境-個人互動觀點(person-situation interactions perspective),以瞭解「員工所處的工作環境與創造力之間的關係」。基於此目的,本文透過二項個別研究問題以探索員工所處工作環境是如何對於個人創造力產生影響。在此,我們分別探討工作環境中的目標導向(work-unit goal orientation),以及在群體多元化(workgroup diversity)的工作環境下,員工是如何產生個人創造力,並且其中轉化的機制為何。
研究問題一,透過建立一個跨層次模型預期能延伸現存研究對於目標導向與個人創造力關係的瞭解。本研究結合目標導向與動機資訊處理兩項理論於一個工作單位目標導向與個人創造力的架構之中,藉此本研究得以說明工作單位目標導向亦可激勵個人於團隊中的創造力;此外,本研究進一步提出員工資訊推敲是連結工作單位目標導向與個人層級創造力的重要機制。最後,本研究主要目的是延伸探討透過探討工作環境層次的目標導向,以深入瞭解工作情境如何激勵員工致力於個人創新行為。本研究透過問卷方式調查八家台灣的機構,蒐集共53個工作團隊340位的員工。結果顯示工作單位學習導向透過員工資訊推敲活動正向影響員工創造力,而工作單位績效趨避導向則會負向影響。此外,工作單位目標導工作單位學習導向會增強員工學習導向與個人創造力的關係,而工作單位的績效趨避導向則會減弱此兩者關係。
研究問題二,對工作團體多樣性與個體創造力間關係的研究忽略了多樣化團隊的個體層面的影響。為了解決這一問題,我們構建了一個跨層次模型來整合差異與個體創造力的資訊加工觀點與社會認同觀點。我們從79個工作團隊的534名成員處蒐集了多源資料。結果表明,可見、價值觀與資訊方面的感知差異透過員工資訊推敲與個體創造力負相關。此外,團隊包容氛圍產生了調節作用:在包容氛圍強時,感知到的價值觀差異和資訊差異與個體創造力的間接負面關係較弱。
英文摘要 Articulating with person-situation interactions perspective, this dissertation aims to further understand the relationship between “the workplace and employee creativity.” In order to explore the relationship, this dissertation conducted two studies to explicit the way that the workplace within which employees worked influence employee creativity. In this dissertation, the author explored whether the work-unit goal orientation and the individual level of workgroup diversity influence employee creativity, and then how.
In the study One, complementing and extending earlier research, the study develops and tests a cross-level model about how work-unit goal orientation may relate to employee creativity. The study also theorized and examined the mediating role of employee information elaboration linking work-unit goal orientation and employee creativity. This study conducted a questionnaire survey/analysis based on multi-source data from 340 employees comprising 53 teams in eight Taiwanese organizations. The results indicated the work-unit goal orientation was positively, whereas the work-unit performance avoidance orientation was negatively, related to employee creativity through employee information elaboration. Furthermore, work-unit goal orientation also played a cross-level moderating role: the positive relationship between individual learning orientation and information elaboration was stronger when work-unit learning orientation was higher, but weaker when work-unit avoidance orientation was higher.
Research on the relationship between work group diversity and individual creativity has ignored the individual-level effect of diverse team. In the Study Two, to address this problem, the study build a cross-level model, which integrates information processing perspective and social identity perspectives on dissimilarity and individual creativity. Multisource data were collected from 534 members and their leaders within in 79 work teams. The results indicated that perceived dissimilarity on visible, value, and informational were negatively related to individual creativity through employee information elaboration. Furthermore, an inclusive team climate played a moderating role: when inclusive climate was high, the indirect negative relationship with individual creativity was weaker for perceived value dissimilarity and informational dissimilarity.
論文目次 目 錄
頁次
誌 謝 i
目 錄 vi
表 目 錄 ix
圖 目 錄 x
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究問題與研究設計 4
1.3.1研究問題一:員工目標導向、工作單位目標導向及員工創造力:跨層次研究 4
1.3.2研究問題二:多元團隊中的知覺不相似性與個人創造力 8
第二章 文獻探討 12
2.1 創造力與創造力相關理論 12
2.1.1創造力成份理論 12
2.1.2 創造力投資理論 13
2.1.3創造力系統理論 14
2.1.4 工作環境與創造力 14
2.2 目標導向與相關理論研究 17
2.2.1 目標導向理論、定義與構面 17
2.2.2 目標導向的研究層次 20
2.3 不相似性與相關理論 21
2.4 研究問題一之假說推導與建立 23
2.4.1工作單位目標導向與創造力 23
2.4.2資訊推敲與創造力的關聯 26
2.4.3工作單位目標導向、員工資訊推敲及個人創造力三者的關聯 27
2.4.4 工作單位目標導向與個人目標導向的交互作用 29
2.5研究問題二之假說推導與建立 33
2.5.1知覺不相似性、資訊推敲活動與個人創造力之關聯 34
2.5.2包容氛圍的調節角色 37
第三章 研究方法 40
3.1 研究問題一 40
3.1.1樣本與資料蒐集 40
3.1.2 變數衡量 41
3.1.3 構念信效度與分析方法 44
3.2 研究問題二 45
3.2.1 樣本與資料蒐集 45
3.2.2 變數衡量與分析策略 47
第四章 分析與結果 50
4.1 研究問題一之分析結果 50
4.2 研究問題二之分析結果 56
第五章 結論與建議 62
5.1 結論 62
5.2 理論意涵 63
5.2.1 工作單位目標導向、員工資訊推敲與個人創造力 63
5.2.2 不相似性、個人創造力與包容性氛圍 65
5.3 管理意涵 67
5.3.1 形塑工作單位整體的學習目標導向之必要性 67
5.3.2 包容氛圍對不相似性與資訊推敲之充份性 68
5.4 研究限制與建議 69
5.4.1 研究限制 69
5.4.2 研究建議 70
參考文獻 72
附錄一、「研究問題一:第一階段調查」問卷 86
附錄二、「研究問題一:第二階段調查」問卷 90
附錄三、「研究問題一:第三階段調查」問卷 91
附錄四、「研究問題二:第一階段調查」問卷 92
附錄五、「研究問題二:第二階段調查」問卷 94
附錄六、「研究問題二:第三階段調查」問卷 96
附錄七、研究問題一:英文衡量問項 97
附錄八、研究問題二:英文衡量問項 100

表 目 錄
頁次
表1.1 研究問題一之研究設計與方法 8
表1.2 研究問題二之研究設計與方法 11
表3.1 研究問題一之受訪者敘述性統計表 41
表3.2 研究問題二之受訪者敘述性統計表 46
表4.1 研究問題一之衡量變數相關係數表 52
表4.2 研究問題一之HLM分析結果表 53
表4.3 研究問題一之衡量效度 54
表4.4 研究問題二之相關係數表 57
表4.5 研究問題二之HLM分析結果 58
表4.6 研究問題二之衡量效度 60

圖 目 錄
頁次
圖1.1 概念性架構 4
圖1.2 研究問題一之研究架構 7
圖1.3 研究問題二之研究架構 10
圖4.1 研究問題一之分析結果 51
圖4.2 研究問題二之路徑分析結果 58
圖4.3 資訊不相似性與員工資訊推敲活動之調節關係 59
圖4.4 價值觀不相似性與員工資訊推敲活動之調節關係 59

參考文獻 Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 123-167.
Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativiy in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California Management Review, 40(1), 39-58.
Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A., and Tighe, E. M. (1994). The Work Preference Inventory: assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), 950-967.
Avery, D. R., McKay, P. F., Wilson, D. C., and Tonidandel, S. (2007). Unequal attendance: The relationships between race, organizational diversity cues, and absenteeism. Personnel Psychology, 60(4), 875-902.
Baer, M. (2012). Putting creativity to work: The implementation of creative ideas in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 1102-1110.
Bagozzi, R. R., Yi, Y., and Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421-458.
Bantel, K. A., and Jackson, S. E. (1989). Top management and innovations in banking: Does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10(S1), 107-124.
Bauer, D. J., Preacher, K. J., and Gil, K. M. (2006). Conceptualizing and testing random indirect effects and moderated mediation in multilevel models: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 11(2), 142-163.
Baugh, S. G., and Graen, G. B. (1997). Effects of team gender and racial composition on perceptions of team performance in cross-functional teams. Group and Organization Management, 22(3), 366-383.
Bechtoldt, M. N., De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A., and Choi, H.S. (2010). Motivated information processing, social tuning, and group creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(4), 622-637.
Brewer, M. B. (1979). In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 307-324.
Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. In H. M. Triandis and J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology: Methodology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The Wording and Translation of Research Instruments. In W. L. Lonner and J. W. Berry (Eds.), Field Methods in Cross-Cultural Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bunderson, J. S., and Sutcliffe, K. M. (2003). Management team learning orientation and business unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 552-560.
Button, S. B., Mathieu, J. E., and Zajac, D. M. (1996). Goal orientatioon in organizational research: A conceptual and empirical foundation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 67(1), 26-48.
Chaiken, S., and Trope, Y. (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Chen, G., and Bliese, P. D. (2002). The role of different levels of leadership in predicting self- and collective efficacy: Evidence for discontinuity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 549-556.
Chen, G., and Kanfer, R. (2006). Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 223-267.
Chen, G., and Kanfer, R. (2006). Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. In B. M. Staw (Ed.), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Cohen-Meitar, R., Carmeli, A., and Waldman, D. A. (2009). Linking meaningfulness in the workplace to employee creativity: The intervening role of organizational identification and positive psychological experiences. Creativity Research Journal, 21(4), 361-375.
Collins, C. J., and Smith, K. G. (2006). Knowledge exchange and combination: The role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49(3), 544-560.
Cross, R., Borgatti, S. P., and Parker, A. (2002). Making invisible work visible: Using social network analysis to support strategic collaboration. California Management Review, 44(2), 25-46.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). The domain of creativity. In M. A. Runco and R. S. Albert (Eds.), Theories of Creativity. Newbury Park, C.A.: Sage.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity. NY: HarperCollins.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Implications of a systems perspective for the study of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of Creativity. NY: Cambridge Uiversity press.
Cunningham, G. B. (2007). Perceptions as reality: the influence of actual and perceived demographic dissimilarity. Journal of Bussiness Psychology, 22(1), 79-89.
Daniels, K., Boocock, G., Glover, J., Hartley, R., and Holland, J. (2009). An experience sampling study of learning, affect, and the demands control support model. Journal of Applied Psycholog, 94(4), 1003-1017.
De Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Rational self-interest and other orientation in organizational behavior: a critical appraisal and extension of Meglino and Korsgaard (2004). Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1245-1252.
De Dreu, C. K. W. (2007). Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: a motivated information processing perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 628-638.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Koole, S. L., and Steinel, W. (2000). Unfixing the fixed pie: A motivated information-processing account of integrative negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 975-987.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A., and van Knippenberg, D. (2008). Motivated information processing in group judgment and decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12(1), 22-49.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Weingart, L. R., and Kwon, S. (2000). The influence of social motives on integrative negotiation: A meta-analytic review and test of two theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(5), 889-905.
De Shon, R. P., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Schmidt, A. M., Milner, K. P., and Wiechmann, D. (2004). A multiple-goal, multilevel mdel of feedback effects on the regulation of individual and team performance. Journal of Applied Psycholog, 89(6), 1035-1056.
Dragoni, L., and Kuenzi, M. (2012). Better understanding work unit goal orientation: Its emergence and impact under different types of work unit structure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(5), 1032-1048.
Drazin, R., Glynn, M. A., and Kazanjian, R. K. (1999). Multilevel theorizing about creativity in organizations: A sensemaking perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24, 286-307.
Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Ann Arbor, MI: Psychology Press.
Dweck, C. S., and Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
Earley, P. C., and Mosakowski, E. (2000). Creating hybrid team cultures: An empirical test of transnational team functioning. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 26-49.
Edmondson, A. C. (1996). Learning from mistakes is easier said than done: group and organizational influences on the detection and correction of human error. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32(1), 5-28.
Elloit, A. J., and Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232.
Elloit, A. J., and McGregor, H. A. (1999). A test anxiety and the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 628-644.
Ely, R. J., and Thomas, D. A. (2001). Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 229-273.
Ensari, N., and Miller, N. (2006). The application of the personalization model in diversity management. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9(4), 589-607.
Ford, C. M. (1996). A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 1112-1142.
Friedman, R. S., and Förster, J. (2001). The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(6), 1001-1013.
Gilson, L. L., Lim, H. S., Luciano, M. M., and Choi, J. N. (2013). Unpacking the cross-level effects of tenure diversity, explicit knowledge, and knowledge sharing on individual creativity. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(2), 203-222.
Gong, Y., Cheung, S.Y., Wang, M., and Huang, J.C. (2012). Unfolding the proactive process for creativity: Integration of the employee proactivity, information exchange, and psychological safety perspectives. Journal of Management, 38(5), 1611-1633.
Gong, Y., Huang, J.C., and Farh, J.L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 765-778.
Gong, Y., Kim, T.Y., Zhu, J., and Lee, D.R. (2013). A multilevel model of team goal orientation, information exchange, and creativity. Academy of Management Review, 56(3), 827-851.
Gonzalez, J. A., and Denisi, A. S. (2009). Crosslevel effects of demography and diversity climate on organizational attachment and firm effectiveness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(1), 21-40.
Grant, A. M., and Ashford, S. J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 3-34.
Grant, A. M., and Berry, J. (2011). The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective-taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 54(1), 73-96.
Grizzle, J. W., Zablah, A. R., Brown, T. J., Mowen, J. C., and Lee, J. M. (2009). Employee customer orientation in context: how the environment moderates the influence of customer orientation on performance outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1227-1242.
Guillaume, Y. R. F., Brodbeck, F. C., and Riketta, M. (2012). Surface- and deep-level dissimilarity effects on social integration and individual effectiveness related outcomes in work groups: A meta-analytic integration. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85(1), 80-115.
Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., and Bell, M. P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: Time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 96-107.
Hirst, G., van Knippenberg, D., Chen, C., and Sacramento, C. A. (2011). How does bureaucracy impact individual creativity? a cross-level investigation of team contextual influences on goal orientation-creativity relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 624-641.
Hirst, G., van Knippenberg, D., and Zhou, J. (2009). A cross-level perspective on employee creativity: Goal orientation, team learning behavior, and individual creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 52(2), 280-293.
Hobman, E. V., Bordia, P., and Gallois, C. (2004). Perceived dissimilarity and work group involvement: the moderating effects of group openness to diversity. Group and Organization Management, 29(5), 560-587.
Hoever, I. J., van Knippenberg, D., van Ginkel, W. P., and Barkema, H. G. (2012). Fostering team creativity: Perspective taking as key to unlocking diversity's potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(5), 982-996.
Hofmann, D. A., and Stetzer, A. (1998). The role of safety climate and communication in accident interpretation: Implications for learning from negative events. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), 644-657.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Im, S., and Workman, J. P. J. (2004). Market orientation, creativity, and new product performance in high-technology firms. Journal of Marketing, 68(2), 114-132.
Jackson, S., Brett, J., Sessa, V., Cooper, D., Julin, J., and Peyronnin, K. (1991). Some differences make a difference: Individual dissimilarity and group heterogeneity as correlates of recruitment, promotions, and turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5), 675-689.
Jackson, S., Joshi, A., and Erhardt, N. L. (2003). Recent research on team and organizational diversity: SWOT analysis and implications. Journal of Management, 29(6), 801-803.
Jackson, S. E., May, K. E., and Whitney, K. (1995). Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision-making teams. In A. Guzzo and E. Salas (Eds.), Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., and Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(1), 85-98.
Janssen, O., and Van Yperen, N. W. (2004). Employees' goal orientation, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcome of job performance and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 47(3), 368-384.
Jehn, K. A., Northcraft, G., and Neale, M. (1999). Why differences make a difference: A field study of diversity, conflict, and performance in workgroups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(4), 741-763.
Klein, K. J., and Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2000). From micro to meso: critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(3), 211-236.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., Gully, S. M., Brown, K. G., Salas, E., Smith, E. M., and Nason, E. R. (2001). Effects of training goals and goal orientation traits on multidimensional training outcomes and performance adaptability. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(1), 1-31.
Kruglanski, A. W., and Webster, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: "Seizing" and "freezing.". Psychological Review, 103(2), 263-283.
Kunze, F., Boehm, S. A., and Bruch, H. (2011). Age diversity, age discrimination climate and performance consequences: a cross organizational study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 264-290.
Lau, S., and Nie, Y. (2008). Interplay between personal goals and classroom goal structures in predicting student outcomes: A multilevel analysis of person-context interactions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 15-29.
Li, C.R., Lin, C.J., Tien, Y.H., and Chen, C.M. (2015). A multilevel model of team cultural diversity and creativity: The role of climate for inclusion. The Journal of Creative Behavior. doi: 10.1002/jocb.93. (forthcoming)
Lichtenstein, R., Alexander, J. A., Jinnett, K., and Ullman, E. (1997). Embedded intergroup relations in interdisciplinary teams. Effects on perceptions of level of teamintegration. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 33(4), 413-434.
Litchfield, R. C. (2008). Brainstorming reconsidered: a goal-based view. Academy of Management Review, 33(3), 649-668.
Locke, E. A., and Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Lu, L., Lin, X., and Leung, K. (2012). Goal orientation and innovative performance: The mediating roles of knowledge sharing and perceived autonomy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(S1), E180-E197.
Lubart, T. I., and Sternberg, R. J. (1995). An investment approach to creativity: Theory and data. In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward and R. A. Finke (Eds.), The creative cognition approach. Cambridge, M.A.: MIT press.
Lunn, J., Sinclair, S., Whitchurch, E. R., and Glenn, C. (2007). (Why) do I think what you think? Epistemic social tuning and implicit prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(6), 957-972.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., and Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99-128.
Mehta, A., Feild, H., Armenakis, A., and Mehta, N. (2009). Team goal orientation and team performance: the mediating role of team planning. Journal of Management, 35(4), 1026-1046.
Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., and DeChurch, L. A. (2009). Information sharing and team performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 535-546.
Midgley, C., Kaplan, A., and Middleton, M. (2001). Performance-approach goals: Good for what, for whom, under what circumstances, and at what cost? Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 77-86.
Mumford, M. D., and Gustafson, S. B. (1988). Creativity syndrome: Integration, application, and innovation. Psychological Bulletin, 103(1), 27-43.
Muthén, L. K., and Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user's guide Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.
Muthén, L. K., and Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user's guide. Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.
Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: a ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology, 2(2), 175-220.
Nishii, L. H. (2013). The benefits of climate for inclusion for gender-diverse groups. Academy of Management Journal, 56(6), 1754-1774.
Ochse, R. (1990). Before the Gates of Excellence: The Determinants of Creative Genius. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Oetzel, J. G. (1998). Explaining individualcommunication processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups through individualism-collectivism and self-construal. Human Communication Research, 25(2), 202-224.
Parker, S. K., and Axtell, C. M. (2001). Seeing another viewpoint: Antecedents and outcomes of employee perspective taking. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 1085-1100.
Payne, S. C., Youngcourt, S. S., and Beaubien, J. M. (2007). A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 128-150.
Perry-Smith, J. E. (2006). Social yet creative: The role of social relationships in facilitating individual creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 85-101.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., and Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31(4), 437-448.
Preacher, K. J., Zyphur, M. J., and Zhang, Z. (2010). A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15(3), 209-233.
Raudenbush, S. W., and Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical Linear Models. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Redmond, M. R., Mumford, M. D., and Teach, R. (1993). Putting creativity to work: Effects of leader behavior on subordinate creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 55(1), 120-151.
Riordan, C. M. (2000). Relational demography within groups: Past developments, contradictions, and new directions. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resource management. Oxford, UK: JAI/Elsevier Science.
Roser, R. W. (2004). Competing schools of thought in achievement goal theory? Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 13, 265-299.
Saucier, G. (1994). Mini-markers: A brief version of Goldberg's unipolar big-five markers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63(3), 506-516.
Shalley, C. E., and Gilson, L. L. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 33-53.
Shemla, M., Meyer, B., Greer, L. L., and Jehn, K. A. (2014). A review of perceived diversity in teams: Does how members perceive their team's composition affect team processes and outcomes? . Journal of Organizational Behavior. doi: 10.1002/job.1957. (forthcoming)
Shin, S. J., Kim, T.Y., Lee, J.Y., and Bian, L. (2012). Cognitive team diversity and individual team member creativity: A cross-level Interaction. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 197-212.
Shin, S. J., and Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6), 703-714.
Shin, S. J., and Zhou, J. (2007). When is educational specialization heterogeneity related to creativity in research and development teams? Transformational leadership as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psycholog, 92(6), 1709-1721.
Simmons, A. L., and Ren, R. (2009). The influence of goal orientation and risk on creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 21(4), 400-408.
Simonton, D. K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior: The integration of product, person, and process perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 475-494.
Simonton, K. D. (1999). Creativity from a historiometric perspective. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of Creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Somech, A., and Drach-Zahavy, A. (2011). Translating team creativity to innovation implementation: The role of team composition and climate for innovation. Journal of Management, 39(3), 684-708.
Spinath, B., and Stiensmeier, P. J. (2003). Goal orientation and achivement: The role of ability self-concept and failure perception. Learning and Instruction, 13(4), 403-422.
Stahl, G., Maznevski, M., Voigt, A., and Jonsen, K. (2010). Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: A meta-analysis of research on multicultural work groups. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(4), 690-709.
Sternberg, R. J., and Lubart, T. I. (1996). Investing in creativity. American Psychologist, 51(7), 677-688.
Subramaniam, M., and Youndt, M. A. (2005). The influence of intellectual capital on the types of innovative capabilities. Academy of Management Journal, 48(3), 450-463.
Taggar, S. (2002). Individual creativity and group ability to utilize individual creative resources: A multilevel model. Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 314-330.
Tajfel, H., and Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin and S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.
Tekleab, A. G., and Quigley, N. R. (2014). Team deep-level diversity, relationship conflict, and team members' affective reactions: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Business Research, 67(3), 394-402.
Tett, R. P., and Burnett, D. D. (2003a). A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 500-517.
Tett, R. P., and Burnett, D. D. (2003b). A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 500-517.
Tierney, P., and Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1137-1148.
Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., and Graen, G. B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 53(3), 591-620.
Tse, H. H. M., and Dasborough, M. T. (2008). A study of exchange and emotions in team member relationships. Group and Organization Management, 33(2), 194-215.
Tsui, A. S., Egan, T. D., and O'Reilly, C. A. (1992). Being different: relational demography and organizational attachment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(4), 549-579.
Tsui, A. S., and Guteck, B. A. (1999). Demographic differences in organizations: Current research and future directions. Lexington Books.
Tsui, A. S., and O'Reilly, C. A. (1989). Beyond simple demographic effects: The importance of relational demography in superior-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 32(2), 402-423.
Turner, J. C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: A social cognitive theory of group behavior. In E. J. Lawler (Ed.), Advances in group processes: Theory and research. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., and Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
Turner, K. L., and Makhija, M. V. (2012). The role of individuals in the information processing perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 33(6), 661-680.
van Knippenberg, D., De Dreu, C. K. W., and Homan, A. C. (2004). Work group diversity and group performance: An integrative model and research agenda. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 1008-1022.
van Knippenberg, D., and Schippers, M. C. (2007). Work group diversity. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 515-541.
Van Yperen, N. W. (2006). A novel approach to assessing achievement goals in the context of the 2 x 2 framework: indentifying distinct profiles of individual with defferent dominant achievement goal. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(11), 1432-1445.
Van de Walle, D. (1997). Development and validation of a work domain goal orientation instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57(6), 995-1015.
Weingart, L. R. (1992). Impact of group goals, task component complexity, effort, and planning on group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 682-693.
Weinzimmer, L. G., Michel, E. J., and Franczak, J. L. (2011). Creativity and firm-level performance: The mediating effects of action orientation. Journal of Managerial Issues, 23(1), 62-70.
Weldon, E., Jehn, K. A., and Pradhan, P. (1991). Processes that mediate the relationship between group goals and improved group performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(4), 555-569.
West, M. A., and Anderson, N. R. (1996). Innovation in top management teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(6), 680-693.
Williams, H. M., Parker, S. K., and Turner, N. (2007). Perceived dissimilarity and perspective taking within work teams. Group and Organization Management, 32(5), 569-597.
Williams, K. Y., and O'Reilly, C. A. (1998). Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 20, 77-140.
Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., and Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18(2), 293-321.
Zenger, T. R., and Lawrence, B. S. (1989). Organizational demography: The differential effects of age and tenure distributions on technical communication. Academy of Management Journal, 32(2), 353-376.
Zhang, Z., Zyphur, M. J., and Preacher, K. J. (2009). Testing multilevel mediation using hierarchical linear models: Problems and solutions. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 695-719.
Zhou, J., and Shalley, C. E. (2008). Expanding the scope and the impact of organizational creativity research. In J. Zhou and C. E. Shalley (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Creativity. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2021-01-18公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2021-01-18起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信