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系統識別號 U0002-0407201314011300
中文論文名稱 高溫好氧消化穩定醫院廢水處理廠污泥及篩渣之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on the Stabilization of Sludge and Screen Waste from Hospital Wastewater Treatment Plant by Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 柯宜汶
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Wen Ke
學號 600480148
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-06
論文頁數 92頁
口試委員 指導教授-高思懷
委員-徐錠基
委員-孫常榮
中文關鍵字 高溫好氧消化  生物固體物  廢棄污泥  篩渣  安定化  致病菌 
英文關鍵字 thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD)  biosolids  waste sludge  screen residue  stabilize  pathogens 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要   醫院廢水處理場廢水來源可能來自隔離病房或接觸病人之生活污水,性質與一般事業廢水或一般生活污水大不相同。醫院廢水處理場所產出之生物固體物(篩渣及廢棄污泥)可能含有許多未知的致病菌,若未妥善處理處置將會導致病菌傳播的危機。篩渣物中主要含有廚餘或糞便等顆粒較大之有機物質,具有令人厭惡之臭味。
  高溫好氧消化技術具備操作容易、佔地面積小、系統穩定、在短時間內迅速降解固體物量、迅速削減致病菌含量等優勢。本研究利用高溫好氧消化程序將醫院廢水處理廠產出生物固體物進行安定化以及減量化,同時削減系統中致病菌含量。研究的重點在於結合廢棄污泥以及篩渣共同進行高溫好氧消化,藉此礦化篩渣物中易分解有機物,減少污泥產出量,並解決其臭味問題。
  本研究以VS/TS作為固體物可分解程度判斷指標。以消化過程中總固體物消化率、揮發性固體物消化率及濾液水質分析作為消化成效指標。以大腸桿菌菌落數作為消化單元對於致病菌削減之指標。實驗以批次試驗操作,藉由調整消化污泥停留時間、固體物配比、操作溫度來探討消化成效。首先以不同廢棄污泥及篩渣配比進行消化,藉此找出消化率較佳固體物配比,以得知單位污泥(微生物)能夠負荷之篩渣量(有機負荷)。接著以不同操作溫度進行好氧消化以探討溫度之影響。
  研究結果得知結合篩渣及污泥共同進行高溫好氧消化可快速降低固體物產量。當固體物配比為篩渣:污泥=1:2.5(SR/SL=0.48),會有較佳固體物削減成效,反應速率常數Kd為0.994(day-1)。好氧消化系統中將溫度控制於50℃會有較佳之固體物削減成效,單純污泥消化系統TS消化率達51.16%;VS消化率達55.82%。結合篩渣及污泥系統TS消化率達47.59%;VS消化率達51.85%。經過2∼3天的好氧消化程序後,系統中已近乎沒有異味的產生。由有機酸定性分析推估,本研究之好氧反應途徑是依循TCA cycle進行。將操作溫度控制為50℃、70℃時,大腸桿菌菌落數由無法計數削減至2.6*105 CFU/100mL及N.D.由此可得知高溫好氧消化具有良好的滅菌效果。
關鍵字:高溫好氧消化、生物固體物、廢棄污泥、篩渣、安定化、致病菌
英文摘要   Hospital wastewater treatment plant might receive wastewater from isolation ward or sewage contacted by patients, therefore, their properties are different from general industrial or domestic sewage .Biosolids produced from hospital wastewater treatment plant include waste sludge and screen residue, which might contain lots of unknown pathogens. It will cause the crisis of germs-spreading if without proper handling. Besides, screen residue contains solids rich in organic matters such as food waste, excrements, etc. and smells stinky.
  Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process has the advantages of easy operating, small area required, stable system, rapid biomass degradation, and efficiently pathogen inactivation. In this study, we used TAD process to stabilize and reduce the biosolids produced by hospital wastewater treatment plant. At the same time, pathogens were inactivated by TAD process, too. The emphasis in our study was combine waste sludge and screen residue to precede TAD process, in order to improve the efficiency of the degradation of organic matters and solve the problem of odor-emission.
  In this study VS/TS was used as a decomposable index, the digestion ratio of the total and volatile solid and water quality analysis of filtrate were used as the digestion efficiency indexes, E. coli colonies was used as the pathogen inactivation index. The experiments were operated in batch model. The efficiency of TAD process by explored by modulating sludge retention, proportions of biosolids and operating temperature. Different waste sludge and screen residue ratio were exam, in order to find the optimal combination and different solid liquid ratio, and also realize food loading to the microorganisms. After that, the effects in different operating temperature were discussed.
  The results found that, combining waste sludge and screen residue in TAD process can degrade biomass rapidly. The better digestion efficiency was screen residue : sludge = 1:2.5(SR/SL=0.48). The reaction rate constant (Kd) is 0.994 day-1.When the digestion temperature controlled at 50℃,we got the better digestion efficiency. In sludge digestion system, the TS and VS digestion efficiency were 51.16% and 55.82% respectively; in sludge and screen residue digestion system, the TS and VS digestion efficiency were 47.59% and 51.85% respectively. After 2-3 days of digestion time, the offensive odor was vanished. According to the qualitative analysis of organic acid, TAD process was found to fit the pathway of TCA cycle. When the operating temperatures were controlled at 50℃ and 70℃, E. coli colonies in biosolids sharply reduced from unable counting to 2.6*105 CFU/100mL and N.D. respectively.
論文目次 第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 醫院廢水處理廠之衍生廢棄物 5
2.2 下水污泥及篩渣之基本特性 5
2.3 廢棄污泥處理處置技術 8
2.4 嗜熱菌污泥減量技術 17
2.4.1 高溫好氧消化技術 17
2.4.2 自發性高溫好氧消化 21
2.4.3 可溶化酵素污泥減量程序 28
2.4.4 Awant Green污泥消化技術 29
2.5 污泥好氧消化動力式分析 30
第三章 實驗材料與研究方法 32
3.1 實驗材料 32
3.2 研究步驟與方法 32
3.2.1 建立高溫好氧消化程序 32
3.2.2 污泥馴養程序 33
3.2.3 實驗配置與設計 33
3.2.4 批次試驗設計 34
3.2.5 消化系統結合篩渣及污泥之配比計算 37
3.2.6 分析項目與實驗方法 38
3.3 實驗流程圖 44
第四章 結果與討論 47
4.1 原料基本特性分析 47
4.1.1 篩渣基本特性分析 47
4.1.2 消化前廢棄污泥基本特性分析 47
4.2 固體物削減成效之探討 48
4.2.1 單位污泥對於篩渣量負荷能力探討 48
4.2.2 固體物之消化成效 52
4.3 臭味逸散 57
4.4 消化系統中濾液水質分析之探討 58
4.4.1 pH 58
4.4.2 溶解性有機碳 64
4.4.3 有機酸之探討 68
4.4.4 濾液中致病菌分析 83
第五章 結論與建議 85
5.1 結論 85
5.2 建議 86
參考文獻    87
圖目錄
圖 2-1 好氧消化反應速率與溫度的關係 19
圖 2-2 常壓下水中溶氧與溫度的關係 20
圖 2-3 ATAD高溫污泥減量技術流程圖 22
圖 2-4 一階ATAD系統中生化反應之代謝途徑 28
圖 2-5 S-TE污泥減量流程圖 29
圖 2-6 AwG嗜熱菌高溫好氧污泥減量流程圖 30

圖 3-1 實驗配置示意圖 34
圖 3-2 好氧消化之批次試驗之裝置圖 37
圖 3-3 實驗流程圖 45

圖 4-1不同篩渣及污泥質量比高溫好氧消化(50℃)VS消化率變化 49
圖 4-2 不同SR/SL進行高溫(50℃)好氧消化之Kd值 50
圖 4-3 高溫(50℃)好氧,結合篩渣及污泥共同消化pH與硝酸鹽氮之關係(SR:SL=1:1.7) 51
圖 4-4 不同操作溫度下污泥好氧消化程序TS及VS消化率變化 54
圖 4-5 不同操作溫度下結合篩渣及污泥共同進行好氧消化TS及VS消化率變化 55
圖 4-6 不同溫度下,污泥好氧消化系統中pH與VS消化率之關係 60
圖 4-7 不同溫度下,結合篩渣及污泥好氧消化系統中pH與VS消化率之關係 61
圖 4-8 常溫(25℃)好氧消化系統中pH與氨氮之關係 62
圖 4-9 常溫(25℃)好氧消化系統中,氨氮與硝酸鹽氮之關係 63
圖 4- 10 高溫(50℃)好氧消化系統中pH與氨氮之關係 63
圖 4-11高溫(50℃)好氧消化系統中氨氮與硝酸鹽氮之關係 64
圖 4-12 好氧消化程序中有機物轉化之示意圖 65
圖 4-13 好氧消化程序中溶解性有機碳(DOC)變化 67
圖 4-14 污泥好氧消化程序中DOC與TS之關係 68
圖 4-15 好氧消化系統中ORP之變化 69
圖 4-16 好氧消化系統中DO之變化 70
圖 4-17 大分子降解至小分子示意圖 72
圖 4-18 TCA cycle 76



表目錄
表 2-1 污水處理廠中污泥及固體物之特性說明 7
表 2-2 污泥進行最終處置前處理方式 8
表 2-3 污泥處理處置方式 10
表 2-4 下水污泥之處理對策 11
表 2-5 台灣公共下水道污水處理廠處置方式 12
表 2-6 台灣污泥後續處理處置之現況 13
表 2-7 PSRP大量降低致病菌之流程管制定義 14
表 2-8 PFRP更進一步降低致病菌之流程管制定義 15
表 2-9 污泥生物處理程序中好氧、厭氧消化之比較 17
表 2-10 微生物最適溫度之分類 25
表 2-11 高溫好氧消化系統中不同操作溫度下法規規定操作時間與溫度之關係式 26
表 2-12 不同消化溫度系統所需操作時間 27

表 3-1 篩渣及污泥固體物配比 38
表 3-2 本研究實驗使用之儀器設備 41
表 3-3 本研究檢測項目之檢測方法彙總表 43
表 3-4 研究內容 46

表 4-1 篩渣基本特性分析。 47
表 4-2 不同操作溫度馴養後污泥基本特性分析 48
表 4-3 以不同篩渣、污泥配比進行高溫(50℃)好氧消化之Kd值 50
表 4-4 不同溫度下好氧消化系統中之反應速率常數 56
表 4-5 常溫(25℃)污泥好氧消化濾液有機酸定性分析 77
表 4-6 常溫(25℃)結合篩渣及污泥好氧消化濾液有機酸定性分析 78
表 4-7高溫(50℃)污泥好氧消化濾液有機酸定性分析 79
表 4-8 高溫(50℃)結合篩渣及污泥好氧消化濾液有機酸定性分析 80
表 4-9 高溫(70℃)污泥好氧消化濾液有機酸定性分析 81
表 4-10 高溫(50℃)結合篩渣及污泥好氧消化濾液有機酸定性分析 82
表 4-11大腸桿菌之削減狀況 84
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