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系統識別號 U0002-0408201001435400
中文論文名稱 美國都市貧民區改造研究─以紐約市南布朗區為例
英文論文名稱 U.S. Urban Ghetto and City Management-A Case Study of South Bronx in New York City
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 陳慧香
研究生英文姓名 Huei-Shiang Chen
學號 696250199
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-06-14
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 指導教授-紀舜傑
委員-李本京
委員-王思為
委員-紀舜傑
中文關鍵字 紐約  南布朗區  郊區化  貧民區  都市更新  非政府組織  環境正  培力 
英文關鍵字 New York  South Bronx  suburbanization  ghetto  urban renewal  non-governmental organization  environmental justice  Empowerment. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 都市發展過程中,郊區化現象為城市的衰敗的開端。紐約市的繁華與衰敗其距離僅僅幾條街而已,這樣的天差地別,主要由於紐約市政府關於都市更新計畫一連串的決策失誤所導致,南布朗區成為這失誤下的犧牲品。由於人口大量外移與當時租金管制政策,使得蓄意縱火案頻傳,加上經濟條件欠佳的外來移民人口劇增,讓社區除了在經濟條件上失利外,建築物的衰敗更是南布朗區背起貧民區惡名的開端,它成為全紐約市最貧窮的一個地區。

除了貧窮與犯罪問題,南布朗區也因政治地位低落,讓紐約市的廢物處理廠幾乎聚集於此地。各種污染源遍佈於社區周圍,社區居民卻得承載這些過多的環境汙染。於70年代末期,當地居民開始產生自覺並展開抗爭行動,這些捍衛環境的一連串行動,稱之為「環境正義」。這些由社區居民所組成的非政府組織日漸茁壯,除了引領環保議題使政府與外人重新審視社區外,還將社區的全面發展為使命。這些非政府組織在多年的努力下,現在的南布朗區與當初如廢墟般的荒涼狀態有了扭轉,正是本文所要探討其中的變化。

本文以政府、居民、非政府組織這三大要素為軸來敘述。說明這三者的態度是如何由抗爭、轉換、妥協與合作的過程,來達到改造貧民區的目的。
英文摘要 The ghetto appeared on the metropolitan New York city was mainly caused by a series of decision mistakes of urban renewal project led by New York government. That's the main reason behind the ghetto situation centered on the South Bronx area. Mass people emigration and rent control policy make the ghetto situation of the South Bronx worse, which also makes it be the poorest district.

In addition to poverty and crime problem, New York City's waste treatment plants are almost located here because of South Brown’s low political status. The residents have to suffer from much pollution. In the late 70s, local residents’ self-empowerment was stronger, they began doing protest actions. This series of actions defending the environment are called "environmental justice. Those non-governmental organizations formed by community residents increasingly robust. In addition to environmental issues, they not only led the government and the outsiders re-examine the community but also are the comprehensive development of the community for the mission. These non-governmental organizations’ effort during these years make the South Brown changed, which will be discussed in the paper.

The thesis in this paper is the government, residents, and non-governmental organizations, which describe how their attitude changes. Though the process of struggling, transforming, compromising, and cooperating, the struggle, this district achieves the ghetto upgrading.
論文目次 目次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 6
第三節 研究方法 7
第二章 文獻回顧 10
第一節 美國都市貧民區形成背景 10
第二節 紐約市南布朗區背景探討 18
第三節 環保意識的崛起 23
第三章 紐約市政府對南布朗區的政策歷程 27
第一節 高速公路建立的影響 27
第二節 人口結構改變的影響 33
第三節 紐約市政府於住房政策的補牢 38
第四章 南布朗區改造之演變 48
第一節 自覺與社區運動 48
第二節 社區自覺的實際行動 57
第三節 環保組織對貧民區的貢獻 66
第五章 結論 71
參考文獻 76
中文部分 76
英文部分 77


圖次
圖1• 2008年 布朗區之貧窮密集度分配圖 5
圖2•研究流程圖 9
圖3 •紐約市地圖(特以標明南布朗區位置) 19
圖4•社區發展過程中五大影響力 26
圖5•南布朗區一隅 30
圖6•南布朗區一隅(1975年) 31
圖7•南布朗區兩大管轄區凶殺案折線圖(1988-1997年) 68
圖8•南布朗區兩大管轄區重案件數折線圖(1993-1998年) 68


表次
表1•紐約市中移民人數占總人口的比例(1820 -1920年) 2
表2•2007年貧窮門檻列表 11
表3•2008年貧窮門檻列表 12
表4•1940~1970年美國各地黑人人口總數及其百分比 15
表5•紐約市各的家庭收入中位數比較 21
表6•紐約市各區的貧困率比較 22
表7•HPD補助金發放之家庭收入限制 42

參考文獻 參考文獻
中文部分
專書
林立樹。1999。《美國通史》。五南圖書出版。
珍•雅各(Jacobs, Jane)著,吳鄭重譯。2007。《偉大城市的誕生與衰亡─美國都
市街道生活的啟發》。聯經出版。
黃賢全。2008。《美國政治與政府調控:美國歷史述評北京》。北京:中國社會科
學出版社。
凱文•卡洛(Carro, Kevin)著,蔡宏明,蘇有薇譯。2009。《成就是玩出來的》。
麥格囉•希爾國際股份有限公司。

期刊
胡錦山。1995。〈1940-1970美國黑人大遷徙概論〉,《美國研究》。第4期,第9
卷。
胡錦山。1997。〈20世紀美國城市黑人問題〉,《東北師大學報-哲學社會科學
版》。第5期,第169卷。
郭瑞坤,徐家楓,2005/5/23〈從社區培力觀點看台灣農村再發展政策〉,「全球化
下心公共管理趨勢與挑戰─理論與實踐」研討會。高雄:中山大學。

學位論文
陳怡蓁,2008,《美國速食產業、生活飲食習慣與肥胖問題之關係》。台北:淡江
大學美國研究所碩士論文。
陳尉滿,2006,《一個績優社區的發展經驗:台北是中華社區發展協會的個案研
究》台北:政治大學社會學研究所碩士論文。

官方文件
邱蓉萍,陳巧華。2003。〈美國都市規劃及公共建設等預算籌編、管控與統計評
量標準及執行績效評估之研究〉,台北市:《內政部考察報告》。

網際網路
薛承泰,王安智。2007/5/29。〈美國貧窮線簡介〉,《國家政策研究基金會》。http://www.npf.org.tw/post/3/2408(2009/1120)



英文部分
Books
Bogen, Elizabeth. 1987. Immigration in New York. New York : Praeger Press.
Caro, Robert A. 1975. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Random House Inc.
Cunningham, Robert P. 1997. Racial Price Differentials in Urban Housing Markets. New York: Binghamton University Press.
Foley, Eugene P. 1968. The Achieving Ghetto. Washington, D.C.: The National Press Inc.
Gonzalez, Evelyn Diaz. 2004. The Bronx. New York : Columbia University Press
Harris, Lis. 2003. Tilting at Mills: Green Dreams, Dirty Dealings, and the Corporate Squeeze. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
Jonnes, Jill. 2002. South Bronx Rising: The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of an American City. Fordham University Press.
Massey, Douglas S. & Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Neumark, Heidi. 2004. Breathng Space: A Spiritual Journey in the South Bronx. Boston: Beacon Press.
Santiago, Victoria. 2003. The origins of Puerto Rican environmental justice in the South Bronx. Los Angeles: University of California.
Sze, Julie. 2003. Noxious New York: The Racial Politics of Urban Health and Environmental Justice. New York University Press.
Thompson, William & Joseph Hickey. 2005. Society in Focus: an Introduction to Sociology. Allyn & Bacon.
Von Hoffman, Alexander. 2004. House by House, Block by Block: The Rebirth of America’s Urban Neighborhoods. Oxford University Press

Journal
Bromley, Ray. 1998. “Not So Simple! Caro, Moses, and the Impact of the Cross- Bronx Expressway.” Bronx Country Historical Society Journal, Vol.35(1).Pp.4-29. Spring.
Corburn, Jason & Jeffrey Osleeb & Michael Porter. 2006. “Urban Asthma and the Neighbourhood Environment in New York City.” Healthpalce, Vol. 12(2). Pp.167-179.
Gainsborough, Juliet F. 2002 “Slow Growth and Urban Sprawl: Support for a New Regional Agenda?” Urban Affairs Review, vol. 37(5).Pp. 728-744.
Marzán, Gilbert & James Freeman. 2008.“From the South Bronx to Sobro: Gentrification in Mott Haven, the Bronx.” City University of New York – Bronx Community College. Fall.
Reichl, Alexander J. 2007 “Rethinking the Dual City.” Urban Affairs Review,
Vol. 42(5).Pp.659-687.May.
Wallerstein, N., &Bernstein, E. 1994. “Introduction to Community Empowerment Participatory Education, and Health.” Health Education Quarterly, Vol. 21(2) Pp.141-148.
Wilson, William Julius.1991 “Studying Inner-City Social Dislocations: The Challenge of Public Agenda Research ” American Sociological Review, vol. 56(1).Pp. 1-14.
Worth, Robert. 1999. “Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? The silent partner in community development”. Washington Monthly, Vol.31 (4). Pp.26-35. April.

Website
Bowling Green State University, 200. “South Bronx Study-away Engagement Experience: Overview and Opportunities Available” October
http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/service-learning/page58713.html
Christie, Les. 2009. “The Greatest Real Estate Turnaround Ever.” CNNMoney.com.
Nov. 25. http://money.cnn.com/2009/11/09/real_estate/greatest_neighborhood_turnaround/index.htm?section=money_news_economy (Accessed April 5, 2010)
Dao, Jamies. 1997. “Bronx-Lebanon Hospital to Shut Waste Incinerator.” Jun. 27.
http://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/27/nyregion/bronx-lebanon-hospital-to-shut-waste-incinerator.html?pagewanted=1 (Accessed April 5, 2010)
Davis, Robert C. 1999. “Respectful and Effective Policing: Two Examples in the South Bronx”. Vera Institute of Justice, Inc, Pp.1-21
http://207.5.76.189/publication_pdf/respectful_policing.pdf (Accessed April 5, 2010)
Environmental Healthy Perspectives. 2002. “The Challenge of Preventing Environmentally Related Disease in Young Children: Community-Based Research in New York City”. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2002/110p197-204perera/perera-full.html#poor (accessed April 5, 2010)
Martin, Dogulous. 1999. “City's Last Waste Incinerator is Torn Down.” New York Times. May. 6. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/06/nyregion/city-s-last-waste-incinerator-is-torn-down.html (Accessed April 5, 2010)
N/A. 2007 “In the Bronx, a Film School With a Ghetto Name.” New York Times. Sep. 13
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/13/movies/13ghet.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2&sq=new%20york%20ghetto&st=cse&scp=2 (Accessed April 5, 2010)
N/A. 2008. “Biography: Majora Carter”.CNN.com. Jun.6. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/TECH/06/05/carter.bio/ (Accessed April 5, 2010)
N/A. 2008. “Heroes and Zeros”. CNNMoney.com. Dec. 12.
http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/news/0812/gallery.heroes_zeros_2008/7.html
(Accessed April 5, 2010)
N/A. 2010. “The big Green Apple: Environmentally-sound homes for the poor are a model for everyone else”. The Economist. Mar.31. http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/news/0812/gallery.heroes_zeros_2008/7.html
(Accessed April 5, 2010)
New York State Department of Healthy. 2010. “Tax on Sugary Beverages Will Help Reduce High Rates of Obesity in Bronx”. http://www.nyhealth.gov/press/releases/2010/2010-03-15_sugar_beverage_tax_reduce_obesity_bronx.htm (Accessed April 5, 2010)
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2010. “Healthy Disparities in New York City”
http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/home/home.shtml(Accessed April 5, 2010)
Percio, Stephen Del. 2009. “ Green Buildings New York City.” Fox Point: OCV Architects Bringing More Green Affordable Housing to Bronx. Mar.6.
http://www.greenbuildingsnyc.com/2009/03/26/fox-point-ocv-architects/
(Accessed April 5, 2010)
Sustainable South Bronx & Green Worker Cooperatives. 2007. “The Oak Point Eco-Industrial Park: A Sustainable Economic Development Proposal for the South Bronx.” Sustainable South Bronx .
http://www.ssbx.org/pdf/SSBxEco-IndustrialFullFeasabilityStudy.pdf
(Accessed April 5, 2010)
Sustainable South Bronx, 2008. “Urban Heat Island Mitigation Can Improve New York City’s Environment: Research on the Impacts of Mitigation Strategies.” A Sustainable South Bronx Working Paper. http://csud.ei.columbia.edu/sitefiles/file/SSBx_UHI_Mit_Can_Improve_NYC_Enviro%5B1%5D.pdf (Accessed April 5, 2010)
Teltsch, Kathleen. 1987. “Once Desperate, a Bronx Housing Group Earns Praise”. New York Times. Oct. 30. http://www.nytimes.com/1987/10/30/nyregion/once-desperate-a-bronx-housing-group-earns-praise.html (Accessed April 5, 2010)
UN-HABITAT. 2003. “The challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements.”
http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss/getPage.asp?sort=relevance&page=search&searchField=year&str=2003&x=23&y=20 ((Accessed April 5, 2010)
U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. “Demographic Trends in the 20th Century.”
http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf (Accessed March 20, 2010)
U.S. Census Bureau. 2007 & 2008. “Poverty Thresholds for 2007/2008 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years.”
http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/threshld/thresh07.html
http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/threshld/thresh08.html
(Accessed March 20, 2010)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency & New York University Graduate School of Public Service. 2002. “South Bronx Environmental Studies: Public Health and Environmental Policy Analysis.” http://www.icisnyu.org/south_bronx/index_001.html
(accessed April 5, 2010)
Waldman, Amy. 2001. Public Lives: A Dreamer, Working for Beauty in the South Bronx.” New York Times. Aug. 15. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/15/nyregion/public-lives-a-dreamer-working-for-beauty-in-the-south-bronx.html?scp=3&sq=majora+carter (Accessed April 5, 2010)
Zimmerman, Rae. 2002. “South Bronx Environmental Studies.”
The South Bronx Environmental Health and Policy.
http://www.med.nyu.edu/SBEHPS// (Accessed April 5, 2010)

Organizations
Mothers on the Moves http://mothersonthemove.org/
Palladia http://www.palladiainc.org/Public/
Sustainable South Bronx(SSBX) http://www.ssbx.org/
The Point CDC. http://www.thepoint.org/communitydevelopment.php
United Nations Human Settlements Programme(UN-HABITAT)www.unhabitat.org
South Bronx Urban Farm http://www.idealist.org/if/i/en/av/VolunteerOpportunity/160045-274
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