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系統識別號 U0002-0407201101340200
中文論文名稱 波蘭半總統制研究
英文論文名稱 A Study on Polish Semi-presidentialism
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 江芸萱
研究生英文姓名 Yun-Hsuan Chiang
電子信箱 julia705@gmail.com
學號 696290286
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-15
論文頁數 182頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭欽模
委員-洪茂雄
委員-郭秋慶
中文關鍵字 半總統制  小憲法  九七憲法  瓦文薩  府會關係 
英文關鍵字 Semi-presidentialism  Little Constitution  Large Constitution  Walesa  Relationship between the President and the Prime Minister 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 半總統制是一種在結構上介於總統制與內閣制之間的制度,在1990年代以前,被定義為半總統制的國家不多,因此它並未成為重要的研究對象。隨著前蘇聯共產集團政權瓦解,許多前共產集團的中東歐國家採用類似半總統制的憲政制度,半總統制儼然已成為第三個重要的憲政制度選擇。

波蘭於1989年圓桌會議(Round Table Talks)後採行半總統制,其半總統制憲法經過多次修正,至今已穩定發展,在波蘭進行民主轉型期間,政治運作受到了憲法、政治人物、府會關係以及政黨體系的影響,使波蘭的半總統制在運作上呈現出相當多元的情況。波蘭半總統制的發展大致上能夠分成三個階段,第一個階段為1989年圓桌會議後的政治運作情況,第二個階段為1992年小憲法頒布至1997年憲法的制定,第三個階段則以九七憲法後的政治發展為主。

三部憲法的內容很大程度影響波蘭半總統制的發展,總統的權力受到憲法的約束,進而影響總統在政治運作上的政治參予。本論文主要探討的問題在於(1) 半總統制的內容以及波蘭半總統制的類型;(2) 波蘭半總統制的發展背景為何;(3) 波蘭憲法對於其半總統制的影響;以及(4) 波蘭半總統制的實際運作情況。本文試圖從系統理論的角度研究波蘭半總統制的運作,並分析各階段的政治運作。
英文摘要 Semi-presidentialism is a political system somewhere between the Presidentialism and the Parliamentarianism. When Duverger first defined the Semi-presidentialism as a political system in 1970s, there were still not many countries included theoretically in this category. After the collapse of the Soviet communist regime, some of the Central and Eastern European states adopted this arrangement. Gradually, the Semi-presidentialism has become one of the important analytical perspective in the political science field.

After the Round Table Talks in 1989, Poland decided to adopted the semi-presidential Constitution which had been amended in 1989, 1990, 1992 and once again in 1997. So far, the Semi-presidentialism in Poland has been developed steadily., The development of its political system has been affected by the Constitution during the process of democratization in Poland, such as the volatile character of the Presidents, the party system and the relationship between the President and the Prime Minister. In general, there were three phases in the development of Polish Semi-presidentialism: (1) the period between the Round Table Talks in 1989 and the promulgation of the Little Constitution in 1992. (2) the period between the Little Constitution in 1992 and the Promulgation of the new Constitution in 1997. (3) last but not least, the period after the new Constitution in 1997.

The above mentioned Constitutions imposed very significant influences toward the development of the Semi-presidentialism in Poland, and their revelent articles to some extent constrained the exercising of power by every president. In this thesis,the System Theory defined by David Easton was applied to analyze the developing process of Semi-presidentialism in Poliand. The main purpose of this thesis is to discuss the questions as: (1) the theory of the Semi-presidentialism and what kind of model fits the Polish Semi-presidentialism. (2) the background of the development of semipresidnetialism in Poland from 1989 to 2007. (3) the development of the Polish Constitution in terms of semipresidentialism. (4) the functioning of the semipresidentialism in Poland.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 2
第二節 研究方法 5
第三節 文獻評介 8
第四節 研究範圍與章節介紹 11
第五節 研究架構 13

第二章 半總統制的理論基礎 15
第一節 半總統制的內涵 16
第二節 半總統制的類型 28
第三節 半總統制下行政與立法的關係 36

第三章 波蘭後共時期政治運作背景 49
第一節 1989年圓桌會議至瓦文薩執政時期 50
第二節 克瓦西涅夫斯基執政時期 64
第三節 卡欽斯基執政時期 81

第四章 波蘭後共時期的半總統制憲法規範 89
第一節 小憲法的憲政規範 89
第二節 小憲法制定過程及其涵意 94
第三節 九七憲法制定 103
第四節 九七憲法的憲政規範 115
第五節 九七憲法與小憲法的差異 120

第五章 波蘭半總統制的運作 127
第一節 1989年憲法規範下的波蘭半總統制運作 130
第二節 小憲法規範下的波蘭半總統制運作 142
第三節 1997年新憲規範下的半總統制運作 153

第六章 結論 163

參考資料 171
一、 中文資料 171
二、 外文資料 174
三、 網路資源 179

圖目錄
圖 1- 1 政治系統與環境 .....................................................................................7
圖 2- 1 「總統─議會制」與「總理─總統制」的階層關係..........................32
圖 2- 2 半總統制的分析框架 ...........................................................................36
圖 2- 3 半總統制下總統與國會分屬不同黨時的總理任命過程...................42


表目錄
表 2- 1 杜瓦傑對七個國家總統權力之排名 ...................................................19
表 2- 2 史嘉曲對半總統制的分類 ...................................................................29
表 2- 3 以政黨作為分類指標的半總統制類型 ...............................................36
表 3- 1 1989年6月國會選舉..........................................................................52
表 3- 2 1990年總統選舉..................................................................................55
表 3- 3 1990年右派政黨分化情形..................................................................55
表 3- 4 1991年國會選舉..................................................................................57
表 3- 5 1993年國會選舉..................................................................................61
表 3- 6 團結工聯在1993年國會選舉的得票率.............................................62
表 3- 7 1995年總統選舉結果..........................................................................65
表 3- 8 1990年至1997年波蘭經濟情況........................................................67
表 3- 9 1997年國會選舉..................................................................................68
表 3- 10 2000年總統選舉..................................................................................72
表 3- 11 選舉公式對2001年國會選舉的席次影響之比較.............................74
表 3- 12 2001年國會選舉結果..........................................................................74
表 3- 13 2004年波蘭政黨在歐洲議會所獲席次..............................................77
表 3- 14 2005年9月國會選舉結果..................................................................79
表 3- 15 2005年10月總統選舉........................................................................79
表 3- 16 2007年國會選舉..................................................................................84
表 4- 1 政黨、團體、總統及參議院提出的憲法草案 .................................105
表 4- 2 1993年選舉各黨實際上獲得之選票與其在國會席次之比例........107
表 5- 1 總統在府會分立下干政的動機 .........................................................139
表 5- 2 瓦文薩主政時期的立法權力運用 .....................................................147
表 5- 3 瓦文薩任內府會情況與總統是否干政 .............................................149
表 5- 4 克瓦西涅夫斯基主政時的立法權運用 .............................................154
表 5- 5 克瓦西涅夫斯基任內府會情況與總統是否干政 .............................158
表 5- 6 卡欽斯基任內府會情況與總統是否干政 .........................................160
表 5- 7 卡欽斯基任內立法權的運用 .............................................................160
參考文獻 一、 中文資料
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期刊
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碩士論文
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二、 外文資料
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三、 網路資源
Andrew Rettman, “Kaczynski twins take over Poland,” Eurobserver.Com, (07.03.2011).
Donald Tusk, (24.05.2011).
Former Polish Prime Minister's choice - independence or subservience, (07.03.2011).
Jarosław Kaczyński, (07.03.2011).
Lech Leszek Garlicki, “The Presidency in the New Polish Constitution,” East European Constitutional Review, (26.03.2011).
Obituary: Lech Kaczynski, (24.05.2011).
olish president, prime minister at loggerheads, (07.03.2011).
Poland could face EU treaty vote, (24.05.2011).
Poland poses latest problem for EU, (24.05.2011).
Polish prime minister offers to step down, (07.03.2011).
PREZYDENT RP: Lech Kacyzński, , p. 5. (30.05.2011)
Pugaeiauskas, Vykinstas, “Semi-Presidential Institutional Models and Democratic Stability: Comparative Analysis of Lithuania and Poland,” (2010.11.26)
U.S., Poland sign missile deal, (10.03.2011).
Wojciech Jaruzelski, (16.01.2011).
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