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系統識別號 U0002-0409201812092000
中文論文名稱 微型飛行器計算流體力學模擬之改良
英文論文名稱 Improvement to the computational fluid dynamics simulation of micro air vehicle
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 辛芝光
研究生英文姓名 Deepika Singh
學號 605375012
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-29
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊龍杰
委員-鄭元良
委員-李其源
中文關鍵字 拍翼微型飛行器  計算流體力學  雙拍翼模擬 
英文關鍵字 Flapping micro-air-vehicle (MAV)  Computational fluid dynamics  Wing-to-wing simulation 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學機械工程
中文摘要 本論文研究之主要目的在於透過使用COMSOL Multiphysics進行拍翼流場模擬,對20公分之翼展之拍翼機的計算流體力學進行研究,以估算其三維氣動力數據。COMSOL Multiphysics提供一個全面的模擬環境,其應用於各種程序且依據使用者 之條件提供準確之結果,並降低使用者之進入門檻與難度。本研究將上邊界之條件修改為封閉以進行拍翼三維流場計算,以模擬真實狀況之風洞邊界條件。本研究設定三種不同的速度值(1~2m/s),進行層流以及紊流條件下之模擬,並與本團隊之風洞實驗結果及各種條件下之數據進行比較。
後續研究可基於本研究模擬真實狀況之拍翼流場研究方式,拓展至雙拍翼流場模擬,並進行編隊飛行之拍翼流場模擬。
英文摘要 The main objective of this thesis is to do the study of the computational fluid dynamics of the flapping wings of 20 cm wingspan by estimating three dimensional(3D) aerodynamic values along with the study of the flow field using the software COMSOL Multiphysics. The COMSOL Multiphysics is a comprehensive simulation software environment for wide array of applications designed to provide the most accurate results which gives the user access to choose most of the conditions by lowering the assumptions its user must make. Most basically the modification of the computational fluid dynamics simulation of a single flapping wing is done by altering the condition of the upper boundary from free to enclosed just like the real wind tunnel boundary condition. The study done is broadly done in three different cases for the single wing in which the lower velocity value of 1m/s and 2 m/s is set up in the laminar model setup and the higher velocity of 3 m/s is done in the turbulent model. Most importantly the comparison between the modified and the previous data is done. And later on, the study of single wing is extended to the wing to wing case which is modeled in a way that the two wings are set between the two-supporting plane in the wing tunnel and the study of the flow field along with the aerodynamic value is done. The simulation of the formation flight study will be done near in future after the successful completion of the study of the wing to wing simulation case.
論文目次 1. CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Literature review 8
2. CHAPTER 2 COMSOL Multiphysics Simulation 11
2.1 CFD 3D flapping wing simulation – COMSOL Multiphysics11
2.2 Model set up introduction and establishment 12
2.3 Overview on simulation flow field 15
2.4 COMSOL Multiphysics laminar condition flap setting 17
2.5 COMSOL Multiphysics turbulent condition flap setting 30
2.6 Governing equation 39
2.7 Flow field properties & Computational Fluid Dynamics 41
2.8 simulation setting of formation flight of two flapping birds 42
3. CHAPTER 3 Results and Discussion 48
4. CHAPTER 4 Conclusion 63
5. APPENDIX 1
A-1 Physics selection 72
A-2 Study type selection 72
A-3 Wing loading setting 73
A-4 Wing tunnel and 2 wings import 73
A-5 Inlet boundary condition 74
A-6 Symmetry wall condition 74
A-7 Outlet boundary condition 74
A-8 Prescribed displacement to the left wing 74
A-9 Prescribed displacement to the right wing 75
A-10 Open boundary condition to the walls 75
A-11 Entire meshing of the model 75



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Effect of suction force due to leading edge vortex 7
Figure 2. COMSOL Multiphysics software 12
Figure 3. Physics selection window 15
Figure 4. Wind tunnel and flapping wing 16
Figure 5. Symmetric flow field 17
Figure 6. Material selection for wind tunnel 25
Figure 7. Material selection of the wings 25
Figure 8. Inlet boundary selection in the case of laminar velocity of 1 m/s26
Figure 9. The inlet boundary selection of laminar flow of 2 m/s 26
Figure 10. Symmetry wall selection of the model 26
Figure 11. The outlet boundary selection of the wind tunnel 27
Figure 12. The fixed constraint selection of the flapping wing 28
Figure 13. The prescribed displacement assignment of the wing 28
Figure 14. The property assignment of the wing 28
Figure 15. The no slip boundary selection of the wind tunnel 28
Figure 16. Meshing element size setting window 29
Figure 17. Wing meshing element type 29
Figure 18. Wind tunnel meshing element type 29
Figure 19. Total computation time step setting window 30
Figure 20. Material selection of in Turbulent case 35
Figure 21. Inlet boundary condition (turbulent model) 35
Figure 22. Symmetry boundary condition (turbulent model) 36
Figure 23. Fixed constraint setting on the wings 36
Figure 24. Displacement setting to the wings (turbulent model) 36
Figure 25. Linear elastic material setting to wings 37
Figure 26. No slip wall conditions (turbulent model) 37
Figure 27. Mesh size setting (turbulent model) 37
Figure 28. Mesh type selection of wing (turbulent model) 38
Figure 29. Mesh type selection of wind tunnel (turbulent model) 38
Figure 30. Total computation time setting (turbulent model) 39
Figure 31. Cylindrical flow, unsteady flow fields of Karman vortex 41
Figure 32. Strouhal instability flow pattern of Karman vortex street 42
Figure 33. Right wing of the flapping wing MAV 43
Figure 34. Left wing of the flapping wing MAV 43
Figure 35. Physics interface selection for the formation flight 44
Figure 36. Wing to wing setup geometry 45
Figure 37. Fully meshed model 46
Figure 38. The no slip boundary condition comparison 49
Figure 39. Wing Grid Settings (Rougher Grid) 49
Figure 40. Wind tunnel and airfoil grid setting (extremely finer) 50
Figure 41. Comparison of lift graph laminar condition of laminar case 1 m/s 51
Figure 42. Comparison of lift graph trend laminar case of 2 m/s 53
Figure 43. Comparison of lift graph trend turbulent case of 3 m/s 53
Figure 44. Downwash and upwash generation in laminar 1m/s 55
Figure 45. Downwash and upwash in laminar flow of 2 m/s 57
Figure 46. Flow field of the flapping wing in case of laminar flow 1m/s 58
Figure 47. Streamline generation of laminar case 1 m/s 59
Figure 48. Downstroke and upstroke in case of laminar flow 2 m/s 59
Figure 49 Arrow volume flow field of turbulent condition 2 m/s 60
Figure 50. Streamline generation of laminar case 2 m/s 61
Figure 51. Streamline flow field of turbulent model 3m/s 62

LIST OF TABLES

Table I. Parameters used in the formation flight 43
Table II. Dimension of the wind tunnel in formation flight 45
Table III. Lift data at different wind speed 54
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