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中文論文名稱 歐洲聯盟運動政策發展之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on the Development of Sport Policy in the European Union
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 陳翊璿
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Hsuan Chen
學號 699290044
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-17
論文頁數 140頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾秀珍
共同指導教授-林立
委員-張福昌
委員-苑倚曼
中文關鍵字 歐洲聯盟  運動政策  里斯本條約  競爭法  四大自由流通  歐盟執行委員會  歐洲法院 
英文關鍵字 European Union  Sport policy  Lisbon treaty  Competition law  Free movement  European commission  Court of Justice of the European Union 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要   歐洲運動文化源遠流長,歐洲國家與歐洲各運動組織多為國際運動競賽的主辦國家及地區。運動所帶來的效益不但可以促進其社會功能,例如:社會凝聚力或公民之健康等等;也可以帶來經濟層面上的發展,例如:創造就業機會。運動在社會教育上扮演著重要的角色,因此歐盟及其會員國重視相關運動議題的政策立法。
隨著運動在歐洲各國的發展,運動也成為了歐盟政策制定的新的領域。儘管歐盟法條約並沒有針對運動的直接性規範,會員國享有運動領域的職權,但歐盟可以透過官方之宣言、報告書與文件、歐盟執委會之決定與歐洲法院的判決,發展出一套運動政策。在里斯本條約後通過後,運動領域被納入支持、補充措施的職權,為實現共同市場之目標,歐盟可以支持、補充會員國在此領域的權限。當運動朝向商業化發展,就應當屬於歐盟法範圍內的經濟活動,尤其是運動規定涉及運動員自由流通、競爭法等議題,屬於歐盟競合權限與專屬權限,必須受到歐盟法關於內部市場自由流通與自由競爭原則的規範。歐盟之運動政策,將影響相關運動組織決策,以及會員國家的政策發展。
英文摘要   European sport culture runs a long history and many major sporting events are held by European countries and international sport organizations. Sport not only plays an important role in societal role such as social education, public health and social incursion, but also prompts the economic development, for example, the creation of employment opportunity. Therefore, the policies and legislation of sport related issues have been considerably concerned by European Union(EU) and its member states.
  Accompanying the development of sport in European countries, sport has become the new field of policy making in EU. However, due to the lack of specific legal basis, EU's approach to sport has been shaped to a great content through the release of Declaration, by adopting documents and reports as well as the decisions of European commission and the judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, sport is anchored for the first time in the EU Treaty. For the achievement of the objectives referred to sports, EU shall support and supplement their actions of member states. Moreover, the sporting sector is subject to the rules of the EU law when it constitutes economic activities, especially involving the legal scope of the right to free movements and competition law, which belong to EU's shared competence and exclusive competence. Thus, the sport policy in the EU has impacts on member states of EU and the sporting rules of related international sporting organizations.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究途徑與研究方法 3
第三節 文獻分析 5
第四節 研究範圍與研究限制 8
第五節 章節安排與研究架構 9
第二章 歐洲運動政策發展 11
第一節 運動之重要性 12
一、運動之涵義 12
二、運動之社會效益 13
三、運動之經濟效益 14
四、運動之政治效益 15
第二節 歐洲國家運動政策 17
一、法國模式 20
二、德國模式 24
三、英國模式 26
第三節 歐洲之國際運動組織 30
一、歐洲足球協會(UEFA) 31
二、歐洲奧運委員會(EOC) 34
小結 36
第三章 運動政策之「歐洲化」發展 37
第一節 運動議題之「歐洲化」 37
一、歐洲化之涵義 37
二、歐洲化之路徑 39
第二節 運動歐洲化之機制 43
一、歐洲理事會 43
二、歐洲聯盟 44
第三節 歐盟運動政策行動之多元性 53
一、運動之社會層面 53
二、運動相關之經濟層面 67
三、運動組織與歐盟法關係 77
小結 84
第四章 歐盟運動政策之運作 85
第一節 內部市場之實現 86
一、自由流通與國籍歧視 86
二、自由流通之例外情形 88
三、禁止歧視第三國之運動員 91
第二節 建立歐洲自由運動競爭環境 95
一、 運動組織與競爭法之關係 97
二、 轉播權(Broadcasting rights) 100
三、運動協會與俱樂部之其他收益來源 107
四、對運動員之規定 109
第三節 歐盟運動政策之整合性發展 111
小結 113
第五章 歐洲法院運動案例之分析 115
第一節 相關人員自由流通之案例-Olympique Lyonnais SASP案(2010年) 117
第二節 涉及禁藥規定與競爭法之案例-歐洲法院David Meca-Medina案(2006年) 122
第三節 歐洲法院判決之影響 126
小結 129
第六章 結論 131
參考文獻 135

圖目錄

圖1:研究途徑 3
圖2:研究架構圖 10
圖3:歐洲運動組織金字塔模式 17
圖4:德國運動組織 26
圖5:財政公平競賽 32
圖6:非加太國家分佈圖 56
圖7:2009年歐盟國家國民經常性參與運動百分比 60
圖8:2011年歐盟青年參加的運動活動之調查 61
圖9:Athlete 2 Business計畫階段流程圖 63
圖10:歐盟國家參與志工服務百分比之調查 64
圖11:IOC與EOC運動博弈議題之共同立場 71
圖12:申根區與進入歐盟需簽證的國家分布圖 80
圖13:歐盟官方的運動經紀人數量 82
圖14:Bosman判決後,外籍球員人數佔歐洲足球聯盟百分比 127

表目錄

表1:歐盟會員國國家運動立法架構與國家財源 19
表2:法國運動發展組織架構表 21
表3:1984年後法國通過重要運動立法 24
表4:運動議題歐洲化之涉及層面 38
表5:2009年歐盟國家國民參與運動之頻率 59
表6:UEFA財政公平競賽系統基礎三支柱 74
表7:執委會給予業餘與職業俱樂部之財政指導方針 75
表8:例外豁免之國家補助 76
表9:2009/2010賽季UEFA前20大俱樂部之轉播收益 96
表10:2009/2010賽季UEFA前20大俱樂部之廣告收益 96
表11:2009/2010賽季UEFA前20大俱樂部之賽事收益 97
表12:奧運轉播權收入 102
參考文獻 一、中文書目
(一)書籍
王宗吉(2000),運動社會學,台北:洪葉文化事業有限公司。
徐元民(2005),體育史,台北:品度股份有限公司。
高俊雄(2008),運動休閒管理,台北:華都文化事業有限公司。
黃世席(2010),歐洲體育法研究,武昌,武漢大學出版社。
陳麗娟(2010),,里斯本條約後歐洲聯盟新面貌,台北,五南書局。
黃偉峰等編(2012),歐洲化之衝擊,臺北市:五南圖書出版股份有限公司。
David Easton著,王浦劬等譯(1992),政治生活的系統分析,台北:桂冠。
(二)期刊論文
黃世席(2009),「歐盟體育與法制的關係研究」,《武漢體育學院學報》,第43卷第5期。
胡天玫(2003),「體育的本質:一個認識論基礎」,《國立台北師範學院學報》,第16卷第1期。
盂峻瑋(2010)「歐洲聯盟組織之運動政策及其影響」,《國民體育季刊》,第39卷第4期。
李炳昭∕湯添進(2010),「英國中央運動行政組織之運作」,《國民體育季刊》,第39卷第4期。
詹文碩(2010),「德國中央運動組織之分析」,《國民體育季刊》,第39卷第4期。
掌慶維(2010),「法國中央運動行政組織與政策之分析」,《國民體育季刊》,第39卷第4期。
二、西文書目
(一)專書
Bael, Van and Bellis(2010), Competition law of the European Community, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.
Bogaert, Stefaan van den(2005), Practical Regulation of the Mobility of Sportsmen in  the EU Post Bosman, The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Bogusz, Barbara, Adam Cygan, Erika Szyszczak(2007), The Regulation of Sport in  the European Union, Cheltenham:Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Blanpain, Roger and others(2008), The Future of Sports Law in the European Union: Beyond the EU Reform Treaty and the White Paper, The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.
Chaker, Andre Noel(1999), Study on National Sports Legislation in Europe, Strasbourg: Council of Europe
Chalip, Laurence, Arthur Johnson, and Lisa Stachura(1996), National Sport Policies, United States of America: Greenwood Press.
Cruz, Baquero, Julio(2002), Between competion and Free Movement: The economic Constitutional law of the European Community, Oxfort: Hart Publisher.
Gardiner, Simon, Richard Parrish, Robert C.R. Siekmann(2009), EU, Sport, Law and Policy, The Hague: T.M.C PRESS.
Kerth, Gabriel (2011), Opportunities and Boundaries of a Sport Policy in the European Union: Realities - Expectations - Visions, Saarbrucken:  Suedwestdeutscher Verlag Fuer Hochschulschrif.
Parrish, Richard, Samuli Miettinen (2008), The Sporting Exception in European Union Law, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.
Siekmann, Robert C. R. (2005), The European Union And Sport, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.
Siekmann, Robert C.R(2012)., Introduction to international and European sports law, The Netherlands: T.M.C Asser Press.
Thomas Risse, Maria Green Cowles, and James Caporaso(2001), Transforming Europe: Europeanization and Domestic Change. New York: Cornell University Press.
Weatherill, Stephen (2007), European sports law: collected papers, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.
(二)期刊論文
Battle, Richard, et al.(2011), “The untouchables-Football Money League, Deloitte.
British Heart Foundation(2012), Physical activity statics, London: the British Heart Foundation.
Comite National Olympique et Sportif Francais(2006), More for Sport-On the Contribution of the French Sport Movement to French Society.
European Commission(2004), The European Union and Sport- Education and Culture in Europe.
Hellmund, Folker (2011), Guide to EU sport policy, Brussels: EOC EU Office.
International Olympic Committee(2010), “Olympic Broadcast Revenue Generation,” Olympic Marketing Fact File.
Sport and Recreation Alliance(2012), “What is the sport and recreation alliance,” Sport+Recreation Alliance.
0TAJ Societe d'avocats(2008), European Union: Study on training of young sportsmen/women in Europe - Final Report & Study of the national and European legal and political frameworks preserving and promoting the training of young athletes, Ineum Consulting.
三、歐盟官方文件
Council of the European Union: Council conclusions on the role of sport as a source of and a driver for active social inclusion, 3046th Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council meeting, Brussels, 18 and 19 November 2010.
Council of the European Union: Council resolution on the EU structured dialogue on sport, 3046th Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council meeting, Brussels, 18 and 19 November 2010.
Council Regulation: No 810/2009 of 13 July 2009, establishing a Community Code on Visas, OJ L 243, 15.9.2009.
EU Working Group "Sport & Health", EU Physical Activity Guidelines-Recommended Policy Actions in Support of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity, Confirmed by EU Member State Sport Ministers at their meeting in Biarritz on 27-28 November 2008.
European Commission: The EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012–2016, COM(2012) 286 final.
Commission Staff Working Document: Status of the situation of young people in the European Union, SWD(2012) 257 final
Commission Staff Working Document: Sport and Free Movement- Accompanying Document to the Developing the European Dimension in Sport, SEC(2011) 66 final.
European Commission: Communication on Sport-Developing the European Dimension in Sport, COM(2011) 12 final.
European Commission: Green Paper- On on-line gambling in the Internal Market, COM(2011) 128 final.
European Commission: A Single Market for Intellectual Property Rights-Boosting creativity and innovation to provide economic growth, high quality jobs and first class products and services in Europe, COM(2011) 287 final
European Commission: Fighting Corruption in the EU, COM(2011) 308 final.
European Commission: Reaffirming the free movement of workers: rights and major developments, COM(2010)373 final
European Commission: European Disability Strategy 2010-2020:
A Renewed Commitment to a Barrier-Free Europe, COM(2010) 636 final.
Commission Staff Working Document: Action Plan "Pierre de Coubertin"-Accompanying document to the White Paper on Sport, SEC(2007) 934, COM(2010)373 final
European Commission-Directorate-General for Education and Culture: Study on the Equal Treatment of Non-Nationals in Individual Sports Competitions, NO. EAC/19/2009, December 2010
European Commission-Directorate-General for Education and Culture: Study on Sports Agents in the European Union, November 2009.
Commission Staff Working Document: The EU and Sport: Background and Context-Accompanying document to the white paper on sport, SEC(2007) 935
Commission Staff Working Document: Green Paper-The European Research Area: New Perspectives, SEC(2007) 412/2.
European Commission-Directorate-General X: The European Model on Sport-Consultation Document of DG X, Brussels, 22 April 1999.
Commission of the European Communities: The Helsinki Report on Sport, COM(1999) 644 final
European Parliament-Directorate General for Internal Policy, Culture and Education: Study on The Lisbon Treaty and EU Sport Policy, IC/2010-028, September 2010.
四、歐洲法院之判決
Case C-325/08, Olympique Lyonnais SASP v Olivier Bernard and Newcastle UFC., [2010] E.C.R. I-02177
Case C-42/07, Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional and Bwin International Ltd v Departamento de Jogos da Santa Casa da Misericordia de Lisboa, [2009] E.C.R. I-07633.
Case C-403/08, Football Association Premier League Ltd and Others v QC Leisure and Others.
Case T-313/02, David Meca-Medina & Igor Majcen v. Commission of European Communities, [2006] E.C.R. I-03291.
Case T-193/02, Laurent Piau v Commission of the European Communities, [2005] E.C.R. I-00209.
Case C-256/03, Simutenkov v Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura and Real Federacion Espanola de Futbol, [2005] ECR I-02579.
Case C-438/00, Deutscher Handballund EV v. Maros Kolpak, [2003] ECR I-04135.
Case C-51/96, Christelle Deliege v Ligue francophone de judo et disciplines associees ASBL and others, [2000] ECR I-02549.
Case C-176/96, Jyri Lehtonen and Castors Canada Dry Namur-Braine ASBL v Federation royale belge des societes de basket-ball ASBL, [2000] ECR I-02681.
Case T-528/93, Metropole television SA and Reti Televisive Italiane SpA and Gestevision Telecinco SA and Antena 3 de Television v Commission of the European Communities, [1996] E.C.R. II-649.
Case C-415/93, Union Royale Belge Des Societes De Football Association and Others vs. Bosman and Others, [1995] ECR I-04921.
Case 13/76, Gaetano Dona v Mario Mantero, [1976] ECR 01333.
Case C-36/74, Walrave and L.J.N. Koch v Association Union cycliste internationale, 1974 ECR I-01405.
Case 152/73, Giovanni Maria Sotgiu v Deutsche Bundespost, 1974 ECR 153
五、參考網站
Asser Institute
http://www.asser.nl/Default.aspx?site_id=24
Cabinet Bertrand & Associe
http://www.bertrand-sport-avocat.com/en/droit/
Council of Europe
http://hub.coe.int/web/coe-portal
European Union
http://europa.eu/index_en.htm
European Commission
http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm
European Journal of Sport Science (EJSS) website
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tejs20
European non-governmental sports organization
http://www.engso.com/
EOC EU Office
http://www.euoffice.eurolympic.org
EurActiv.com
http://www.euractiv.com/
FIFA.COM
http://www.fifa.com/
GOV.UK-Department for Culture Media&Sport
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-culture-media-sport/
German Sport University Cologne
http://www.dshs-koeln.de/wps/porta
IOC
http://www.olympic.org
Sport Unit
http://www.ec.europa.eu/sport
Sport and Recreation Alliance
http://www.sportandrecreation.org.uk/
Le site sante du Ministere des Affaires sociales et de la Sante
http://www.sante.gouv.fr
The European Olympic Committees
http://www.eurolympic.org/
UEFA.COM
http://www.uefa.com/
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