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系統識別號 U0002-0409202001491000
中文論文名稱 歐盟的中亞政策
英文論文名稱 The EU’s Central Asia Policy
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 李侃恆
研究生英文姓名 Kan-Heng Lee
學號 605320125
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2020-07-03
論文頁數 123頁
口試委員 指導教授-崔琳
委員-許菁芸
委員-魏百谷
中文關鍵字 中亞  歐盟  建構主義 
英文關鍵字 EU  Central Asia Policy  Constructivism 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 1991年蘇聯解體後,前加盟共和國紛紛被迫成為獨立的新興國家,中亞五國-哈薩克、吉爾吉斯、塔吉克、土庫曼、烏茲別克,便在這樣的情勢之下選用象徵西方價值的半總統制及市場經濟制度建立了自己的政權。在1993年馬斯垂克條約生效後,歐盟正式開始建立統一的對外政策,並在援助前蘇聯國家進行政治經濟轉型的架構下,與中亞有了最初的接觸。然而,直至911事件之後,歐盟於2002年推出針對中亞安全議題的4年期戰略指導文件,才開始針對與中亞五國的合作關係制定戰略目標及合作工具。歐盟與中亞五國建立關係至今,經歷了三個戰略文件週期,而每一週期的戰略都根據前一階段的合作經驗及國際結構情勢的改變作出相應調整。
本文採用魯傑對國際結構變化的解釋,輔以卡贊斯坦對地區發展的理解,藉由觀察歐盟中亞政策不同階段的內容及實施過程及變化,進而探討國際結構的轉變以及雙方的互動過程,以及在區域中權力、資源態勢的消長,如何影響歐盟中亞政策不同階段的改變。作者認為國際體系是在行為體相互交往的過程中建構而成的,而中亞、歐盟、與其他行為者的行為也同時建構著國際體系,因此國際政治中共同規則的改變、歐盟在國際中扮演的角色、以及從與中亞國家建立關係的經驗中所互相建立起的角色認知,也都會繼續影響未來歐盟對中亞的行為模式。
英文摘要 After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, the five Central Asian countries, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, soon declared their independence, and established their regime on semi-presidential system and market economy. After the Maastricht Treaty entered into force in 1993, the European Union officially began a unified foreign policy and had an initial relationship with Central Asian countries under the framework of assisting the former Soviet Union countries in their political and economic transformation. However, it was not until the September 11 incident that the European Union launched a four-year strategic guidance document on Central Asian security issues in 2002, meanwhile to formulate strategic goals and cooperation tools specialized towards five Central Asian countries. Since the establishment of relations between the European Union and the five Central Asian countries, there have been three cycles of strategic documents, and the strategy of each cycle has been adjusted accordingly the cooperation experience and changes in the international structure of the previous phases.
This thesis use John Ruggie's explanation to the international structure, as well as Kazanstein's understanding of regional development, to discuss the changes in the international structure, the interaction between the two parties, and to examine how the power structure and resources situation in the region can affect the changes in different stages of EU Central Asia policy. The author concludes that while international system is constructed in the process of interaction between actors, the actions of Central Asia, the European Union, and other actors also construct the international system. Therefore, the change of common rules and the role of the European Union in international politics, as well as the mutual understanding of roles from the relations between EU and Central Asian countries, will also continue to influence the further behavior of EU in Central Asia.
論文目次 目錄 III
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 文獻回顧 4
第三節 研究途徑與方法 15
第四節 研究架構 24
第五節 研究範圍、與限制 26
第二章 歐盟中亞政策的背景 28
第一節 歐盟的對外關係及在國際間的影響模式 28
第二節 歐盟在中亞之戰略利益 35
第三節 小結 47
第三章 歐盟與中亞區域身分的建構:2002-2006 49
第一節 區域交往過程 49
第二節 單位分異與身分建構 63
第三節 小結 72
第四章 歐盟與中亞關係確立認知的形塑:2007-2013 75
第一節 區域交往過程 75
第二節 單位分異與身分建構過程 88
第三節 小結 93
第五章 歐盟與中亞關係實踐經驗的反饋:2014-2020 96
第一節 區域交往過程 96
第二節 單位分異與身分建構過程 100
第三節 小結 107
第六章 結論 111
參考資料 116

圖目錄
圖一:中亞國家民主指數(2006-2019) 85
圖二:美國對中亞國家援助金額(2012、2013) 101

表目錄
表一:Tacis 1991-1995 援助金額分配表(依國家) 56
表二:PCA 簽署及生效年分 57
表三:塔西斯計畫合作領域和實行途徑 61
表四:實行途徑指導預算 62
表五:歐盟對中亞2007-2010 年指導計畫雙邊合作項目之預算規劃 80
表六:歐盟對中亞2007-2010 年指導計畫區域合作項目之預算規劃 80
表七:歐盟發展合作工具對中亞於2011-2013 年雙邊合作之預算分配 80
表八:歐盟發展合作工具對中亞於2011-2013 年區域合作之預算分配 81
表九:歐盟中亞合作架構及工具圖 81
表十:中亞國家自由指數(2020 年) 85
參考文獻 參考資料
一、歐洲聯盟官方文件
(一)西文:
Agreement Between The European Economic Community And The European Atomic Energy Community And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On Trade And Commercial And Economic Cooperation, OJ L 68, 15.03.1990, p. 3.
Communication From The Commission To The Council And The European Parliament "Wider Europe — Neighbourhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours" COM(2003) 104 final, Brussels, 11.3.2003.
“Central Asia Indicative Programme (2007-2010),” europa, (last visited: August 21, 2020).
“Central Asia Multi-annual Indicative Programme (2011-2013) of the EU Development co-operation Instrument (DCI),” europa, (last visited: June 16, 2020).
“Central Asia Strategy Paper 2002-2006 & Indicative Programme 2002-2004
“Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament - Wider Europe - Neighbourhood: A New Framework for Relations with our Eastern and Southern Neighbours”, europa, (last visited: June 11, 2020).
“Drug Trafficking As A Threat To International Security,” Security Council Report, (last visited: June 16, 2020).
“EC Technical assistance to the commonwealth of independent states and Geogia: The TACIS Programme,” An official website of the European Union, (last visited: June 10, 2020).
“Energy dependence”, eurostat, (last visited: June 9, 2020).
“EU Rule of Law Initiative for Central Asia,” europa, (last visited: June 16, 2020).
“Europe Dry Natural Gas Consumption by Year,” index mundi, (last visited: June 8, 2020).
“European Security Strategy - A secure Europe in a better world,” europa, (last visited: June 16, 2020).
“Over half of EU’s energy consumption from imports”, eurostat, (last visited: June 7, 2020).
“Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs): Russia, Eastern Europe, the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia”, europa, (last visited: June 15, 2020).
Report From The Commission - The Tacis Programme Annual Report 1999 COM (2000) 0835 final, Brussels, 20.12.2000.
二、專書
(一)西文:
Cox, Robert (1974), The anatomy of influence: Decision making in international organization, New York: Yale University Press.
Katzenstein, Peter J. Katzenstein (1996), The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, New York: Columbia University Press.
Spaiser, Olga (2018), The European Union's Influence in Central Asia: Geopolitical Challenges and Responses (Contemporary Central Asia: Societies, Politics, and Cultures), New York: Lexington Books.
Yafimava, Katja (2012), The Transit Dimension of EU Energy Security: Russian Gas Transit Across Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova, Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Дериглазова, Лариса Валериевна (2018), Европа и Европейский союз глазами ученых : "сборник статей участников международной конференции Молодежь Европы и России. Европа и Европейский союз глазами ученых", Томск: Томск : Издательство Томского университета.

(二)中文:
王治來(2010),中亞史,北京:人民出版社。
倪世雄(2001),當代西方國際關係理論,上海:復旦大學出版社。
秦亞青(2006),文化與國際社會︰建構主義國際關系理論研究,北京:世界知識。
莫大華(2003),建構主義國際關係理論與安全研究,臺北:時英出版社。
陳勁(2002),歐盟外交政策與對外關係,臺北:五南圖書出版社。
閻學通、孫學峰(2001),國際關系研究實用方法,北京:人民出版社。
三、專書論文
(一)西文:
Bigo, Didier (2000), “The Common Foreign and Security Policy from Maastricht to Amsterdam,” inM. C. William and M.Kelstrup (eds.), International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration: Power, Security and Community, London and New York: Routledge, 171-173.
Spence, Arnhild David Spence (1998), “The Common Foreign and Security Policy from Maastricht to Amsterdam,” inKjell A. Eliassen (eds.), Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union, 0: SAGE Publications Ltd, 3-57.
Urdze, Sigita (2013), “The tool kit of EU-Central Asian cooperation,” inAlexander Warkotsch (eds.), The European Union and Central Asia, London: Routledge, 23.
Исаев, Л. А. Шишкина (2013), “Анализ социально-экономического развития государств Центральной Азии,” inЛ. М. Исаев, А. Р. Шишкина, А. В. Коротаев (eds.), Системный мониторинг глобальных и региональных рисков. Центральная Азия: новые вызовы, Москва: Ленанд, 143-217.

(二)中文:
金玲,「歐盟發展合作政策的務實轉型」,蘇宏達,周弘主編,二十一世紀歐洲聯盟的對外關係,台灣:國立臺灣大學,2018年,頁172-193。
四、期刊論文
(一)西文:
Ang, Beng WahWei Lim Choong, and Tsan Sheng Ng (2015), Energy security: Definitions, dimensions and indexes, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 42: pp. 1077-1093.
Apokins, Igors (2015), Reviewing the EU Strategy for Central Asia: Results and Future Prospects, L'Europe en Formation, 1(375): pp. 10-17.
Baran, Zeyno (2007), EU energy security: time to end Russian leverage, Washington Quarterly, 30(4): pp. 131-144.
Boonstra, Jos (2011), The EU’s Interests in Central Asia: Integrating Energy, Security and Values Into Coherent Policy, EDC2020, pp. 1-20.
Boonstra, Jos Marlène Laruelle (2013), EU-US cooperation in Central Asia: parallel lines meet in infinity?, EUCAM Policy Brief, (31): pp. 1-5.
Boonstra, Jos Tika Tsertsvadze (2016), Implementation and review of the European Union – Central Asia Strategy: Recommendations for EU action, EUCAM Working Papers/Reports, 0(19): p. 7.
Gleason, G (2001), Foreign policy and domestic reform in Central Asia, Central Asian Survey, 20(2): pp. 167-182.
Haas, Marcel (2016), Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia: Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges, The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 29(2): pp. 203-226.
Hemmer, Christopher and Peter J. Katzenstein (2002), Hemmer, Christopher, and Peter J. Katzenstein., International organization, 56(3): pp. 575-607.
Hopf, Ted (1998), The promise of constructivism in international relations theory, International security, 23(1): p. 177.
Ifestos, Panayiotis (1987), European political cooperation (EPC): Its evolution from 1970 to 1986, and the single European act, Journal of European Integration, 11(1): pp. 47-62.
Jekabsone, Anete (2013), The Baltic states and Central Asia, EUCAM National Policy Series, 0(11): p. 2.
Kembayev, Zhenis (2016), Prospects Of The Partnership Between The European Union And The Republic Of Kazakhstan , European Foreign Affairs Review, 21(2): pp. 185-203.
Megoran, Nick (2004), Revisiting the 'Pivot': The Influence of Halford Mackinder on Analysis of Uzbekistan's International Relations, The Geographical Journal, 170(4): pp. 347-358.
Nuclear Energy Agency (2016), Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand, A Joint Report by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, 0(0): p. 127.
Nye, Joseph (1990), Soft Power, Foreign Policy, 80(0): pp. 153-171.
Olcott, Martha (1992), Central Asia's Catapult to Independence, Foreign Affairs, 71(3): pp. 108-130.
Pulsipher, Allan (2007), A review of the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan, Energy Policy, 35(2): pp. 1300-1314.
Ruggie, John (1982), International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order, International Organization, 36(2): p. 385.
Ruggie, John (1983), Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Toward a Neorealist Synthesis, World Politics, 35(2): p. 263.
Skalamera, Morena (2015), Energy Security in the Wake of the Ukraine Crisis: Getting the Real Threats Right, Global Policy Essay, 0(0): pp. 1-6.
Swanström, Niklas (2010), Traditional and Non-Traditional Security Threats in Central Asia: Connecting the New and the Old, China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, 8(2): pp. 35-51.
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(二)中文:
丁曉星(1997),「俄美首腦赫爾辛基會晤」,國際資料信息,(4):5-7。
文佳倫(2018),「「一帶一路」與歐洲中亞戰略對接的探討」,學理論,(2):49-50。
甘逸驊(2006),「歐洲安全與防衛政策的軍事層面:歐盟的全球戰略地位」,問題與研究,45(5):111-136。
吳東野(2006),「後冷戰時期歐盟對中亞地區之戰略作為:強權政治的意涵」,問題與研究,45(4):1-30。
吳建輝(2012),「歐盟對外經貿法之發展:法律與政策變遷」,歐美研究,42(4):753-839。
邢玉春 (2002),「能源開發對裏海地區安全的影響」,國際問題研究,(2):37-42。
洪德欽(2004),「歐盟對外貿易與發展協定之人權條款-規定與實踐」,歐美研究,34(1):143-202。
張如海(1998),「美國快步走向中亞──評美國對中亞的戰略意圖」,解放軍國際關系學院國際關系研究所,(1):33-36。
張嘉斌(2010),「歐盟能源供應安全」,臺德學刊,(18):58-78。
莫大華(2000),「治絲愈棼的國際關係理論研究對黃旻華先生的評論之回應」,問題與研究,39(11):95-101。
陳勁(2002),「人權理念在歐盟對外關係中之角色」,全球政治評論,(1):33-57。
馮玉軍(2007),「俄羅斯與中亞的能源外交」,國際石油經濟,(6):6-14。
黃旻華(2000),「評「論國際關係理論中的建構主義」」,問題與研究,39(11):71-94。
楊光(2007),「歐盟能源安全戰略及其啟示」,歐洲研究,(5):56-72。
蔡育岱、譚偉恩(2008),「人類安全概念之形塑:建構主義的詮釋」,政治科學論叢,(37):50-91。
戴軼塵(2015),「歐盟中亞戰略中的多邊安全合作及其成效評估」,俄羅斯研究,(3):63。
鍾志明(2008),「歐盟民主鞏固與人權保障-預防與制裁械制」,歐洲國際評論,(4):85-110。
藍玉春(2004),「歐盟尼斯條約評析」,問題與研究,43(4):73-94。
五、網路資料
(一)中文網路資料:
趙曉維(2000),「教育大辭書 互為主體性 Intersubjectivity」,國家教育研究院雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網,<http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1302590/?index=2>,頁:6。

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