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系統識別號 U0002-0407201110593300
中文論文名稱 外人直接投資對生產力的外溢效果:中國製造業實證
英文論文名稱 Productivity spillover from FDI through vertical and horizontal linkages:Evidence from Chinese manufacturing industries
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Economics
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 曹葳涵
研究生英文姓名 Wei-Han Tsao
學號 698570107
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-16
論文頁數 186頁
口試委員 指導教授-林亦珍
委員-黃台心
委員-李鈞元
中文關鍵字 外人直接投資  外溢效果  生產力  Levinsohn-Petrin 模型 
英文關鍵字 FDI  spillover effects  productivity  Levinsohn-Petrin model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 本研究使用中國大陸1998 年到2006 年的製造業實證數據,分析外人直接投資對棉及化纖製品製造業、方便麵及其他方便食品製造業、塑料零件製造業、玻璃纖維及製品製造業、汽車零部件及配件製造業、電力電子元器件製造業、電子元件及組件製造業、通信傳輸設備製造等八個產業的對數營收、對數營收變動率、對數附加價值生產力及對數附加價值生產力變動率的影響。
實證結果顯示,為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數營收變動率、對數附加價值生產力及對數附加價值生產力變動率,棉及化纖製品製造業應增加出口量並減少產業上游外資。為了提升廠商的對數營收變動率、對數附加價值生產力及對數附加價值生產力變動率,方便麵及其他方便食品製造業應增加產業下游其他外資比並減少出口比例。為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數營收變動率、對數附加價值生產力及對數附加價值生產力變動率,塑料零件製造業應增加產業下游外資並減少出口比例。為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數附加價值生產力及對數附加價值生產力變動率玻璃纖維及製品製造業應增加產業上游外資、減少個別廠商港澳台資比及促進產業競爭。為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數營收變動率、對數附加價值生產力汽車零部件及配件製造業應增加產業下游其他外資。為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數附加價值生產力,電力電子元器件製造業應增加產業上游港澳台資。為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數營收變動率、對數附加價值生產力,電子元件及組件製造業應增加外地外資比。為了提升廠商的對數營收、對數營收變動率,通信傳輸設備製造業應減少上游其他外資的比重。
本研究顯示,不同的產業廠商的生產力對於外資的投入會有不同的反應,從廠商的角度而言,決定是否應該提高股權結構中外資的比例,應該根據自己所處的產業,評估應該引入何種國籍的外資。此外,上下游產業的外資也會改變廠商的生產力,廠商必須積極把握來自上下游產業外資的外溢效果並及早因應上下游產業外資的負面影響。就政府的角度而言,在考慮是否應該限制或鼓勵外資的投入以及是否應該鼓勵產業的競爭時,應留意產業間的異質性,並非所有產業的生產力都能因外資的出現而增加。
英文摘要 This research uses plant-level data on Chinese manufacturing plants over the period 1998 to 2006 to analyze the relationship between foreign direct investment
(FDI) and plant-level productivity. Specifically, we examine the effect of FDI on the level of sales, the growth rate of sales, the level of productivity and the growth rate of productivity. The eight narrowly defined industries studied are: cotton and chemical fiber products, instant noodles and other convenience food manufacturing, plastic parts, glass fiber products, automobile parts and accessories, electric components, electronic components, and communication equipment.
Empirical results show that, in order to enhance the company's level of sales,sales growth rate, the level of productivity and the productivity growth rate, cotton and chemical fiber products manufacturing should increase exports and reduce upstream foreign capital. In order to enhance the company's sales growth rate, the level of productivity and productivity growth rate, firms in the instant noodles and other convenience food manufacturing industry should increase downstream foreign capitals from non-ethnic Chinese and reduced export ‘s share in total industry output.
In order to enhance the company's level of sales, sales growth rate, the level of productivity and the productivity growth rate, firms in the plastic parts manufacturing industry should increase downstream foreign capital and reduce the share of export in total output. In order to enhance logarithm sales, the logarithm value-added productivity and the logarithm value-added productivity mobility rate, firms in the glass fiber and the product manufacturing industry should increase upstream foreign capital, reduced the share of equity from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan in the firm and promote competition in the industry.
In order to enhance the level of sales, sales growth rate and the level of productivity, the automobile parts and accessories industry should reduce foreign capitals from non-ethnic Chinese. In order to enhance the company's level of sales and the level of productivity, the electric components manufacturing should encourage investment from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan in upstream industries.
In order to enhance the level of sales, sales growth rate and the level of productivity, the electronic components industry should increase the share of foreign capital outside the region but within the same industry. In order to enhance the levelof sales and sales growth rate, firms in the communication equipment industry should limit the share of non-ethnic Chinese equity in the upstream.
Overall, this study shows that the spillover effect of FDI differs across industries and the sign and magnitude of the spillover effect varies widely depending on the
origin of the foreign capital and the location of the foreign capital. Both firms and the government should pay attention to the heterogeneity in the spillover effect of FDI since FDI can be harmful to productivity in some industries.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 P1
1.1 研究動機與目的 P1
1.2 中國的外人直接投資 P2
第二章 文獻回顧 P6
2.1 外溢渠道 P6
2.2 跨國企業是否比本國企業來的有效率? P6
2.3 外資投入區域影響 P7
2.4 外資企業對本國生產力的影響P8
2.5 垂直聯繫 P11
第三章 變數建構與資料來源 P12
3.1 外溢效果與聯繫關係 P12
3.2 變數建構說明 P13
3.3 資料來源及使用數據敘述統計量 P30
第四章 實證模型 P50
4.1 出現率對營收的影響 P50
4.2 個別廠商營收一階差分模型 P53
4.3 附加價值生產力模型 P56
4.4 附加價值生產力一階差分模型 P59
第五章 實證結果 P62
5.1 輕工業之實證結果 P62
5.2 化工業之實證結果 P91
5.3 重工業之實證結果 P121
5.4 高技術業之實證結果 P149
第六章 結論 P179
參考文獻 P182

表目錄
表 1:外人直接投資總額〈單位:百萬美元〉 ................................................................................... 4
表 2 外人投資總額佔各國GDP 的比重〈單位:百分比〉 ................................................................ 5
表 3:地區與經緯度對照表 ................................................................................................................. 16
表 4:變數名稱對照表......................................................................................................................... 23
表 5:整體數據的統計量 ..................................................................................................................... 31
表6:前10 大港澳台資投資產業 ....................................................................................................... 32
表 7:前10 大其他外資投資產業 ....................................................................................................... 32
表 8:輕工業分類下的各個產業詳細資料 ......................................................................................... 33
表 9:化學工業分類下的各個產業詳細資料 ..................................................................................... 36
表 10:重工業分類下的各個產業詳細資料 ....................................................................................... 38
表 11:高技術產業分類下的各個產業詳細資料 ............................................................................... 41
表 12:棉及化纖品製造的統計量 〈單位:千人民幣〉 ........................................................... 42
表 13:方便麵及其他方便食品製造的統計量 〈單位:千人民幣〉.............................................. 43
表 14:塑料零件製造的統計量 〈單位:千人民幣〉 ..................................................................... 44
表 15:玻璃纖維及製品製造的統計量 〈單位:千人民幣〉 ......................................................... 45
表 16:汽車零件及配件製造〈單位:千人民幣〉 ........................................................................... 46
表 17:電力電子元器件製造的統計量〈單位:千人民幣〉 ........................................................... 47
表 18:電子元件及組件製造業的統計量〈單位:千人民幣〉 ....................................................... 48
表19:通信傳输設備製造〈單位:千人民幣〉 ............................................................................... 49
表 20:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果一 ............................................................................................... 65
表 21:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果二 ............................................................................................... 67
表 22 棉及化纖製品製造實證結果三 .................................................................................................. 68
表 23:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果四 ............................................................................................... 70
表 24:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果五 ............................................................................................... 71
表 25:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果六 ............................................................................................... 72
表 26:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果七 ............................................................................................... 73
表 27:棉及化纖製品製造實證結果八 ............................................................................................... 75
表 28:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果一 ............................................................................... 79
表 29:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果二 ............................................................................... 81
表 30:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果三 ............................................................................... 82
表 31:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果四 ............................................................................... 84
表 32:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果五 ............................................................................... 85
表 33:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果六 ............................................................................... 87
表 34:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果七 ............................................................................... 88
表 35:方便麵及其他方便食品製造實證結果八 ............................................................................... 90
表 36:塑料零件製造實證結果一 ....................................................................................................... 94
表 37:塑料零件製造實證結果二 ....................................................................................................... 96
表 38:塑料零件製造實證結果三 ....................................................................................................... 97
表 39:塑料零件製造實證結果四 ....................................................................................................... 99
表40:塑料零件製造實證結果五 ..................................................................................................... 100
表 41:塑料零件製造實證結果六 ..................................................................................................... 102
表 42:塑料零件製造實證結果七 ..................................................................................................... 103
表 43:塑料零件製造實證結果八 ..................................................................................................... 105
表 44:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果一 ......................................................................................... 109
表 45:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果二 ......................................................................................... 111
表 46:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果三 ......................................................................................... 112
表 47:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果四 ......................................................................................... 114
表48:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果五 ......................................................................................... 115
表 49:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果六 ......................................................................................... 117
表 50:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果七 ......................................................................................... 118
表 51:玻璃纖維及製品製造實證結果八 ......................................................................................... 120
表52:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果一 ..................................................................................... 123
表53:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果二 ..................................................................................... 125
表54:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果三 ..................................................................................... 126
表 55:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果四 ..................................................................................... 128
表56:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果五 ..................................................................................... 129
表57:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果六 ..................................................................................... 131
表58:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果七 ..................................................................................... 132
表59:汽車零部件及配件製造實證結果八 ..................................................................................... 134
表60:電力電子元器件製造實證結果一 ......................................................................................... 137
表61:電力電子元器件製造實證結果二 ......................................................................................... 139
表62:電力電子元器件製造實證結果三 ......................................................................................... 140
表 63:電力電子元器件製造實證結果四 ......................................................................................... 142
表 64:電力電子元器件製造實證結果五 ......................................................................................... 143
表 65:電力電子元器件製造實證結果六 ......................................................................................... 145
表 66:電力電子元器件製造實證結果七 ......................................................................................... 146
表 67:電力電子元器件製造實證結果八 ......................................................................................... 148
表68:電子元件及組件製造實證結果一 ......................................................................................... 152
表69:電子元件及組件製造實證結果二 ......................................................................................... 154
表70:電子元件及組件製造實證結果三 ......................................................................................... 155
表71:電子元件及組件製造實證結果四 ......................................................................................... 157
表72:電子元件及組件製造實證結果五 ......................................................................................... 158
表 73:電子元件及組件製造實證結果六 ......................................................................................... 160
表74:電子元件及組件製造實證結果七 ......................................................................................... 161
表75:電子元件及組件製造實證結果八 ......................................................................................... 163
表76:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果一 ............................................................................................. 167
表 77:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果二 ............................................................................................. 169
表78:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果三 ............................................................................................. 170
表79:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果四 ............................................................................................. 172
表80:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果五 ............................................................................................. 173
表81:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果六 ............................................................................................. 175
表 82:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果七 ............................................................................................. 176
表83:通信傳輸設備製造實證結果八 ............................................................................................. 178

圖目錄
圖 1:1982 年到2008 年 中國外人直接投入金額〈單位:百萬美元〉 ............................................ 2
圖 2:1983 年到2008 年中國外人直接投資流入年成長率〈單位:倍〉 ......................................... 3
圖 3:外溢效果與聯繫關係示意圖 ..................................................................................................... 12


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中文參考文獻
張企申(2003),兩岸外人直接投資趨勢與相關性分析,世新大學經濟學系碩士論文
熊漢琳等(2010), 影響中國大陸電子業台商獲利因素之實證研究:區域變數?或群聚效應? 2010年7月13日,取自http://tea.econ.sinica.edu.tw/。
熊漢琳與梁益誠 (2010), 中國大陸各省市城市競爭力對台商勞動生產力之影響-空間地理加權回歸之應用,2010年7月2日,取自http://tea.econ.sinica.edu.tw/ 。
康廷嶽與劉碧珍 (2010), 影響外資投資企業在中國市場之內銷比例的決定因素,2010年7月2日,取自http://tea.econ.sinica.edu.tw/。
黃智聰、高安邦、陳子芸(2003),「中國大陸製造業的產業發展策略-BCG矩陣的應用」,遠景基金會季刊,第4卷第4期,頁117-154。
網路資料
主計處網站(http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=1)
世界銀行網站(http://www.worldbank.org )
中華人民共和國國家統計局(http://www.stats.gov.cn/index.htm)
Google地圖(http://maps.google.com.tw/maps?hl=zh-TW&tab=wl)
中國黃頁在線(http://www.ypone.com/schinese/search/areapostcode.asp)
Postal and Zip code database (http://www.geopostcodes.com/ )
郵編庫 (http://www.youbianku.com/ )
維基百科(http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/ )
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