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系統識別號 U0002-0407200714552000
中文論文名稱 連續式熱擴散塔提煉重氫之研究
英文論文名稱 The Theoretical Study on the Deuterium Enrichment in Continuous Thermal-Diffusion Columns
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程與材料工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 簡君豪
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Hao Chien
學號 694360339
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-21
論文頁數 155頁
口試委員 指導教授-何啟東
委員-葉和明
委員-蔡少偉
中文關鍵字 熱擴散  分離度  出料分率  重氫 
英文關鍵字 Flow-Rate Fraction Variations  Separation Efficiency Enrichment  Thermal Diffusion  Deuterium 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究之主題是探討以平板型熱擴散塔,提煉氫同位素分離效率之改善研究。本文理論模式係藉由氫同位素之傳送公式及平衡關係,推導出連續式平板型熱擴散塔提煉氫同位素之數學模型,並在連續操作下,探討不同操作參數及設計參數對分離度之影響,例如:出料質量分率、進料體積流率、壓力、進料濃度分率、進料位置、長寬比、固定及無固定操作成本下之板距,以期能提升熱擴散塔之分離效果。
本研究首先推導出料質量分率、進料體積流率及壓力之平板型熱擴散塔的分離度公式;且藉由文獻中之實驗數據來求得數學模型中之傳送係數,接著,引入進料濃度分率及進料位置,討論這些參數對分離度的影響;最後,探討出料分率與改變長寬比及出料分率與有無固定操作成本下之板距對熱擴散塔分離效率之影響。由此可以證明,改善平板型熱擴散塔之操作與設計參數,有助於氫同位素分離效率之提升。
英文摘要 The thermal diffusion separation process can be applied to the separation of highly valuable materials, which are difficult or impossible to separate by other convention means, such as distillation, extraction, etc. The phenomena of mass transfer through a thermogravitational thermal-diffusion column with uniform wall temperature, one heated and the other cooled, has been investigated theoretically by transport equation for low volumetric flow rate and for high volumetric flow rate, respectively.
The influences of the operating and design parameters in a classical Clusius-Dickel column on separation efficiencies for H2-HD-D2 system, have been investigated theoretically. The transport coefficients, H and K, are correlated from the experimental data with the pressure and volumetric flow rate in the previous study. The results of the degree of separation efficiency are represented graphically with the operating parameters (feed rate, feed concentration, pressure, product flow-rate and feed position) and design parameters (aspect ratio, inclined angle, plate spacing and plate-spacing under the considerations of fixed operating expense) as parameters. The effects of the operating and design parameters on the separation efficiency enrichment are also discussed.
論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 熱擴散之起源 1
1.2 熱擴散塔之發展與沿革 5
1.3 熱擴散之應用 10
1.4 重氫及其用途 14
1.5 研究動機與目的 25
第二章 重氫三成份系統之熱物性質估算 27
2.1 密度(ρ)之估算 27
2.2 平衡常數(Keq)之估算 28
2.3 黏度(μ)之估算 28
2.4 熱膨脹係數(βT)之估算 29
2.5 普通擴散係數(D)之估算 29
2.6 減數熱擴散係數(αT)之估算 30
第三章 重氫系統的傳送係數之估算與低體積流率下提煉重氫效率
之影響 32
3.1 傳送係數(H)與(K)之估算 32
3.2 影響熱擴散塔之參數 47
3.2.1 出料質量分率、進料體積流率、及壓力之熱擴散塔理論
分析與討論 47
第四章 高體積流率下之重氫系統理論模型 62
4.1 熱擴散塔之傳送公式 62
4.2 簡化後之分離度公式 64
4.3 影響熱擴散塔之參數 66
4.3.1 出料質量分率、進料體積流率、及壓力之熱擴散塔理論分
析 67
4.3.2 出料質量分率、進料濃度分率及進料位置之熱擴散塔理論
分析 68
4.3.3 出料質量分率、固定操作面積下之長寬比及傾斜角之熱擴
散塔理論分析 68
4.3.4 出料質量分率、板距及固定操作成本下板距之熱擴散塔理
論分析 70
第五章 結果與討論 72
5.1 出料質量分率、進料體積流率及壓力之結果與討論 74
5.2 出料質量分率、進料濃度分率及進料位置之結果與討論 105
5.3 出料質量分率、固定操作面積下之長寬比及傾斜角之結果
與討論 118
5.4 出料質量分率、板距及固定操作成本下板距之結果與討論 121
第六章 結論 129
符號說明 131
參考文獻 138
附錄(A) 150


圖 目 錄
圖(1-1) Ludwing 的實驗裝置之示意圖 2
圖(1-2) 濃度差所產生的瞬間溫度梯度之示意圖 3
圖(1-3) 溫度差所產生的濃度差之示意圖 4
圖(1-4) 水平式熱擴散塔裝置之示意圖 6
圖(1-5) 熱重力熱擴散塔裝置之示意圖 7
圖(1-6) 核分裂與核融合 16
圖(3.1-1) 連續式平板型熱擴散塔裝置示意 33
圖(3.1-2) 676.5K下重氫系統各成份之平衡關係圖 37
圖(3.1-3) 676.5K下CC與C之關係圖 40
圖(3.1-4) 傳送係數求解之流程圖 46
圖(3.2-1) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與操作壓力P=35kPa,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 50
圖(3.2-2) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與操作壓力P=45kPa,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 51
圖(3.2-3) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與出料分率r=0.5,在不同操作壓力下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 52
圖(3.2-4) 固定進料體積流率VF=50cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同出料分率下,操作壓力與分離度之關係圖 53
圖(3.2-5) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與出料分率r=0.5,在不同進料體積流率下,操作壓力與分離度之關係圖 54
圖(3.2-6) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與操作壓力P=35kPa,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 55
圖(3.2-7) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與操作壓力P=45kPa,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 56
圖(3.2-8) 固定進料體積流率VF=50cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同操作壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 57
圖(3.2-9) 固定進料體積流率VF=75cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同操作壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 58
圖(3.2-10) 固定進料體積流率VF=100cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同操作壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 59
圖(3.2-11) 固定出料分率r=0.5、進料位置δ=0.5與進料濃度分率CF=0.171下,理論值與實驗值之比較 60
圖(5.1-1) 固定壓力P=30kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 76
圖(5.1-2) 固定壓力P=40kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 77
圖(5.1-3) 固定壓力P=50kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 78
圖(5.1-4) 固定壓力P=30kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 79
圖(5.1-5) 固定壓力P=40kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 80
圖(5.1-6) 固定壓力P=50kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 81
圖(5.1-7) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同進料體積流率與壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 82
圖(5.1-8) 固定進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同進料體積流率與壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 83
圖(5.1-9) 固定進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 84
圖(5.1-10)固定進料體積流率VF=1200cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 85
圖(5.1-11)固定進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 86
圖(5.1-12)固定進料體積流率VF=1200cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同壓力下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 87
圖(5.1-13)固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同壓力與進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 88
圖(5.1-14)固定進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同壓力與進料體積流率下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 89
圖(5.1-15)固定壓力P=30kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 90
圖(5.1-16)固定壓力P=30kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 91
圖(5.1-17)固定壓力P=40kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 92
圖(5.1-18)固定壓力P=40kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 93
圖(5.1-19)固定壓力P=50kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 94
圖(5.1-20)固定壓力P=50kPa與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料分率下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 95
圖(5.1-21)固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與出料分率r=0.5,在不同壓力下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 96
圖(5.1-22)固定進料濃度分率CF=0.36與出料分率r=0.5,在不同壓力下,進料體積流率與分離度之關係圖 97
圖(5.1-23)固定進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同出料分率下,壓力與分離度之關係 98
圖(5.1-24)固定進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料分率下,壓力與分離度之關係圖 99
圖(5.1-25)固定進料體積流率VF=1200cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.171,在不同出料分率下,壓力與分離度之關係圖 100
圖(5.1-26)固定進料體積流率VF=1200cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料分率下,壓力與分離度之關係圖 101
圖(5.1-27)固定進料濃度分率CF=0.171與出料分率r=0.5,在不同進料體積流率下,壓力與分離度之關係圖 102
圖(5.1-28)固定進料濃度分率CF=0.36與出料分率r=0.5,在不同進料體積流率下,壓力與分離度之關係圖 103
圖(5.1-29)固定出料分率r=0.5,在不同進料體積流率與進料濃度分率下,壓力與分離度之關係圖 104
圖(5.2-1) 固定壓力P=50kPa、出料分率r=0.1與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料濃度分率下,進料位置與分離度之關係圖 107
圖(5.2-2) 固定壓力P=50kPa、出料分率r=0.5與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料濃度分率下,進料位置與分離度之關係圖 108
圖(5.2-3) 固定壓力P=50kPa、出料分率r=0.9與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料濃度分率下,進料位置與分離度之關係圖 109
圖(5.2-4) 固定壓力P=50kPa、進料位置δ=0.5與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同出料分率下,進料濃度分率與分離度之關係圖 110
圖(5.2-5) 固定壓力P=50kPa、進料位置δ=0.1與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同出料分率下,進料濃度分率與分離度之關係圖 111
圖(5.2-6) 固定壓力P=50kPa、進料位置δ=0.9與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同出料分率下,進料濃度分率與分離度之關係圖 112
圖(5.2-7) 固定壓力P=50kPa、進料濃度分率CF=0.36與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料位置下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 113
圖(5.2-8) 固定壓力P=50kPa、進料濃度分率CF=0.1與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料位置下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 114
圖(5.2-9) 固定壓力P=50kPa與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料濃度分率與進料位置下,出料分率與分離度之關係圖 115
圖(5.2-10)固定壓力P=50kPa、進料濃度分率CF=0.36與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同出料分率下,進料位置與分離度之關係圖 116
圖(5.2-11)固定壓力P=50kPa、出料分率r=0.5與進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min,在不同進料濃度分率下,進料位置與分離度之關係圖 117
圖(5.3-1) 固定於直立塔(θ=0o)、壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料質量分率下,長寬比與分離度之關係圖 119
圖(5.3-2) 固定於直立塔(θ=0o)、壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與出料質量分率r=0.5,在不同進料濃度分率下,長寬比與分離度之關係圖 120
圖(5.4-1) 在固定操作成本下,固定壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同板距下,出料質量分率與分離度之關係圖 123
圖(5.4-2) 在無固定操作成本下,固定壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同板距下,出料質量分率與分離度之關係圖 124
圖(5.4-3) 在固定操作成本下,固定壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與出料質量分率r=0.5,在不同進料濃度分率下,板距與分離度之關係圖 125
圖(5.4-4) 在無固定操作成本下,固定壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與出料質量分率r=0.5,在不同進料濃度分率下,板距與分離度之關係圖 126
圖(5.4-5) 在固定操作成本下,固定壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料質量分率下,板距與分離度之關係圖 127
圖(5.4-6) 在無固定操作成本下,固定壓力P=50kPa、進料體積流率VF=1000cm3/min與進料濃度分率CF=0.36,在不同出料質量分率下,板距與分離度之關係圖 128


表 目 錄
表(1-1) 熱擴散塔分離高價物質之實例摘要一覽表 11
表(1-2) 普通水與重水之比較 15
表(3-1) 文獻[93]中設計與操作參數 44
表(3-2) 文獻[93]中之實驗數據 44
表(3-3) 實驗數據求得之傳送係數 45
表(3-4) 固定出料分率r=0.5、進料位置δ=0.5與進料濃度分率CF=0.171下,分離因子之理論值與實驗值[93]比較 61
表(5-1) 傳送係數、熱物性質、設計與操作之參數 73





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