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系統識別號 U0002-0501201014130600
中文論文名稱 使用溫度感測器以調節放大器自動增益控制
英文論文名稱 Measurement and Analysis of Using A Temperature Sensor to Adjust Amplifier AGC
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 何應森
研究生英文姓名 Ying-Sen Ho
學號 795440105
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-12-17
論文頁數 44頁
口試委員 指導教授-李揚漢
委員-李揚漢
委員-許獻聰
委員-郭博昭
委員-蘇木春
委員-詹益光
中文關鍵字 溫度感測器  FLASH--正交分頻多工  自動增益控制電路  訊雜比  服務品質 
英文關鍵字 Temperature Sensor and FLASH-OFDM  AGC  ETSI  FCC  SNR  QoS 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學電機及電子
中文摘要 利用溫度Sensor調控放大器功率補償的機制,以得到好處。當行動終端台被廣泛的應用狀態時,當內外部的溫度變化,同時會影響接收和發射訊號差異時,為了要維持住行動台之良好的服務品質,可以利用溫度Sensor來修補調適LNA強度及輸出功率調控技術,以維持行動台傳輸的良好服務品質,確保資料能正確傳送。
由於AGC控制器需根據輸出功率比值,有效率的控制發射的輸出功率及接收前置放大的增益來穩定維持符合(European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI)或(Federal Communications Commission, FCC )的標準,所以需發展出一套合理的調控機制和品質控制管理,透過精細的AGC值界定合適調變。由於行動台在不同的溫度環境下其效能表現不盡相同,所以其界限值也會有所不同,模擬不同溫度之條件狀態下調適輸出率,將可維持穩定的Output Power和SNR界限值。
提出行動台移動在不同環境下之適應技術機制方式,整合出符合法規及市場需求的移動裝置,提供裝置在溫度變化時能夠維持適用調控方式,與基地台溝通時得到較穩定的選擇機制。
英文摘要 To use the temperature sensor to adjust the amplifier power compensation mechanism in order to get beneficial results. When there is an extensive application of mobile terminal station to result in interior and exterior temperature changes and affecting the reception and emission signal variances, and in order to maintain good quality services of the mobile station, we can use the temperature sensor to adjust the LNA strength and output power control technology. This will help maintain good quality transmission services of the mobile station and to ensure correct data transmission.
Under such Automatic Gain Control (AGC) mechanism, as the AGC controller needs to follow the output power ratio to effectively control the output emission power and to receive a stabilized pre-amplification gain to comply with European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) or Federal Communications Commission (FCC) standard, therefore, there is a need to develop a reasonable control mechanism and quality control management through a fine AGC value to define an appropriate modulation. As the efficiency performance of mobile station varies depending on different temperatures, so will its limiting value. Tuning the output rate under different temperature simulations is able to maintain a steady output power and SNR limiting value.
This study proposes a technical adaptation mechanism for the mobility of mobile station under different environments with the aim to organize a mobile device that complies with regulations and market needs. This device will be able to maintain an appropriate tuning measure in the event of temperature changes to get the most stable selection mechanism while communicating with the base station.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 …………………………………………………………1
1.1研究動機與目的 ……………………………………………………1
1.2章節介紹 ……………………………………………………………3
第二章 自動增益控制電路………………………………………….4
2.1 簡介…………………………………………………………………4
2.2 自動增益控制電路常見型態………………………………………5
2.2.1 回饋式自動控制電路……………………………………………5
2.2.2 前饋式自動控制電路……………………………………………6
2.2.3 混合式自動控制電路……………………………………………7
2.2.4雙迴路式自動動控制電路……………………………………….8
2.2.5自動控制電路比較分析………………………………………….8
第三章 溫度感應器介紹……………………………………………10
3.1 感應器介紹...……………………………………………………10
3.2溫度表示與量測方式………………………………………………11
3.3 溫度感應器簡介……………………………………………11
3.3.1電阻式溫度感測器(Resistance Temperature Detectors, RTD)……12
3.3.2熱電偶(Thermocouples)……………………………………….14
3.3.3熱敏電阻(Thermo Resistor)………………………………….14
3.3.4傳感器IC (Sensor IC) ……………………………………….15
3.3.5溫度感應器的比較分析…………………………………………16
3.4溫度與雜訊關係.………………………………………………….18
第四章 FLASH-OFDM行動台之系統…………………………………21
4.1介紹…………………………………………………………………21
4.2 FLASH-OFDM協定與分層………………………………………….22
4.2.1 FLASH-OFDM物理層…………………………………………….23
4.2.2 FLASH-OFDM / LLC層………………………………………….24
4.2.3 FLASH-OFDM網路層…………………………………………….24
4.3 FLASH-OFDM的特性……………………………………………….25
4.4 FLASH-OFDM AGC電路說明……………………………………….29
第五章 應用FLASH-OFDM系統下測量與分析………………………31
5.1 模擬實驗介紹…………………………………………………….32
5.2 系統模擬環境與步驟…………………………………………….32
5.2.1建立測驗環境設備系統…………………………………………32
5.2.1建立RX與TX測量值…………………………………………….32
5.3行動終端台的量測及校正…………………………………………36
5.4溫度變化調控效能量測……………………………………………38
5.5測試流程說明………………………………………………………39
5.6設計結果分析………………………………………………………40
第六章 結論與未來展望……………………………………………42
參考文獻……………………………………………………………….43

圖目錄
圖2.1理想的AGC轉變函數………………………………………………4
圖2.2 AGC限制線……………………………………………………….5
圖2.3 Feedback AGC……………………………………………………6
圖2.4 Feed Forward AGC………………………………………………6
圖2.5 Mixed mode AGC…………………………………………………7
圖2.6雙迴路式自動控制電路………………………………………….8
圖3.1溫度對電壓&電阻曲線…….……………………………………17
圖4.1 FLASH-OFDM系統……………………………………………….22
圖4.2 FLASH-OFDM 溫度補償方塊圖…………………………………29
圖5.1 FLASH-OFDM 溫度補償模擬流程………………………………31
圖5.2模擬測試設備系統………………………………………………32
圖5.3 AGC補償的運算流程……………………………………………36
圖5.4硬體架構連線圖…………………………………………………37
圖5.5實體照相圖…………………………………………………….37
圖5.6實際量測畫面……………………………………………………39

表目錄
表2.1 AGC優缺點比…………………………………………………….9
表3.1一般常用RTD材質阻抗………………………………………….13
表3.2溫度感應器優缺點比較…………………………………………17
表4.1 FLASH-OFDM規格……………………………………………….26
表4.2 Downlink的調變和編碼架構………………………………….27
表4.3 Uplink調變和編碼架構……………………………………….28
表5.1不同溫度的接收狀態……………………………………………33
表5.2不同溫度的發射狀態……………………………………………33
表5.3 RSSI Level 驗證………………………………………………34
表5.4 Output Power 驗證……………………………………………34
表5.5溫度補償表………………………………………………………35
表5.6 FLASH-OFDM有線連接效能驗證……………………………….38
表5.7實際量測畫面……………………………………………………40
參考文獻 [1]Isaac Martinez G.” Automatic Gain Control (AGC) circuits Theory and design” University of Toronto, Fall 2001, pp.Ⅰ~ⅩⅩⅤ.

[2]Maxim Max6605 ”Low-Power Analog Temperature Sensor” vol. 1,Aug 2004.

[3]Edfors, O., Sandell, M., Van de Beek, J.-J., Landström, D., and Sjöberg, F.,”An Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing”, Luleå, Sweden: Luleå Tekniska Universitet, 1996, pp. 1–58.

[4]FlarionTechnologies,”FLASH-OFDM technology,”http://www.flArion.com.

[5]Flarion technologies,”FLASH-OFDM System description for FRR1.1” vol.1.6, Jul 2006

[6]S.Hara and R. Prasad, “Overview of multicarrier CDMA,” IEEE Communaction. Mag., vol. 35, no. 12, Dec. 1997. pp. 126133.

[7]http://www.autooo.net/autooo/yibiaoyiqi/jishu/.40796.html,Oct 2007

[8]Ahmed F. Shalash “An Automatic Gain Control Topology for CMOS Digital Radio Receiver” IEEE Electronics & Communications Department Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

[9]Chien-Chih Lin, Muh-Tain Shien, Chorng-Kuang Wang, “A Dual –Loop Automatic Gain Control for Infrared Communiction System’Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University and Trendchip Technologies Corp, IEEE 0-7803-7363-4/02 2002 pp 125-128.

[10]Li Xue-chu Gao Qing-yun Qin Shi-cai ”The Design of Mixed-Mode AGC” (Department of Microelectronics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China)

[11]GENNUM Corporation “Average detector information” 521-94-00, 1998,Canada.

[12]Wang Wenzhao, Chen Yaqin, Zhou Qi, “Implementation of Mixed Feedback Feed Forward” State Key Lab on Microwave and Digital Communications, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China IEEE 0-7803-8401 -6/04 , 2004 , pp. 377-381.

[13]N.K. Abdulaziz, S.D. Marougi, “Effect of an AGC amplifier on the performance of a generalized PLL in the presence of a large interfering signal,” IEEE Proceedings vol. 136, Pt. G. no. 4,Aug 1989

[14]Fattouche;Michel(Clgary,Alberta,CA),Zagloul;Hatim(Calgary,Alberta,CA)”Method and apparatus for multiple access between transceivers in wireless communications using OFDM spread spectrum” United States Patent No5,282,222 January 25,1994

[15]Iulian Rosu”Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in Receivers” YO3DAC / VA3IUL – http://www.qsl.net/va3iul/ IEEE

[16]CAI Ling-yun SONG Wcn-tau LUO Han-wen”AGC and IF amplifier circuits design” School of Electionics & Informatioil Technoloby. Shanghai Jiao Tong University. PR. China, 200030 FANG Zhm-he (Shanghai Universig),2003 IEEE pp42-46.

[17]Theodore S. Rappaport ”Wireless Communications Principles& Practice” JUL 1999 pp565-567

[18]Wang Wenzhao, Chen Yaqin, Zhou Qi” Implementation of Mixed Feedback / Feed forward Analog and Digital AGC” State Key Lab on Microwave and Digital Communications, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China 2004 IEEE P377 ~381

[19]J. R. PIERCE, FELLOW,IRE “Physical Sources of Noise*” MAY 1956 IEEE pp601~608

[20]應用手冊290“實用的溫度量測指南”Agilent Technologies

[21]Randall Gauthier “what is an RTD” Rdf corporation, www.rdfcorp.com

[22]Joseph F White ”High Frequency Techniques an interdiction to RF and microwave engineering” Canada JFW Technology, Inc 2004 pp460~473
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